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CTA case studies on the status of extension and advisory: Papua New Guinea
 

CTA case studies on the status of extension and advisory: Papua New Guinea

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Sitapai

Sitapai

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    CTA case studies on the status of extension and advisory: Papua New Guinea CTA case studies on the status of extension and advisory: Papua New Guinea Presentation Transcript

    • CASE STUDY OF EXTENSION AND ADVISORY SERVICES IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA BY E.C. SITAPAI
    •  
        • Desk top review
        • Personal interviews and
        • Questionnaires
        • Three Consultative Seminars – LAE,GOROKA & KOKOPO
      METHODOLOGY OF PNG STUDY
      • Assessment of policy environment for agricultural and rural development
      • Assessment of policy environment for extension and advisory services
      • Status of AE and advisory services
      • Funding commitments by PNG for AE
      • Assessment of impacts of AE
      • Assessment of tools and approaches
      • Assessment of capacity development
      FRAMEWORK OF ANALYSIS
    • LAND RESOURCE & POPULATION
      • Land Area totaling 460,000 sq. km.
      • Land area under agriculture 170,000 sq. km
      • A population of 6 million people
      • A rural population of 4 million people
      • A rural population density on total land area of 12 persons/ sq. km
      • Population density on land use for agriculture would be 45 persons/ sq. km.
    • AGRICULTURE RESOURCES
      • ANNUAL AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS IN 2010 WAS WORTH K 2160 MILLION
      • MAJOR CROPS ARE COFFFE, OIL PALM, COCOA, COCONUTS, RUBBER, AND TEA
      • THE TOTAL AGRICULTURE GDP IS WORTH OVER K 4200 MILLION
      • TOTAL EXPORTS IN 2010 WAS WORTH K 15,600 MILLION. OVER 50 % OF THIS COMES FROM GOLD, COPPER , AND OIL.
    • CONTRIBUTION TO THE ECONOMY
      • LACK OF GOOD & PROPERLY MAINTAINED TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE
      • SERIOUS LAW & ORDER PROBLEMS
      • LACK OF FARM CREDIT SUPPORT
      • POOR ACCESS TO MARKETS (HIGH FREIGHT & FUEL COSTS)
      • WEAK AND DISFUNCTIONAL EXTENSION SYSTEM
      • CONSEQUENCE – PREVAILING POVERTY OF OPPORTUNITIES FOR INCOME GENERATION & SUSTAINABLE RURAL LIVELIHOODS
      KEY CONSTRAINTS IN THE AGRIC SECTOR
    • Bad roads discourage rural communities from working and living on their land
    • It is 2011, and some rural communities have not changed their means of transport
      • Over 4 million rural people (84% of total pop.) depend on subsistence and semi-subsistence agriculture to produce food and cash crops
      • Locally grown food provides 80% of the calories consumed by rural households
      • Smallholder production comprises 70% of the total output of the tree crops sector
      • Poor living standards and poverty are manifested in low life expectancy (54%), underweight children (29%), poor health, malnutrition and under nourishment.
      CURRENT TRENDS IN RURAL SECTOR
      • PNG AGRICULTURE IS ONE OF THE ANCIENT, OVER 10,000 YEARS OLD
      • THE TRANSFORMATION OF AGRICULTURE WAS ASSOCIATED WITH MAJOR EVENTS, SUCH AS EARLY MIGRATIONS, COLONIAL SETTLEMENTS, AND PESTS AND DISEASES
      • FROM 1940 ONWARDS – MAJOR SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGE WITH EUROPEAN SETTLERS. LAND ALIENATION COMMENCED.
      HISTORY OF PNG AGRICULTURE
      • 1950s - FURTHER LAND ALIENATION, AND INTENSIFICATION OF VILLAGE AGRICULTURE
      • 1960s – CLEAR DICHOTOMY BETWEEN SMALL AND LARGE HOLDINGS
      • 1970s – LAND RESETTLEMENT SCHEMES (OIL PALM, RUBBER, COCOA, LIVESTOCK
      • 1975 – INDEPENDENCE & DECENTRALISATION OF THE EXTENSION FUNCTION
      • 1990 – CORPORATISATION OF COMMODITIES
      HISTORY OF PNG AGRICULTURE
      • GIVE PEOPLE DECISION-MAKING POWERS AS INTEGRAL PARTOF DECOLONIZATION
      • CREATE INSTUTIONS THAT INCREASE POLITICAL PARTICIPATION OF PEOPLE & ACCOMMODATE REGIONAL& PROVINCIAL DIVERSITIES
      • IMPROVE DECISION-MAKING & RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN RESPONSE TO LOCAL NEEDS & PRIORITIES
      • ENSURE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES ARE APPRORIATE TO LOCAL CONDITIONS, NEEDS, PRIORITIES & ASPIRATIONS.
      WHY DECENTRALISATION?
      • TO GRANT INDUSTRIES INDEPENDENCE
      • TO ALLOW INDUSTRIES TO BECOME SELF-SUSTAINING
      • FREEDOM FROM POLITICAL INTERFERENCE
      • ENCOURAGE GREATER PARTICIPATION IN THE INDUSTRY BY THE PRIVATE SECTOR
      • HAVE THE ABILITY TO RECRUIT HIGH CALIBRE STAFF
      WHY CORPORATIZATION?
      • THERE 19 PROVINCIAL EXTENSION DIVISIONS
      • PROVINCIAL EXTENSION IS WEAK AND UNDERESOURCED.
      • CAPACITY FOR SERVICE DELIVERY HIGHLY ERODED
      • CURRENT STAFF ARE DEFICIENT IN LATEST SKILLS AND RELEVANT INFORMATION
      • THERE IS LIMITED MOTIVATION TO EXCEL
