Ottoman, Safavid, and MughalOttoman, Safavid, and Mughal
The Osman Turks started onThe Osman Turks started on
the Anatolian Peninsula inthe Anatolian Peninsula in
They started on land grantedThey started on land granted
them by the Seljuk Turks.them by the Seljuk Turks.
They were a pastoral andThey were a pastoral and
peaceful people at the start.peaceful people at the start.
As the Seljuk Turks began toAs the Seljuk Turks began to
decline, the Osman began todecline, the Osman began to
expand. The Ottoman dynastyexpand. The Ottoman dynasty
In the 14In the 14thth
century, thecentury, the
Ottomans moved into theOttomans moved into the
They took the title of sultanThey took the title of sultan
and began to build a strongand began to build a strong
military by developing themilitary by developing the
Janissary were an elite militaryJanissary were an elite military
guard recruited fromguard recruited from
Christians, converted to Islam,Christians, converted to Islam,
and trained as foot soldiers orand trained as foot soldiers or
administrators to the sultan.administrators to the sultan.
April 6, 1253, the OttomanApril 6, 1253, the Ottoman
Turks laid siege to the city ofTurks laid siege to the city of
May 29, 1253, ConstantinopleMay 29, 1253, Constantinople
fell to the Ottoman Turks andfell to the Ottoman Turks and
Mehmet II.Mehmet II.
The Turks spent 3 daysThe Turks spent 3 days
sacking the city. Many peoplesacking the city. Many people
lost their lives inside the city.lost their lives inside the city.
The city was later renamedThe city was later renamed
Selim I took control ofSelim I took control of
Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Arabia –Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Arabia –
included Jerusalem, Mecca, andincluded Jerusalem, Mecca, and
He took the title of caliph,He took the title of caliph,
defender of the faith.defender of the faith.
The Ottoman Empire went fromThe Ottoman Empire went from
the Black Sea to the Red Sea tothe Black Sea to the Red Sea to
the Strait of Gibraltar.the Strait of Gibraltar.
There was little impact on NorthThere was little impact on North
Pashas, appointed governmentPashas, appointed government
officials, collected taxes andofficials, collected taxes and
maintained law and order reportedmaintained law and order reported
to the sultan in Constantinople.to the sultan in Constantinople.
Suleiman I, or Suleiman theSuleiman I, or Suleiman the
Magnificent, came to rule inMagnificent, came to rule in
1520. He expanded Ottoman1520. He expanded Ottoman
rule into Europe and therule into Europe and the
western Med. Sea.western Med. Sea.
He ruled for 46 years. He wasHe ruled for 46 years. He was
a great military commander,a great military commander,
but he known for his legislationbut he known for his legislation
as well.as well.
He codified Ottoman lawHe codified Ottoman law
keeping Islamic faith, took intokeeping Islamic faith, took into
account Christian inhabitantsaccount Christian inhabitants
of the Empire, addressedof the Empire, addressed
taxes, and built more schools.taxes, and built more schools.
Suleiman I may have beenSuleiman I may have been
able to run an empire, but hisable to run an empire, but his
personal life was different.personal life was different.
He married a harem girl fromHe married a harem girl from
Poland named Roxelana andPoland named Roxelana and
had 5 children with her.had 5 children with her.
He executed his eldest son,He executed his eldest son,
Mustafa, because RoxelanaMustafa, because Roxelana
said he was planning to killsaid he was planning to kill
Suleiman and take power – herSuleiman and take power – her
son Selim took power whenson Selim took power when
Suleiman died in 1566.Suleiman died in 1566.
The Ottoman Empire was likeThe Ottoman Empire was like
most Muslim empires of the time;most Muslim empires of the time;
it was a" gunpowder empire” – theit was a" gunpowder empire” – the
empires success largely based onempires success largely based on
the mastery of the technology ofthe mastery of the technology of
Sultans were the head of theSultans were the head of the
empire. Sultans were the supremeempire. Sultans were the supreme
authorities in both political andauthorities in both political and
military senses.military senses.
The position of sultan wasThe position of sultan was
hereditary – a son alwayshereditary – a son always
succeeded the father.succeeded the father.
Many deaths among familyMany deaths among family
members took place because ofmembers took place because of
Since the times of Mehmet II,Since the times of Mehmet II,
Ottoman sultans ruled from theOttoman sultans ruled from the
Topkaki Palace in Istanbul.Topkaki Palace in Istanbul.
It served as an administrativeIt served as an administrative
headquarters and chief residenceheadquarters and chief residence
of the sultan.of the sultan.
