Malawi – The status of extension and Advisory services in Malawi: a case study of policies, capacities, approaches and impact
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Malawi – The status of extension and Advisory services in Malawi: a case study of policies, capacities, approaches and impact

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Kaunda, Bunda College, Malaw

Kaunda, Bunda College, Malaw

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  • 1. National Case Study on Extension and Advisory Services, MALAWI Emmanuel Kaunda University of Malawi, Bunda College
  • 2. MALAWI - “The Warm Heart of Africa”
  • 3. Presentation Lay out
    • The National Setting-Background
    • National Policy Environment for Agriculture & Rural Development
    • National Policy Environment for Extension and Advisory Services
    • Status of Extension Services
    • Funding
    • Impact
    • Recommendations
  • 4. The National Setting-Background
  • 5.
    • Malawi’s economy- Agro-based
    • Agric contributes 80% of workforce & 39% of GDP
    • 52.4% living below the poverty line
    • Malnutrition levels are high (MDHS 2011):
    • stunting = 47%
    • wasting = 5%
    • underweight = 13%
  • 6.
    • Mw’s agriculture is dualistic : small scale and large scale
    • 3.0 million farm families are in the small scale
    • 80 % of country’s food production
    • 56% of the smallholder farmers have a land holding size of ½ hectare
  • 7. National Policy Environment for Agriculture & Rural Development
  • 8. Malawi Growth and Development Strategy (MGDS) National Regional Comprehensive AfricanAgriculture Development Programme (CAADP)
    • Ref. document
    • Philosophy : Pov Red through sustainable economic growth and infrastructure. Agric. one of the six priority areas in MGDS
    • Aim : Increas. agric productivity and food varieties thus increasing economic growth
    • Six Percent Agricultural Growth
    • Ten Percent Budgetary allocations
    Agriculture Sector Wide Approach (ASWAp)- Main Gvt programme on Agric- large & small scale
  • 9. Agriculture and Food Production Up to around 2005- Maize shortage- (Chirwa et al 2007)
  • 10. From 2005 import situation changed – Introduction of fertiliser subsidy- Banda 2008
  • 11. National Policy Environment for Extension and Advisory Services
  • 12. Extension Approaches in Malawi since 1950                   4 Pronged; Master Farmer, Staff Training, Public Relations Unit, Nat soil & w c. P – Top -down               Conv. Approach (Group approach)-cinemas, campaigns,magazines –Top down               Block Ext Syst- ehanced Group approach; Modified T&V; logical framework – Top down               Plurastic -demand driven, Commodity led, NGO based- volunteers, extensionist, Farmer Led (Farmer organisations- NASFAM, influence piolicy) 50 60 70 80 90 2000 2010  
  • 13. Status of Extension Service-Public
  • 14.
    • Organisational Structure of Ministry of Agriculture Irrigation and Water Development Source: Masangano & Mthinda 2010
    •  
    Technical Administration & Finance CAETS DAES DLR DF CAS (INST) Agricultural Development Divisions (ADDs) Programme Managers District Assemblies District Agricultural Development Officers (DADOs) Extension Planning Areas (EPAS) Agricultural Extension Development Coordinators (AEDCs) Sections Agricultural Extension Development Officers (AEDOs) DCP DAHI DP DARS Villages Farm families Principal Secretary
  • 15. Ratio of Public EO/Farmers 5,376,000 Aina 1992 1984-85 Country Agricultural Labour Extension Force Officers Ratio* of Extension Officers to Farmers Botswana 783,020 525 1:1500 Malawi ,376,000 3,183 1:1700 Swaziland 453,750 359 1:1300 Tanzania 16,884,000 6,113 1:2800 Zambia 3,804,930 2,175 1:1700 Zimbabwe 5,950,00 2,047 1:2900
  • 16.
    • Recommended ratio; 1 : 750 or 1 : 850
    • Current ratio: ranges 1:600 to 1:5000
    • Most recent data: the Ministry employed 300 frontline extension workers in 2011 thereby increasing the number of extension workers to 1,887 against 2,880 established posts leaving 993 positions vacant (35 %).
    • With 3,487,520 farming households, current official ratio of extension officers to farmers is 1,848.
  • 17. Gender Disaggregation-2009 www. worldwide - extension .org Major Categories of Extension Staff Secondary school dip. 2-3 yr. Ag diploma B.Sc. degree M.Sc. /Ing. Agr. Deg. Ph.D. degree Sex F M F M F M F M F M Senior Management Staff         3 6 3 2 1   Subject Matter Specialists (SMS)     21 30 21 60 3 5     Field-level Extension Staff 300 1460 115 125             Information, Communications & Technology  (ICT) Support Staff 3 4 1 1 1 1   1     In-Service Training Staff                     Total Extension Staff: 2,167 303 1,464 137 156 25 67 6 8 1   TOTAL MALES: 1695 TOTAL FEMALE: 472 % FEMALE: 22% (NGO 24%)
  • 18. Linkage mechanisms between Public Extension Service and other Actors
    • Technology Transfer Section of Dep of Agric Research Services (DARS), Guide to Agriculture Production (GAP), Field Days, Joint Committee meetings, .. And also Agriculture Technology Clearing House Committee (ATCC)- approve technologies placed in GAP
  • 19.
    • Interaction (Linkages) between different clusters of actors within the Maize
    • ASTI system in Malawi Source: Safalao et al 2007. (CTA )
    In general, weak linkages between Research and extension
  • 20. Funding
  • 21. Funding TITLE OF PROGRAMME 1991/1992 d REVISED % 2000/2001 e % 2010/2011 f % Administration 5,096,188 8 204,774,355 44 - 0 Crop Production - 0 23,012,300 5 23,954,954,386. 95.6 Agricultural research 7,630,072 13 61,912,510 13 - 0 Animal Production/veterinary services 8,247,299 14 50,110,400 11 36,509,576 0 Agricultural extension 1,533,266 2 89,674,329 19 776,952,639 3.11 TOTAL AMOUNT 60,847,220 100 465,863,661 100 25,084,645,746 100
  • 22.
    • Percentage of Funding of Extension Services over the years
  • 23. Challenges with New Policy
    • Coordination
    • - Conflicting technical messages conflicting technical recommendations
    • - creation of conflicts among farmers
    • - congestion of NGO’s in one area or competition over clients
    • Lack of understanding by front-line staff of the approach
    • Articulation of demand small scale farmers
  • 24. IMPACT
  • 25. Difficult to assess
    • Changes in per capita agric output;
    • 1.9% in 1970s
    • -2.3 % in 1980s
    • 5.5 % in 1990s
    • 0.36 % 2000-2005
    • Increase in maize production attributed to subsidised
  • 26. Recommendations
  • 27.
    • Mechanisms to be found to assess impact of extension approach/policy
    • Coordination mechanisms are crucial to the success of the new extension policy
    • Issues of gender needs to be seriously addressed in service provision where women constitute about 51% and are the “farmer”
  • 28. Acknowledgements
    • CTA
    • Stakeholders that were consulted
    • Bunda, University of Malawi