      IMPACT OF DECENTRALISATION ON EXTENSION
      • A HIGHLY FRAGMENTED SECTOR WITH A WEAK LEAD AGENCY
      • SERVICE DELIVERY BY COMMODITY BOARDS WERE GOOD BUTCURTAILED IN SOME AREAS AS MOUs FAIL
      • SOME COMMODITY BOARDS CANNOT FUND PROGRAMS WITHOUT CENTRAL GOVERNMENT SUPPORT
      • THERE IS EVIDENCE OF WEAK INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY & GOVERNANCE
      IMPACT OF CORPORATISATION ON EXTENSION
    • TOOLS
      • A Central Library in existence until mid 1990s
      • Institutions operate independent libraries
      • ITC usages gain prominence from 2000
      • Two agricultural GIS database now widely institutionalized
      • Usage of mobile phones has reached one fifth of the population
      • TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER – The conventional approach, Commodity push, T&V system
      • FARMER EDUCATION – The university outreach e.g. UNITECH SPISARD, UNRE Diploma & Degrees Program, AITP Centre
      • PRIVATE SECTOR ASSSTED DELIVERY WITH MARKET LINKS – Partnerships, SSSPP/SSSEP, Bris Kanda, AIGS
      • FARMER DEMAND DRIVEN EXTENSION - Facilitation for Empowerment - Farmer-farmer exchanges, Farmers Field Schools (CCI) and Participatory Technology Development (NARI)
      EXTENSION MODELS OVER 30 YRS
    • BLOCK MANAGMENT TRAINING
    • OUTCOME FROM BLOCK MANAGEMENT TRAINING
    • Agriculture Department aims to strengthen these functions & links Research Industries Extension Teaching
      • effective education and training
      • Research within (staff & students) and with collaborators
      • Better transfer research findings to end users
      • Linkages with key stakeholders
      University Education Core Components of Agricultural Education
    • Agriculture Department aims to strengthen these functions & links Research Industries Extension Teaching
      • effective education and training
      • Research within (staff & students) and with collaborators
      • Better transfer research findings to end users
      • Linkages with key stakeholders
      University Education Core Components of Agricultural Education
    •  
    •  
    •  
    • Adequate consultation at community level allows for rural communities to participate and take ownership of livelihood income generation projects
    • Partnership with women, men and youth in commercial taro production using IPMS
    • Taro as source of food security and income
    • Floriculture as a source of income and women empowerment
    • NEXT GENERATION PNG FARMER
    • SO WHERE TO FROM HERE?? (1)
      • There should be a comprehensive review of the policies and legislations that govern the manner in which agricultural extension services are managed and provided nationally.
      • This will address the defects of the dual policies of decentralization and corporatization. In the past, institutional changes and improvements were largely focused on major export crops, and relatively less importance was accorded to smallholder food crops and livestock, despite successive statements by the government espousing broad-based and balanced development of the agriculture sector.
    • SO WHERE TO FROM HERE?? (2)
      • The reform process should determine clearly the roles and responsibilities of the lead agency in agriculture, and that of all participating agencies at the national, provincial, and local level. This will ensure that acceptable guidelines are put in place for the operational and technical linkages among the diverse set of institutions, the mechanism(s) for their cooperation and coordination, and priorities for their funding.
    • SO WHERE TO FROM HERE?? (3)
      • The reformed lead agency of the sector should be a lean, vibrant, responsive and a progressive organization. It is a policy setter, and a facilitator of financial and technical support to all implementing agencies, who are bound by sound business principles and good governance. The lead agency shall also ensure that information on the status of extension and advisory services in PNG is kept updated for future planning purposes.
    • SO WHERE TO FROM HERE?? (4)
      • The status and roles of NARS in the development of technologies, and the delivery of agricultural innovations should be reviewed, with the view of consolidation and streamlining of roles, programs, and activities. The current effort in formalizing a national NARS policy forum is a start in this direction.
    • SO WHERE TO FROM HERE?? (5)
      • There should be a concerted effort by the Government and authorities to strengthen the private sector interests and formalize their participation in the delivery of agricultural services. Presently many private service providers operate either as individuals or as members of informal groupings. The government support should include financing of their network, formal registration, training and mentoring, and regular monitoring of performances.
    • TENKYU TUMAS