Beyond knowledge brokering: an exploratory study on innovation intermediaries in an evolving smallholder agricultural system in Kenya. Primary tabs
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Beyond knowledge brokering: an exploratory study on innovation intermediaries in an evolving smallholder agricultural system in Kenya. Primary tabs



Catherine Kilelu

Catherine Kilelu



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Beyond knowledge brokering: an exploratory study on innovation intermediaries in an evolving smallholder agricultural system in Kenya. Primary tabs Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Beyond Knowledge Brokerage: An ExploratoryStudy of Innovation Intermediaries in an EvolvingSmallholder Agricultural System in Kenya Presentation at the International conference on “Innovations in Extension and Advisory Services:Catherine Kilelu, Laurens Klerkx, Cees Leeuwis, Andy Hall Linking Knowledge to Policy and Action for Food and Livelihoods”Communication and Innovation Studies Group November 15th 2011 -Nairobi, Kenya
  • 2. Introduction Smallholder agriculture undergoing transformation: dynamic market opportunities (high value supply chains) and food insecurity challenges. The need to enhance innovation of smallholders in context of larger Agriculture Innovation systems (A.I.S) A.I.S- Innovation not research driven but emphasize: ● Interactions among multiple stakeholders bringing different knowledge ● Institutions that shape how individuals/orgs interact ● Learning within networks of actors How to support A.I.S ? Need to counteract system and market failures Need to go beyond knowledge brokers as ‘infomediaries’(new role for traditional extension) but move to broad innovation system intermediaries Need to define innovation intermediaries and their diverse functions - a changing domain
  • 3. Range of innovation intermediaries functions linking science, Platform for Facilitating Working Transferring policy, practice policy changes in on Gathering advocacy rules/ attitudes Disseminating Advising information regulation and knowledge& practice Technology Informing Scanning / scoping Indentifying Experimenting opportunities Boundary work Institutional change Peer Strategic planning exchange Knowledge Communicating Visioning Foresight Demand brokering knowledge/ articulation Institutional support technology Brainstorming Demonstrating Demand led Needs assessment research Matching Diagnosis knowledge Knowledge gaps demand and Articulating assessment supply Innovation experiential/ Demand stimulation indigenous intermediaries/brokers) knowledge Filtering Managing Mediating conflict Gate keeping relationships Negotiating Selecting collaborators Learning Interface mgt Linking and coordinating Network Innovation Matching Capacity building Brokering process Providing space/platforms Forming making (entrepreneurship) management Aligning partnerships (monitoring) Building trust agendas Complementary Market linkages assets sharing Organization development Training and competence building Managerial Initiating Incubating enterprises Technical skills (agri) skills organizations Organizational Certification/standards strengthening/group dynamics
  • 4. Research objectives and methods To explore the changing intermediary domain and their role in supporting innovation in smallholder development in Kenya  Who are the intermediary actors in the evolving Kenyan agricultural innovation system?  How are the intermediaries contributing to innovation system support? Using a case study design (explorative) Focus on dairy, horticulture and staples sub-sectors Snow ball sampled 22 organizations Data collected through semi-structured interviews and document reviews
  • 5. Results The types of organizations identified as intermediaries • NGOs (9), • Consultants (5), • Govt agencies (3), • Private companies (3), • Consortium (1), • Producer association(1) Funding mixed but mainly donor funded programs New and old actors (changing roles) Typology of intermediaries identified
  • 6. Typology of innovation intermediariesInter- Example Sectoral Area of focus in their functionsmediary focustypeSystemic KDSCP, Dairy, Strategic demand articulation- sector agendasbroker NALEP, Horticulture, (including research) Agri- Sectorwide Network building and facilitating platforms for Profocus Agribusiness interaction and learning Steering sector wide Institutional innovation- policyTechnology ISAAA, Agro- Demand stimulation for proprietary technologiesbroker AATF Biotechnology Network building and learning ( researchers, private sector Knowledge /Technology brokering Institutional innovation- policy and regulationEnterprise Farm Horticulture Demand articulation-Market driven opportunitiesDevelop- Concern and Dairy Network building –input- output linkagesment Int, Innovation process monitoring and learning ,support Techno- negotiations serve, Knowledge brokering SHOMAP Capacity building- human and organization development (entrepreneurship)Pro-poor FIPS,AGM Staples Demand stimulation for inputsinput ARK, Real (maize) Network building and supporting learning for inputAccess IPM access and uptake Knowledge brokering- Local experimentation with input application Capacity building and learning organization
  • 7. Results Findings confirm a ‘mix’ of organizational forms, public and private actors involved, and ways of funding (Birner et al 2009; Klerkx and Leeuwis 2008) Role of intermediaries is seen as critical in facilitating networks and learning among multiple actors Focus on technical and entrepreneurial support (K Emergence and structure of innovation intermediaries is influenced by context ( quasi- privatized system in Kenya) Innovation intermediation as a specialized function (acting as full- time ‘innovation brokers’) is limited in the Kenyan context- tensions with ‘wearing double hats’? Some gaps noted in the intermediary landscape in the Kenyan context ● No intermediaries work on aligning research demand and supply
  • 8. Conclusions and Recommendations Policy focus is on demand-driven, pluralistic extension services but is not explicit on how to provide systemic support and how to fund this Adequacy and optimality of Kenyan intermediary landscape? Understanding best fit to guide policy? (Birner et al., 2009) Areas for further research ● This research provided a structural view of innovation intermediaries but need to understand them in processes ● Evaluating impact and contribution of innovation intermediaries
  • 9. Thank you for your attention!See also: Kilelu, C.W.; Klerkx, L.; Leeuwis, C.; Hall, A.(2011)Beyond knowledge brokering: an exploratory studyon innovation intermediaries in an evolving smallholderagricultural system in Kenya Knowledge Management forDevelopment Journal 7 (1). - p. 84 - 108.