The private domain of the sultanThe private domain of the sultan
was called a “harem,” or “sacredwas called a “harem,” or “sacred
place.” Here the sultan and hisplace.” Here the sultan and his
wives lived. Sultans often chose 4wives lived. Sultans often chose 4
wives as his favorites.wives as his favorites.
When a son became sultan, hisWhen a son became sultan, his
mother became queen mother andmother became queen mother and
acted as a major adviser to theacted as a major adviser to the
The chief advisor to the sultanThe chief advisor to the sultan
was the “grand vizier.”was the “grand vizier.”
He led meetings of the imperialHe led meetings of the imperial
council that met 4 days a week.council that met 4 days a week.
The sultan sat behind a screenThe sultan sat behind a screen
and made his wishes known to theand made his wishes known to the
grand vizier.grand vizier.
The empire was divided intoThe empire was divided into
districts and ruled by officials whodistricts and ruled by officials who
were helped by bureaucratswere helped by bureaucrats
trained at palace schools.trained at palace schools.
Senior officials were given landSenior officials were given land
but the sultan and werebut the sultan and were
responsible for collecting taxesresponsible for collecting taxes
and supplying armies for theand supplying armies for the
The Ottomans were SunniThe Ottomans were Sunni
Muslims. Sultans had claimedMuslims. Sultans had claimed
the title of caliph since the 16the title of caliph since the 16thth
century. They werecentury. They were
responsible for guiding theresponsible for guiding the
flock and keeping Islamic law.flock and keeping Islamic law.
In practice, they gave theirIn practice, they gave their
religious duties to the “ulema”-religious duties to the “ulema”-
a group of religious advisors.a group of religious advisors.
The ulema were responsibleThe ulema were responsible
for the legal system andfor the legal system and
schools for educating Muslims.schools for educating Muslims.
The Ottoman were tolerant ofThe Ottoman were tolerant of
non-Muslims. Non-Muslimsnon-Muslims. Non-Muslims
paid a tax, but they werepaid a tax, but they were
allowed to practice theirallowed to practice their
religion or to convert to Islam.religion or to convert to Islam.
Most people in the EuropeanMost people in the European
areas of the empire remainedareas of the empire remained
Christian. In some areas, theChristian. In some areas, the
large numbers converted tolarge numbers converted to
the Islamic faith.the Islamic faith.
The subjects were divided byThe subjects were divided by
Besides the ruling class, thereBesides the ruling class, there
were 4 main occupationalwere 4 main occupational
groups: peasants, artisans,groups: peasants, artisans,
merchants, and pastoralmerchants, and pastoral
Peasants were farmers;Peasants were farmers;
artisans were set up by craftartisans were set up by craft
guilds; merchants wereguilds; merchants were
exempt from taxes and couldexempt from taxes and could
amass large fortunes; andamass large fortunes; and
pastoral people had their ownpastoral people had their own
laws and regulations.laws and regulations.
The problems of the OttomanThe problems of the Ottoman
Empire began with Selim II.Empire began with Selim II.
Around 1699, the problemsAround 1699, the problems
became more visible. Thebecame more visible. The
training of officials declined,training of officials declined,
and senior positions wereand senior positions were
given to the sons andgiven to the sons and
daughters of the elite.daughters of the elite.
Members of the elite wereMembers of the elite were
busy trying to amass their ownbusy trying to amass their own
fortunes, so local governmentfortunes, so local government
grew more corrupt and taxesgrew more corrupt and taxes
rose. Wars depleted therose. Wars depleted the
imperial treasury.imperial treasury.
Other problems arose.Other problems arose.
The biggest problem was theThe biggest problem was the
influence of Western Europe.influence of Western Europe.
Western clothes, WesternWestern clothes, Western
furniture, tobacco and coffee werefurniture, tobacco and coffee were
introduced to the Ottomans.introduced to the Ottomans.
Some sultans tried to fight theSome sultans tried to fight the
trends of Western Europe. Onetrends of Western Europe. One
outlawed tobacco and coffee. If heoutlawed tobacco and coffee. If he
caught anyone taking part incaught anyone taking part in
immoral or illegal behavior, he hadimmoral or illegal behavior, he had
them immediately executed.them immediately executed.
The Safavid Dynasty startedThe Safavid Dynasty started
with Shah Ismail.with Shah Ismail.
He was a descendant of SafiHe was a descendant of Safi
al-Din who had been theal-Din who had been the
leader of a Turkish ethnicleader of a Turkish ethnic
groups in Azerbaijan near thegroups in Azerbaijan near the
Caspian Sea.Caspian Sea.
Under Ismail, the Safavid tookUnder Ismail, the Safavid took
control of much of Iran andcontrol of much of Iran and
Ismail called himself “shah,” orIsmail called himself “shah,” or
king, of the new Persian state.king, of the new Persian state.
