Show of hands who is involved in writing or updating content for a web page?Anyone creating podcasts?How many creating PDF documents?
What does Accessibility mean?In relation to web accessibility - Providing equal opportunity and equal access to information and communication technologiesUseability of the web by everyone, regardless of their location, experience or type of computer technology used.But we general focus accessibility on people with disabilities because they are the ones most likely to be disadvantaged.Web accessibility affects people with visual, auditory, speech, physical, learning, cognitive and neurological disabilities .All students should be able to perceive, understand, navigate and interact with online material
Many benefits of using the online environmentThe web removes barriers to communication and interaction that people with disabilities face in the physical world.Just as online web content is improving, so is AT software to support and assistance people with disabilities.Assistive Technology software often involves high technology, and increases the access to information particularly in online learning. Eg. Blind people use very sophisticated software that allows them to access and interact with information online very effectively they couldn’t do in the same way 10 years ago.Some of these programs are free or shareware and some cost up to $2500 per licence.
JAWS is an Assistive Technology program used by people who are blind or significantly vision impaired. The program is able to read out aloud everything on a screen … if it is accessible.Play first audio – normal speech rate. Note web elements are all spokenPlay second audio – normal speech rate for an experienced JAWS user.
However, even though online learning environments improve the interaction and participation for students, and assistive technology has greatly improved so students with disabilities are able to access information more readily, we are seeing an increase in the demand for alternative format material due to inaccessible online content in subjects.Accessibility all depends on the design of the web contentIf web content is not designed to be accessible or tested for accessibility, it probably is not accessibleTherefore, this creates barriers that excludes people using the web.
Wendy and I only handle accessibility in subject material for registered SWDTranscription involves changing original study material to an alternative format.We only prepare alternative format for study material.The total cost of transcription for 2011 for students registered with Disability Services was $75, 445. For 70 students
What do I mean by alternative format material, and why is it so expensive for the university?I’ll explain by using a case study.A DE student who is deaf enrolled in a subject last session containing a significant number of podcasts in the subject Interact site. We also noted there are no transcriptions available for the podcasts. Consequently, we were given access to the subject Interact site to download the podcasts to create audio transcription for this student. There are a lot of podcasts - 13 audio lecturers and 89 videos from YouTube. Total transcription required for this student totalled 102 documents completedWe employ several audio transcribers to complete alternative format requests for registered students. Total cost for this subject for one student in one session?$6,274
Main accessibility issues for studentsIf there’s too much reading online and the student has no facility to print out.If no transcripts or closed captioning for podcasts/vodcasts, including YouTube videosIf documents or forms are not in text format – images in PDF format, powerpoint slide images in Word format, online forms, e-reserve readingsText format is required for students using screen reader programs
We are seeing an increase in the barriers to learning due to an increase in online learning. The volume and demand for alternative format is increasing.We are also seeing an increase in the number of students registering with Disability Services because they couldn’t access material online.Particularly students who are deaf or hearing impaired.We have difficulties working out what is in a subject. Therefore, the timeliness of delivery of alternative format to the student is a major issue - meaning students have to wait longer periods and are often getting their learning material after the course has started, or after the material is required. The end result?We are disadvantaging the students even more than they are already disadvantaged by their disability.
Legislation reminderIn Australia the legislative requirements around disability come under the Disability Discrimination Act 1992, Section 31.Educational institution - Disability Standards for Education 2005.The Standards clarify the obligations of education and training providers to ensure that students with disabilities are able to access and participate in education and training on the same basis as those without disability.
How can you help remove the barriers from the online environment?Implement Inclusive Practices. Also called Universal DesignMeaning we need to offer subject and web content that appeals to more than one sense.For example:Reading Web content – should be in text-based format such as text PDF, html, WordConsider a text-only supplement, that accompanies original documentPodcast – Use a headset or desk microphone so the volume and quality of the podcast is accessible to everyone.Include a transcript or closed captions for videosClosed captions can be created in Captivate. Student will click on CC icon to display captioningThese are a few examples
This is an example of a transcript for a podcastTranscriptions should always be present on a web page if there is any audio content present.Transcripts assist:Students who are deaf or have a hearing impairmentESL studentsStudents accessing the web in noisy environments or unsuitable places to play audio; People who don’t spend the time to listen to audio or watch a video but will skim a transcript;Students who have difficult processing auditory information, because of a cognitive disability; Students with low bandwidth or they don’t want to download a large audio or video file due to download limits.
Here is an example how you can be inclusive with creating documents in PDF format.[Show Reading 1]Explain it is an image of the text, therefore anyone using a screen reader program, as demonstrated previously, cannot access this document.At CSU all e-reserve readings are images of a document in PDF format.[Go to next slide showing affect for a blind person]
For a student who is blind, reading an image PDF is reading nothing.
[Show Chapter 6_Gravetter]Explain it is still a PDF document, but as it’s text-based, screen reader programs can read the text out aloud.
