Niels Röling and  Dominique Hounkonnou (CoS-SIS Program Management Committee) INNOVATION IN EXTENSION AND ADVISORY SERVICE...
AGRIC. EXTENSION: SICK BUT NOT DEAD <ul><li>Not much left after T&V… but lots of initiatives and experiments </li></ul><ul...
The SSA-Challenge Programme <ul><li>Major FARA experiment with an IS approach: 36 Innovation Platforms (IP) in a controlle...
CoS-SIS: Convergence of Sciences: Strengthening Innovation Systems <ul><li>9 Innovation Platforms, € 4.5 million </li></ul...
Performance Indicators <ul><li>Ability to ‘think institutions’, in addition to cost-benefit; technological transfer; parti...
Experience industrial agricultures <ul><li>Institutional development  preceded  technology-enhanced growth in productivity...
Some Concrete Measures (1) <ul><li>Develop capacity of commodity research institutes (e.g., CRIG) to carry out institution...
Some Concrete Measures (2) <ul><li>Initiate a task force in the Ministry of Agriculture to prioritise (domain-specific?) i...
Unhelpful institutions metaphor
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Innovation systems and institutional change

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Innovation systems and institutional change

  1. 2. Niels Röling and Dominique Hounkonnou (CoS-SIS Program Management Committee) INNOVATION IN EXTENSION AND ADVISORY SERVICES, 15-18 NOV. 2011, NAIROBI INNOVATION SYSTEM APPROACH TO ENHANCING SMALLHOLDER AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA
  2. 3. AGRIC. EXTENSION: SICK BUT NOT DEAD <ul><li>Not much left after T&V… but lots of initiatives and experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Early 90s: CTA & partners try to capture these: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Donor workshop in Wageningen (first contours of Neuchâtel initiative, 1994) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conference in Cameroun </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IAASTD 2009 signed by 58 nations: smallholders key to global food security </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions matter: Innovation System (IS) Approach to development of smallholder agriculture </li></ul>
  3. 4. The SSA-Challenge Programme <ul><li>Major FARA experiment with an IS approach: 36 Innovation Platforms (IP) in a controlled experimental design ($ 26 million) </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical analysis (Pamuk, Bulte & Adekunle, in prep.): IPs ‘work’, and better than conventional extension and controls: more poverty alleviation, more and more diverse innovative activity </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical analysis (Van Rijn & Bulte, in prep.): mechanism by which IPs work is linkage with external actors; becoming part of network of such actors </li></ul><ul><li>Similar findings from CoS 5 years after: technologies that involve factors over which farmers have no control do not persist (Sterk et al. , in prep.) </li></ul>
  4. 5. CoS-SIS: Convergence of Sciences: Strengthening Innovation Systems <ul><li>9 Innovation Platforms, € 4.5 million </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on understanding mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>30 years of promoting science-based technologies to increase yields per ha have left us with few successes (e.g., Gabre-Mahdin & Haggblade 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions explain a major proportion of the variance in the quality and quantity of smallholder production (cocoa Ghana, cotton Benin, rice Mali) </li></ul><ul><li>Not absence of institutions: complex institutional context often ‘unhelpful’ for smallholders </li></ul>
  5. 6. Performance Indicators <ul><li>Ability to ‘think institutions’, in addition to cost-benefit; technological transfer; participation; etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Not dismiss institutions as ‘politics’ about which one can do little </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to scope and diagnose: translate smallholder constraints into attributes of institutional context </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse actor networks to identify key actors and champions who can take concerted action. </li></ul><ul><li>With those actors: design institutional experiments and measure impact </li></ul>
  6. 7. Experience industrial agricultures <ul><li>Institutional development preceded technology-enhanced growth in productivity; </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural leaders developed vision of an enabling context for family farming: synergy of farmer education, extension, research, credit, crop insurance, subsidies, land tenure, equitable market access, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Not a uniform package but adaptive, context- and domain-specific </li></ul>
  7. 8. Some Concrete Measures (1) <ul><li>Develop capacity of commodity research institutes (e.g., CRIG) to carry out institutional research and experimentation </li></ul><ul><li>Make available competitive research grants for institutional research </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and implement curricula for academic training of agricultural scientists in institutional ‘thinking’ and research </li></ul>
  8. 9. Some Concrete Measures (2) <ul><li>Initiate a task force in the Ministry of Agriculture to prioritise (domain-specific?) institutional bottlenecks to smallholder development </li></ul><ul><li>Make available budget for interaction : key stakeholders need to meet, innovation emerges from interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Transform extension into innovation Process facilitation </li></ul>
  9. 10. Unhelpful institutions metaphor
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