Ismail was a Shiite Muslim. HeIsmail was a Shiite Muslim. He
sent preachers to differentsent preachers to different
areas to convert members ofareas to convert members of
the Ottoman Empire.the Ottoman Empire.
This led to the massacre ofThis led to the massacre of
Sunni Muslims when he tookSunni Muslims when he took
Ismail lost a major at Tabriz toIsmail lost a major at Tabriz to
Suleiman over religiousSuleiman over religious
Shah Abbas, who ruled from 1588Shah Abbas, who ruled from 1588
to 1629, brought the Safavids toto 1629, brought the Safavids to
their highest point of glory.their highest point of glory.
He usurped the throne from hisHe usurped the throne from his
father and imprisoned him. Hefather and imprisoned him. He
later killed the man who helpedlater killed the man who helped
him get the throne.him get the throne.
He attacked the Ottoman Turks,He attacked the Ottoman Turks,
with European help – they saw thewith European help – they saw the
Safavids as allies – to regain lostSafavids as allies – to regain lost
lands from the Ottomans.lands from the Ottomans.
The Safavids could not keepThe Safavids could not keep
territorial gains, but a treaty wasterritorial gains, but a treaty was
signed in 1612 returningsigned in 1612 returning
Azerbaijan to the Safavids.Azerbaijan to the Safavids.
The Safavid Empire went fromThe Safavid Empire went from
Azerbaijan on the Caspian SeaAzerbaijan on the Caspian Sea
east to India; along the Persianeast to India; along the Persian
Gulf and Arabian Sea north toGulf and Arabian Sea north to
the southern border of Russia.the southern border of Russia.
When Shah Abbas died,When Shah Abbas died,
religious orthodoxy, a pressurereligious orthodoxy, a pressure
to conform to traditionalto conform to traditional
religious beliefs, increased.religious beliefs, increased.
Women were to give upWomen were to give up
freedom for a life of seclusionfreedom for a life of seclusion
and the wearing of the veil.and the wearing of the veil.
Isfahan was the Safavid capital.Isfahan was the Safavid capital.
While under Shah Hussein, it wasWhile under Shah Hussein, it was
taken by Afghan peoples.taken by Afghan peoples.
Persia sank into a period ofPersia sank into a period of
anarchy – lawlessness andanarchy – lawlessness and
The role of the shah was that of aThe role of the shah was that of a
The social structure was Shah,The social structure was Shah,
bureaucracy and landed classes,bureaucracy and landed classes,
then the common people.then the common people.
The official religion was Shia IslamThe official religion was Shia Islam
because the Shiites supported thebecause the Shiites supported the
shahs at first.shahs at first.
Isfahan was the jewel of theIsfahan was the jewel of the
Safavid Empire, and it is stillSafavid Empire, and it is still
that for modern-day Iran.that for modern-day Iran.
Silk weaving flourished, butSilk weaving flourished, but
carpet weaving flourishedcarpet weaving flourished
more – Persian rugs are stillmore – Persian rugs are still
prized today.prized today.
Riza-i-Abbasi is the mostRiza-i-Abbasi is the most
famous artist of this time. Hefamous artist of this time. He
made beautiful works aboutmade beautiful works about
simple subjects such as oxensimple subjects such as oxen
plowing, hunters, and lovers.plowing, hunters, and lovers.
They used soft colors andThey used soft colors and
flowing movement in painting.flowing movement in painting.
Babur was the founder of theBabur was the founder of the
Mogul Empire and united theMogul Empire and united the
Hindu and Muslim kingdoms ofHindu and Muslim kingdoms of
He was a descendant of TimurHe was a descendant of Timur
Lenk, and his mother, from theLenk, and his mother, from the
Mongol conquerors of GenghisMongol conquerors of Genghis
He took the Khyber Pass inHe took the Khyber Pass in
northwest India and the city ofnorthwest India and the city of
Delhi in North India.Delhi in North India.
His armies were usually smallerHis armies were usually smaller
than his opponents but hadthan his opponents but had
weapons, artillery, and used themweapons, artillery, and used them
with great effect.with great effect.
Akbar the Great was the grandsonAkbar the Great was the grandson
of Babur’of Babur’
He placed most of India underHe placed most of India under
Mogul control by use of artilleryMogul control by use of artillery
and negotiation.and negotiation.