Many resources available to help you use inclusive practicesThe World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) leads a body called the Web Accessibility Initiative.WAI (pronounced way) develops standards and resources to help make the web accessible for people with disabilities.WAI published the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (WCAG 2.0)Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 covers a range of recommendations for making Web content more accessible. If you follow these guidelines, it will make web content accessible to a wider range of people with disabilities, and also will make your Web content more usable in general.
Why does accessibility matter when writing for the web?While the main focus of accessibility is around people with disabilities, accessibility also benefits people without disabilities.Publishing web content is all about communication, and accessibility is also about communication. When you publish web content you want as many people as possible to be able to find, access and understand the content.Employing accessibility standards techniques means your web content is not only accessible for people with disabilities, but it will be user-friendly over many devices, easier to read, easier to understand, and easier to manage for you.Text based content used to be only necessary for people with vision impairments. This has changed with the introduction of new technologies and the way the Internet is evolving.People do not only access web sites on a computer – for example, they use tablets, smartphones, special browsers, IPTVsPeople share web content through social media, rss feeds, browsers on phones that don’t display content in the normal way, accessing web content through an e-reader or voice controlled computer in a car. People can now access the web by having their phone read out a web page while on the run, or navigate a website while driving.Voice commands and non-visual browsers are becoming more mainstream.Implementing good web design standards accommodates search engines.Search engines are essentially blind as they need text content; they don’t understand images unless proper information is provided about them. The more accessible your content is, the easier it is for a search engine to understand that content. Past 3 months presentations:LTS - teleconference, bridgit, CSU ReplaySOTE Retreat – CSU Replay recording, hints and tips to Podcasts flyer [show]CSUED 2012Admin FocusWill be presenting to LTS, Media ServicesDiscussions with Gary Taylor (DIT) & Katherine Klapdor (LTS), Philip Uys (LTS)Trial internal lectures captured with CSU Replay in Wagga 201330.In summaryIn our next session, Penny talking about ‘online the business’, so please consider accessibility in your ideas what goes online.
Accessibility online “The Web does not just connect machines, it connects people.” Tim Berners-Lee, Inventor of the World Wide Web, 2008 STUDENT SERVICES OFFICE, ACCESS & COUNSELLING
What does Accessibility Mean?• Equal opportunity and access to ICT• Useability of the web by everyone – focus is on people with disabilities• All students should be able to perceive, understand, navigate and interact with online material STUDENT SERVICES OFFICE, ACCESS & COUNSELLING
Benefits of online environment• Web removes barriers often faced in the real world• Assistive Technology software has greatly improved to allow access and interaction online STUDENT SERVICES OFFICE, ACCESS & COUNSELLING
How does Assistive Technology assiststudents? Example of JAWS STUDENT SERVICES OFFICE, ACCESS & COUNSELLING
Benefits of online environment• Depends on design of web content• Badly designed web content creates barriers that exclude people using the web STUDENT SERVICES OFFICE, ACCESS & COUNSELLING
Impact on CSU and Students Cost of Transcription 2011 $75, 445 STUDENT SERVICES OFFICE, ACCESS & COUNSELLING
Alternative Formats DE student who is deaf Learning material contains 102 podcasts & videos No transcription available Audio transcribers employed to complete transcriptions Total cost - $6,274 STUDENT SERVICES OFFICE, ACCESS & COUNSELLING
Impact on CSU and Students• Too much reading online and difficulties printing content• No transcripts or closed captioning for podcasts/vodcasts• Articles/documents not in text format Eg images in PDF format STUDENT SERVICES OFFICE, ACCESS & COUNSELLING
Impact on CSU and Students Timeliness of delivery of alternative format to students is a major issue.We are disadvantaging the students even morethan they are disadvantaged by their disability. STUDENT SERVICES OFFICE, ACCESS & COUNSELLING
Impact on CSU and Students Legal Requirements in Australia• Disability Discrimination Act 1992 and• Disability Standards for Education, 2005 STUDENT SERVICES OFFICE, ACCESS & COUNSELLING
Implement Inclusive PracticesExamples:• Web – use text format such as text PDF, Html, Word• Podcast – use a good microphone – include a transcript or closed captions STUDENT SERVICES OFFICE, ACCESS & COUNSELLING
Podcasts and Vodcasts STUDENT SERVICES OFFICE, ACCESS & COUNSELLING
Text vs Image PDFReading 1.pdf Chapter 6_Gravetter.pdf STUDENT SERVICES OFFICE, ACCESS & COUNSELLING
Text vs Image PDF No text found STUDENT SERVICES OFFICE, ACCESS & COUNSELLING
Text vs Image PDFReading 1.pdf Chapter 6_Gravetter.pdf STUDENT SERVICES OFFICE, ACCESS & COUNSELLING
Resources• W3C leads the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) http://www.w3.org/WAI/• Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (WCAG 2.0) http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/wcag STUDENT SERVICES OFFICE, ACCESS & COUNSELLING
Why Accessibility Matters• Communicate to as many people as possible• It’s user-friendly• Use of different devices• Improves Search Engine Optimization STUDENT SERVICES OFFICE, ACCESS & COUNSELLING