Building the capacities of stakeholders in a farmer-to-farmer extension system for enhanced livelihoods in Kamuli district, Uganda


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Building the capacities of stakeholders in a farmer-to-farmer extension system for enhanced livelihoods in Kamuli district, Uganda

  1. 1. Building Stakeholders’ Capacities in a Farmer-to-Farmer Extension System in Kamuli District, Uganda Haroon Sseguya, PhD Makerere University
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Mode of agricultural extension service delivery has evolved over the years in Uganda </li></ul><ul><li>NGOs predominantly use farmer-led extension (FLE), especially Farmer-Farmer Extension (FFE) </li></ul><ul><li>FLE involves exchange of knowledge and ideas; and development of innovative capacity of actors involved </li></ul>
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION AND STUDY PROBLEM <ul><li>In FFE, farmers play roles in technology development and dissemination, training peers, sharing experiences (adaptation) </li></ul><ul><li>Problem : Dearth of studies on efficacy of FFE in sub-Saharan Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of services, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance, motivation and community-based extension workers; both program staff and farmer trainers </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Assess farmers’ perceptions of the quality of services provided by Volunteer Farmer Trainers (VFTs) </li></ul><ul><li>Assess VFTs’ perceptions of the quality of training provided by VEDCO staff </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the capacity needs of both VFTs and VEDCO staff. </li></ul>
  5. 5. COMMUNITY-BASED LIVELIHOODS PROGRAM IN UGANDA <ul><li>Period: 2005-2009 (Phase I), 2010-2014 (Phase II) </li></ul><ul><li>Funding : Iowa State University (ISU), USA </li></ul><ul><li>Partners : ISU, Volunteer Efforts for Development Concerns (VEDCO), Makerere University (Mak) </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage : Three sub-counties (increased to six in Phase II), 800 households (increased to 1200 in Phase II) </li></ul>
  6. 6. COMMUNITY-BASED LIVELIHOODS PROGRAM IN UGANDA <ul><li>Approach: Farmer groups, Volunteer farmer trainers (VFTs), program staff </li></ul><ul><li>VFTs are of two types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural Development Extensionists (RDEs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community Nutrition and Health Workers (CNHWs) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. COMMUNITY-BASED LIVELIHOODS PROGRAM IN UGANDA <ul><li>VFTs’ selection : RDEs and CNHWs are selected by both community members and VEDCO staff </li></ul><ul><li>Training of VFTs : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three-year training covering a number of areas, both theory and hands-on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducted by VEDCO staff with support from Mak. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. COMMUNITY-BASED LIVELIHOODS PROGRAM IN UGANDA <ul><li>Overview of training content for RDEs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension, communication and group dynamics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable crop and livestock production (includes soils) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender and leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farm planning and records management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overview of training content for CNHWs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension, communication and group dynamics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diets and diet planning, hygiene and sanitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management of infectious diseases and alcohol problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrition for HIV/AIDS patients, pregnant mothers and infants </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. DATA AND METHODS <ul><li>Sources : VFTs, VEDCO staff, farmers’ groups; used interview schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Key questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers groups : Services accessed, their quality, quality of VFTs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VFTs : socio-demographics, how work is done, challenges encountered, suggestions for overcoming them, capacity gaps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VEDCO staff : Roles of staff in preparation of VFTs, how, capacity gaps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population and sample: 59 VFTs (out of 69 available); seven VEDCO staff; 21 farmers groups (out of 62) </li></ul><ul><li>Data Analysis : Manual coding: open >focused > generating common categories and themes relevant to objectives </li></ul>
  10. 10. RESULTS: QUALITY OF VFT’S SERVICES <ul><li>VFTs use lectures, demonstrations, home visits </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility – basing on demands of farmers in relation to farming cyle </li></ul>
  11. 11. RESULTS: QUALITY OF VFT’S SERVICES <ul><li>Most farmers (14 groups) satisfied with quality </li></ul><ul><li>Concern of about the means of determining quality since each group had one VFT in each category </li></ul><ul><li>Needs supplementation with VEDCO staff visits; status problems for VFTs </li></ul>
  12. 12. VFTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF TRAINING PROVIDED BY VEDCO STAFF <ul><li>‘ Lecture’ as a dominant technique </li></ul><ul><li>Poor learning of content as a result </li></ul><ul><li>Non comprehension would always lead to failure to train others </li></ul><ul><li>Training materials and aids bulky and complex </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings that VFTs are doing work for VEDCO staff on volunteer basis </li></ul>
  13. 13. CAPACITY NEEDS FOR VFTS AND VEDCO STAFF <ul><li>VFTs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to mobilize communities for training and development activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectively teaching adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report writing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>VEDCO staff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitation of adult learning activities </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>FFE is effective and innovative way of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving the intensity and quality of extension services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building capacities for community members </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ensures sustainability of interventions </li></ul><ul><li>However, with respect to VFTs , challenges of preparation, time to be dedicated to training others, acceptability by peers and incentives remain </li></ul>
  15. 15. RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><li>Careful assessment of capacities for NGO staff and VFTs; improvements made </li></ul><ul><li>Clarification of needs of farmers, roles of program staff and VFTs (e.g. volunteerism vs. incentives) </li></ul><ul><li>Development of appropriate training aids in partnership with other organizations in the country </li></ul>
  16. 16. KEY ACTIONS IN PHASE II <ul><li>Recruitment of Community-Based Trainers (CBTs) to complement the role of RDEs and CNHWs; these are remunerated </li></ul><ul><li>Training program staff and CBTs in adult learning techniques and facilitation of training </li></ul><ul><li>Addressing capacity needs to RDEs and CNHWs </li></ul><ul><li>Development of teaching aids </li></ul>