Farm and home management extension as an agribusiness approach? Lessons from the CAEP- AREP Caribbean Projects.


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Farm and home management extension as an agribusiness approach? Lessons from the CAEP- AREP Caribbean Projects.

  1. 1. Farm and Home Management Extension as an Agribusiness Approach? Lessons from the CAEP-AREP in the Caribbean Dr. Carlisle Pemberton The University of the West Indies, Trinidad & Tobago
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Caribbean Agricultural Extension Project (CAEP) and successor: </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Research and Extension Project (AREP) </li></ul><ul><li>Overall Goal: Strengthening of the agricultural extension services of the Eastern Caribbean. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>CAEP-AREP conducted in: </li></ul><ul><li>Windward Island states: </li></ul><ul><li>St Lucia, Dominica, St. Vincent & the Grenadines and Grenada </li></ul><ul><li>Leeward Island states: </li></ul><ul><li>Antigua & Barbuda, St. Kitts & Nevis and Montserrat. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction – Objectives of Paper <ul><li>Review the activities under F&HMP of CAEP-AREP: </li></ul><ul><li>Training of extension officers in a business approach to farming </li></ul><ul><li>Extension activity with farmers, to facilitate diversification of farm enterprises. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction - Objectives of Paper <ul><li>To assess the success of the F&HMP extension approach, via the success of the major Windward Island banana countries to maintain viable agricultural sectors, after the reductions in preferential access to the European Union (EU) banana market. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Materials, Methods & Data Sources <ul><li>Brief history of the development of agricultural extension in the Caribbean, leading up to the development of the CAEP-AREP. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of success of the F&HMP of CAEP-AREP in contributing to the diversification of agriculture, in the major banana producing Windward Islands. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Materials, Methods & Data Sources cont’d <ul><li>Assessment carried out by analyzing recent developments in: </li></ul><ul><li>the banana industry in those states </li></ul><ul><li>the contributions of agriculture to their economies </li></ul><ul><li>the case of the economy of Dominica </li></ul>
  8. 8. Materials, Methods & Data Sources cont’d <ul><li>Major Analytical Tool -> Estimation of quadratic time trends to illustrate changes in: </li></ul><ul><li>Banana production, banana prices and agriculture’s contribution to GDP. </li></ul><ul><li>Since the inception of the F&HMP in 1987, after inception of the EU Banana Trade Regime on July 1, 1993. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Results & Discussion
  10. 10. Caribbean Agricultural Extension <ul><li>Origins in the British colonial government system, which sought to improve the region’s agriculture through botanic gardens. </li></ul><ul><li>By the middle to late 20th century, activities were institutionalized , along the lines of the typical extension system of developing countries. </li></ul>Results & Discussion
  11. 11. Caribbean Agricultural Extension <ul><li>Influenced by: </li></ul><ul><li>the training and visit system, </li></ul><ul><li>the commodity extension approach, </li></ul><ul><li>extension provided by non-governmental and faith based organisations, </li></ul><ul><li>contract farming advisory systems, </li></ul><ul><li>the University based cooperative extension system. </li></ul>Results & Discussion
  12. 12. The Farm and Home Management Programme (F&HMP) of CAEP-AREP <ul><li>Aim of F&HMP : </li></ul><ul><li>to assist Governments improve effectiveness of agricultural extension services </li></ul><ul><li>to increase efficiency in agricultural production among small farmers </li></ul><ul><li>to enable increases in farm incomes and standards of living. </li></ul>Results & Discussion
  13. 13. Activities of the Farm and Home Management Programme (F&HMP) <ul><li>Sondeos in demonstration districts </li></ul><ul><li>Training of officers in farm management extension </li></ul><ul><li>Officers working with farmers to improve management and marketing of two or three major enterprises </li></ul><ul><li>Whole farm business management training for farmers, using business record book. </li></ul>Results & Discussion
  14. 14. Evaluation of Success of the Farm and Home Management Programme Results & Discussion
  15. 15. Average Export Price for Bananas for Dominica, St. Lucia and St. Vincent: 1982-2006 EU Banana Trade Regime,1993 Results & Discussion
  16. 16. Trend in Banana Production for Dominica: 1961-2009 Results & Discussion
  17. 17. Trend in Banana Production for St. Lucia: 1961-2009 Results & Discussion
  18. 18. Trend in Banana Production for St. Vincent & the Grenadines: 1961-2009 Results & Discussion
  19. 19. Percentage Contributions of Agriculture to GDP in Dominica, St. Lucia & St. Vincent Results & Discussion
  20. 20. Rate of Growth of Gross Domestic Product in Constant Prices Dominica: 1981-2008 Results & Discussion
  21. 21. Conclusions, Recommendations & Implications <ul><li>F&HMP had little impact on farm diversification in banana producing Windward Islands. </li></ul><ul><li>Fall in banana production as a result of less preferential access to European markets </li></ul><ul><li>The agricultural sectors declined rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>Serious impacts on the national economies, especially in Dominica. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Reasons for the limited success of the F&HMP <ul><li>Continual movement of staff in the national extension services </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of trained farm management extension officers </li></ul>Conclusions, Recommendations & Implications
  23. 23. Reasons for the limited success of the F&HMP <ul><li>Lack of leadership and programme guidance at the national levels </li></ul><ul><li>Change in focus, from appropriate farm management advice to farm record keeping </li></ul><ul><li>A lack of sustained funding </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal farmer empowerment especially with respect to farmer mobilization and advocacy. </li></ul>Conclusions, Recommendations & Implications
  24. 24. Conclusions, Recommendations & Implications <ul><li>The F&HMP provided: </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration among University personnel, research scientists, state extension officers and farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>UWI with curricula on gender in agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>A contribution to UWI programmes in Human Ecology and Nutrition and Dietetics. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Conclusions, Recommendations & Implications <ul><li>Alternative approaches to agribusiness extension may have been more successful in assisting in the agricultural diversification of project countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Such as: </li></ul><ul><li>A step by step approach to farm business establishment </li></ul>
  26. 26. Conclusions, Recommendations & Implications <ul><li>The value chain approach made up of the identification of the different activities that add value, as a product moves from production to final sale. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer-farmer empowerment via the farmer field school approach. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Thank You!!