Stages of Research Research Tools Define the Search engines, research Wikipedia question (THINK before Google Scholar you SEARCH) Read & Advanced Search Refine Library resources:Read selectively, Books, actively, Electronic critically journals, Databases
Read Selectively• select the LATEST / CURRENT • select the most RELEVANT • select by RELIABILITY (e.g. Source? Bias? Bibliography?) • select by AMOUNT
A good report: WHAT?Introduction – outline your approach: what report is going to discuss/deal with – clarify the scope of the reportBody – 1 point/idea/concept per paragraph – use readings to support your case or challenge arguments – cite all sources correctly & completely – analytical/critical focus – balanced approachSummary/Conclusion – re-visit main points – raise any inconsistencies in literatureReference List
A good report: HOW?Plan – define the purpose – analyse the audience – gather information – structure the materialWrite/Re-write – write a rough draft – structure the report clearly (see previous slide) – refine the report using a clear writing styleCite Sources – put brief, in-text references wherever you refer to other work – put full references in the BibliographyReview
Structuring your material Loose organization Organization & evaluation Formal outlineI. xxxx II. xxxx III. xxxx IV. xxxx V. xxxx
Definition of PLAGIARISM “failure to provide proper acknowledgement of your use of another’s work” “intellectual theft” Source: Dartmouth University. (2012). What is plagiarism?http://www.dartmouth.edu/~writing/sources/sources-citation.html
NUIG Definition of PLAGIARISMPlagiarism is the act of copying, including ordirectly quoting from, the work of anotherwithout adequate acknowledgement…National University of Ireland, Galway. (2011).Code of practice for dealing with plagiarism.www.nuigalway.ie/plagiarism
NUIG Definition of PLAGIARISMThe submission of plagiarised materials forassessment purposes or for publication or for publicpresentation is fraudulent and all suspected caseswill be investigated and dealt with appropriately bythe University following the procedures outlinedhere and with reference to the Disciplinary Code…National University of Ireland, Galway. (2010).Code of practice for dealing with plagiarism.www.nuigalway.ie/plagiarism
NUIG Definition of PLAGIARISMAll work submitted by students for assessmentpurposes is accepted on the understanding thatit is their own work and written in their ownwords except where explicitly referenced usingthe accepted norms and formats of theappropriate academic discipline.National University of Ireland, Galway. (2010).Code of practice for dealing with plagiarism.www.nuigalway.ie/plagiarism
Are these examples of plagiarism?• Buying/borrowing/stealing a paper or report
Are these examples of plagiarism?• Buying/borrowing/stealing a paper or report• Hiring someone to write a paper or report
Are these examples of plagiarism?• Buying/borrowing/stealing a paper or report• Hiring someone to write a paper or report• Copying from another source without citing your source
Are these examples of plagiarism?• Buying/borrowing/stealing a paper or report• Hiring someone to write a paper or report• Copying from another source without citing your source• Building on someone’s ideas without citing your source
Are these examples of plagiarism?• Buying/borrowing/stealing a paper or report• Hiring someone to write a paper or report• Copying from another source without citing your source• Building on someone’s ideas without citing your source• Using a source very closely when paraphrasing
Are these examples of plagiarism?• Buying/borrowing/stealing a paper or report• Hiring someone to write a paper or report• Copying from another source without citing your source• Building on someone’s ideas without citing your source• Using a source very closely when paraphrasing Yes... these are all examples of plagiarism
Referencing = citing your sources There are 2 parts to citing your sources In-text citation Reference List• idea (Cronin, 2011) at the end of the report;• “direct quote” (Cronin, 2011, p. 45) full citation for each source
In-text citation• You need to show where in your report you’ve used a particular source... but the full reference would be too long to put within the body of your report, e.g. Sun, J., Flores, J. & Tanguma, J. (2012). E-textbooks and students’ learning experiences. Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, 10 (1), 63-77.• So, you use in-text citations within the body of the report, in the exact location where you refer to it: Sun, et al (2012)• It’s like a shorthand for the full citation, which goes in the List of References at the end of the report
List of references• The list of references goes at the end of the report, on its own page• All sources used must be included in alphabetical order by author surname• Don’t separate types of sources (i.e. books from articles or web sites) in the list of references• Each in-text citation contained in your report must match to a full citation in the list of references.
What info must be referenced? … it depends on the source!Types of sources:• Book • Lecture• Edited book • Map • Newspaper• Govt. publication • Conference proceedings• Graphic illustration • Web page (not web site)• Journal article
Citation fields?• Author (individual(s), corporation, organization)• Title (e.g. book, article, web page)• Year of publication• Publisher & place of publication• Volume & Number (for journals)• Edition (for some books)• Page number (for direct quotations, articles, etc.) These are some of the most common citation fields… not an exhaustive list.
APA style of referencingThere are many styles of referencing; inCT231 it is recommended that you useAPA style (American Psychological Association).The following 4 slides contain a fewexamples of in-text citations andreference list items, using APA style.
APA EXAMPLE: In-text citationIdea: For Giddens (2010), the advent of new communications technology is leading to the ‘death of distance’ and making it possible to share knowledge and culture across the globe instantaneously and simultaneously. In quoting an idea from someone else, cite the author and year of publication.
APA EXAMPLE: In-text citationDirect quote: As Morganstern (2010) notes, “The interruption-rich environment is a challenge for even the best time managers” (p. 29). For direct quotes you cite the author, year of publication, and the page number where the exact quote can be found.
APA EXAMPLE: Reference ListBook: Pariser, E. (2011). The Filter Bubble: What The Internet Is Hiding From You. London: Viking. Author. (Year). Book Title. Place of publication: Publisher.
APA EXAMPLE: Reference ListJournal article:Rutherford, J.J. (2010). Wearable technology.Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, IEEE,29 (3), 19-24.Author. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(number), pages.
APA EXAMPLE: Reference ListWeb page:Purdue University. Is it plagiarism yet? (2012).Retrieved October 1, 2012, fromhttp://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/589/02/NOTE: you must cite a web page and not a web site –as with other references, include the author, title andyear of publication.