He was best known for hisHe was best known for his
humane character of his rule: hehumane character of his rule: he
adopted a policy of religiousadopted a policy of religious
tolerance – even marrying a Hindutolerance – even marrying a Hindu
Zamindars were low rankingZamindars were low ranking
officials of Hindu descent who gotofficials of Hindu descent who got
paid by keeping part of collectedpaid by keeping part of collected
taxes. They were part of histaxes. They were part of his
toleration of governmenttoleration of government
Shah Jahan ruled from 1628 toShah Jahan ruled from 1628 to
1658. He ruled using the political1658. He ruled using the political
system started by earlier Mogulsystem started by earlier Mogul
He expanded the boundaries ofHe expanded the boundaries of
the Mogul Empire throughthe Mogul Empire through
campaigns through the Deccancampaigns through the Deccan
Plateau and Samarkand in thePlateau and Samarkand in the
Hindu Kush.Hindu Kush.
He is best known for the TajHe is best known for the Taj
Mahal – a mausoleum for hisMahal – a mausoleum for his
favorite wife, Mumatz Mahal. Thisfavorite wife, Mumatz Mahal. This
is the finest piece of Mogulis the finest piece of Mogul
architecture. It combines Persian,architecture. It combines Persian,
Ottoman, Indian, and IslamicOttoman, Indian, and Islamic
It is located in Agra, India.It is located in Agra, India.
Aurangzeb took over from hisAurangzeb took over from his
father, Shah Jahan. He had hisfather, Shah Jahan. He had his
brother put to death.brother put to death.
He was a devout Muslim and aHe was a devout Muslim and a
man of high principle.man of high principle.
He tried to eliminate many of theHe tried to eliminate many of the
things he thought were social evilsthings he thought were social evils
in India: suttee (a Hindu practicein India: suttee (a Hindu practice
of cremating a widow on herof cremating a widow on her
husband’s funeral pyre), levyinghusband’s funeral pyre), levying
illegal taxes, gambling, andillegal taxes, gambling, and
He did not embrace religiousHe did not embrace religious
tolerance – tried to get Hindu totolerance – tried to get Hindu to
convert to Islam – and this led toconvert to Islam – and this led to
social unrest that made India opensocial unrest that made India open
to attack from abroad.to attack from abroad.
The Mogul Empire spread fromThe Mogul Empire spread from
the Hindu Kush mountainsthe Hindu Kush mountains
east to the Bay of Bengal; fromeast to the Bay of Bengal; from
modern-day Afghanistan southmodern-day Afghanistan south
to near the southern tip ofto near the southern tip of
The Moguls under Babur andThe Moguls under Babur and
Akbar were characterized byAkbar were characterized by
religious tolerance, tolerationreligious tolerance, toleration
of political administration, andof political administration, and
military superiority (use ofmilitary superiority (use of
The British helped the decline ofThe British helped the decline of
the Mogul Empire in India.the Mogul Empire in India.
Sir Robert Clive became the chiefSir Robert Clive became the chief
representative of the British Eastrepresentative of the British East
India Company.India Company.
He was instrumental in getting theHe was instrumental in getting the
British East India control of IndianBritish East India control of Indian
trade by taking Bengal. Thetrade by taking Bengal. The
B.E.I.C. could now tax the landsB.E.I.C. could now tax the lands
surrounding the city of Calcutta.surrounding the city of Calcutta.
The Indians practiced guerillaThe Indians practiced guerilla
warfare against the British.warfare against the British.
The British moved inland. TradeThe British moved inland. Trade
brought money to the British. Thebrought money to the British. The
British were in India to stay.British were in India to stay.
Women in the Mogul EmpireWomen in the Mogul Empire
had a complex life.had a complex life.
Women had played a role inWomen had played a role in
Mogul tribal society – warriorsMogul tribal society – warriors
and advisors in politicaland advisors in political
matters. They could own landmatters. They could own land
and do business.and do business.
They also had restrictions ofThey also had restrictions of
Islamic law: isolation of womenIslamic law: isolation of women
was practiced in upper classwas practiced in upper class
Hindu families.Hindu families.
A lot of Hindu practices wentA lot of Hindu practices went
unchanged by Mogul ruleunchanged by Mogul rule
The Moguls brought togetherThe Moguls brought together
Persian and Indian influences inPersian and Indian influences in
art and architecture.art and architecture.
The Taj Mahal is the greatestThe Taj Mahal is the greatest
example of Mogul architecture.example of Mogul architecture.
Akbar got Indian artist to useAkbar got Indian artist to use
Persian and Indian motifs.Persian and Indian motifs.
The “Akbar style” includedThe “Akbar style” included
humans in action.humans in action.
He encouraged his artist to imitateHe encouraged his artist to imitate
European art forms, includingEuropean art forms, including
perspective and lifelike portraits.perspective and lifelike portraits.
He commissioned artist fromHe commissioned artist from
Persia and Europe to come teachPersia and Europe to come teach
Indian artists.Indian artists.