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Kenya – The status of extension and advisory services in Kenya: a case study of policies, capacities, approaches and impact

Kenya – The status of extension and advisory services in Kenya: a case study of policies, capacities, approaches and impact



M bolo

M bolo



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    Kenya – The status of extension and advisory services in Kenya: a case study of policies, capacities, approaches and impact Kenya – The status of extension and advisory services in Kenya: a case study of policies, capacities, approaches and impact Presentation Transcript

    • The Status of Extension and Advisory Services in Kenya: Policies, capacities, approaches and impact Maurice Bolo (ATPS) and Felister Makini (KARI)
    • Role of agriculture in Kenya’s economy
      • 26% of national GDP
      • 60% of total export earnings
      • 27% of GDP through links with other service related sectors
      • Over 80% of total employment
      • On the forefront towards attaining Kenya’s Vision 2030
    • Evolution of the Policy Environment
      • From a centrally managed, government controlled extension system to a diversified, pluralistic system of extension with multiple actors.
      • From supply-led, transfer-of-technology (ToT) models to integrated/participatory technology development and transfer models
      • From a fully public sector funded system to cost-sharing models where beneficiaries pay for the cost of extension
      • Changing roles of the public extension system from direct service provision to facilitating and linking farmers with other research and extension service providers
    • Gender considerations
      • Participation of women in major industrial sectors is minimal compared to social and service based sectors
      • Women in formal employment in agric and forestry declined from 25% in 2004 to 24.5% in 2009
      • MoA has developed a gender mainstreaming strategy
    • NASEP provisions on gender
      • Influence development and dissemination of gender – sensitive technologies
      • Education and awareness creation for a change of attitudes on gender relations
      • Influence mainstreaming of gender in schools and training institutions curricula
      • Target youth and mould them as future farmers and agri-business entrepreneurs
    • Tools and approaches
      • Identify points of intervention along the value chain in order to make greater impact e.g. empowering the retailers to provide solutions to farmers.
      • The use of audio-visual techniques/facilities such as the demonstration kits/DVDs in the “uwezo bus” seem to be more appealing and have longer lasting effect on farmers.
      • Engaging locals who speak/understand local languages, contexts, cultures and power structures as extensionists has proven effective in both the Syngenta and Africa Harvest cases
    • Tools and approaches...
      • The use of local FM stations as channels for educating farmers/raising awareness has been effective mainly because these FM stations broadcast in local languages
      • Establishing local information centres with computers/internet not only provides market and production knowledge but also helps to attract the youth in these local settings to agriculture e.g. KENFAP
      • Demand-driven approaches to supporting local community groups helps these community groups to identify their needs, proffer solutions and empowers them with requisite skills e.g. ATIRI.
    • Linkages and collaborations
      • Linkages are either formal or informal depending on purpose, needs, objectives, context etc
      • NALEP had regular stakeholder forums
      • ATIRI – several stakeholders in research and extension committees; KARI APVCs
      • Funding mechanisms requiring consortia e.g. NCST
    • Capacity development
      • MoA has two colleges offering certificate and diploma level courses
      • There are 27 Agricultural Training Centres to provide intensive short-term courses to farmers and stakeholders
      • There are 10 agricultural technology development centres to develop, test, customize and offer appropriate technology to farmers
    • Capacity development...
      • There are 4 public universities offering agric courses – Nairobi, Moi, JKUAT and Egerton
      • Increase in the number of students taking agric courses in public universities from 5,950 in 2006 to 6,735 in 2009
      • The number of students enrolling for diploma courses at Egerton has also increased from 1,853 to 2,244 over the same period
    • Funding
      • Budgetary allocation to agric as a % of the total national budget has declined from 6.2% in 2006/07 to 2.8% in 2009/10
      • Actual expenditure in agric has increased from kshs. 8.659 billion in 2006/07 to Kshs. 13.139 billion in 2008/09
      • Ratio of recurrent : development expenditure stands at 60:40
    • Funding ...
      • Expenditure at the MoA shows that “facilitation of extension services and research” accounts for 52.5% in 2007/08 and 49.9% in 2008/09
      • The recurrent expenditures of these extension budget have increased from 65.5% in 2007/08 to 71% in 2008/09
    • Conclusions
      • There are isolated cases of success with plural service providers, but there are challenges too. As such, phasing out public extension in favour of private actors should be preceded by an in-depth study
      • The budgetary allocations to extension service salaries and wages – leaving hardly any money for operations which are funded by donors
      • There is need for continous curricula review in agricultural colleges and universities
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