Csu Ed2009 Presentation Srl In Pbl


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  • Quite confident in ability to learn at the beginning of the year but use of strategies quite low More confident in learning at end of year but strategy use quite varied – increased for some and decreased for others
  • What does this mean in terms of PBL? It means that we can explain the way students learn by taking into account not only their cognitive ability and the group dynamic, but the whole gamet of factors social and cultural which have an influence. By using this framework we can better understand what helps or hinders student learning in this context and make the subsequent adjustments to maximise learning.
  • Csu Ed2009 Presentation Srl In Pbl

    1. 1. Transformation of student self-regulated learning over a Problem-Based Learning year Sarah Hyde [email_address] Pip Yabsley [email_address] Donna Read [email_address] CSUEd 2009, Albury
    2. 2. Overview of presentation <ul><li>Introduction to concepts of self-regulation and problem-based learning, previous literature </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of the context of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Outline of research questions and method </li></ul><ul><li>Results so far </li></ul><ul><li>Our interpretation of the results, theoretical perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Implications for practice </li></ul>
    3. 3. What is self-regulated learning (SRL)? <ul><li>Student ability to monitor and control their own learning processes </li></ul><ul><li>Self-reflection is a key process </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators: goal setting, motivation, time management, seeking help, use of resources, reflection, metacognition </li></ul>
    4. 4. Traditionally accepted definition <ul><ul><li>Students can be described as self-regulated to the extent that they are metacognitively , and behaviourally active participants in their own learning process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Zimmerman 1989) </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Problem based learning (PBL) <ul><li>A social learning experience; student-centred </li></ul><ul><li>Small groups; authentic problems </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical reasoning process </li></ul><ul><li>Students assume responsibility for their own learning – driven by own ‘learning issues’ </li></ul><ul><li>Relies on prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>A process of collaborative knowledge construction </li></ul>
    6. 6. Context <ul><li>Bachelor of Clinical Science course </li></ul><ul><li>First cohort of third year students </li></ul><ul><li>Rural pathway program </li></ul><ul><li>PBL in final year only: Integration of 2 year long subjects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HLT310 Reflective Clinical Practice (4 modules) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HLT320 Research in Clinical Practice </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. PBL implementation <ul><li>10 students at beginning, dropped to 9 </li></ul><ul><li>3 x 1.5 hour compulsory PBL sessions each week + 6 hours resource sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Two groups in first half of year </li></ul><ul><li>One group in second half </li></ul><ul><li>Different tutor each module </li></ul><ul><li>Content expert in last module </li></ul>
    8. 8. Assessment <ul><li>A reflective portfolio kept for the year – (50%), collected at random </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in PBL – self, peer, and tutor evaluation (30%) </li></ul><ul><li>End of year exam (20%) </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics form, lit review, oral and poster presentation, research project </li></ul>
    9. 9. The literature says…. <ul><li>PBL enhances self-directed learning, knowledge retention, increased motivation, metacognition, and self-evaluation (Finucane, Johnson et al. 1998; Hadwin 1996; Hendry, Frommer et al. 1999; Norman and Schmidt 1992; Ryan 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual factors around how PBL has been implemented can minimise these effects </li></ul><ul><li>AND, development over time not known </li></ul>
    10. 10. Key study <ul><li>Evensen et al. (2001) study of 6 medical students in a PBL ‘stream’: </li></ul><ul><li>the ability to successfully regulate learning is contingent on the learners’ ability to satisfactorily negotiate personal attributes with environmental affordances and constraints to invoke efficacious learning strategies </li></ul>
    11. 11. Our research questions <ul><li>How do Clinical Science students regulate their learning in a PBL year? </li></ul><ul><li>2. How does this change over time? </li></ul><ul><li>3. How effective is the PBL design in achieving high levels of student academic regulation in third year? </li></ul>
    12. 12. The study <ul><li>Scholarship in Teaching grant </li></ul><ul><li>Survey of Self-Efficacy for SRL, and SRL scale of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) at beginning and end of year </li></ul><ul><li>Observation of groups </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews at two time points </li></ul>
    13. 13. Survey 1 <ul><li>SE for SRL – based on Bandura’s model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15 questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 point Likert scale (1 = cannot do – 7 = can do excellently) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. How well can you evaluate your own learning needs? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. How well can you admit aloud in class that you do not understand something? </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Survey 2 <ul><li>Pintrich and DeGroot (1990) SRL scale from the MSLQ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>11 questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 point Likert scale (1 = not at all true of me – 7 = extremely true of me) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. I try to change the way that I study in order to accommodate the material covered in each area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. When studying, I try to determine which concepts I don’t understand well </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Survey results
    16. 16. Comments on survey <ul><li>Lowest scoring SE for SRL question (beginning): “How well can you study when there are other more interesting things to do” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mode = 3 (Not too well) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Highest scoring SE for SRL question (beginning): “How well can you find the information you need from a textbook” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mode = 6 (Very well) </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>Lowest scoring MSLQ question: “When reading for this course I make up questions to focus my reading” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mode = 3 (Not true of me) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Highest scoring MSLQ question: “When I become confused about something I’m reading for the course I go back and try to figure it out” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mode = 6 (Very well) </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Interview results <ul><li>Interviews coded in NVivo by two of the researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Overall theme: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lack of motivation across the cohort over the year as a result of perceived lack of structure, assessment, and group dynamics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HOWEVER, levels of reflection were very high and capacity for self-evaluation improved throughout the year </li></ul>
    19. 19. How do students regulate their learning? Evidence <ul><li>Identify the learning objectives; SDL </li></ul><ul><li>“ put in every ounce of effort I have” (Alex, int 1) </li></ul><ul><li>Asking for help/clarification </li></ul><ul><li>Deriving personal satisfaction from learning itself </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining interest and motivation despite the group dynamic (not wanting to be like them) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Setting goals </li></ul><ul><li>Improved use of resources </li></ul>
    20. 20. Self-evaluation <ul><li>… we had to learn, you know evaluate each other in class and that sort of thing and yes it does force you to look at yourself and how you do participate and that sort of thing … you have to look at yourself but you have to learn to take criticism and feedback and that sort of thing </li></ul><ul><li>(Dani 1) </li></ul>
    21. 21. Self-evaluation <ul><li>… you have to explain it in a way that other people can understand and then it makes you realise how what you really do and don’t know. Like even though I’ll always know it in my head I’m like “oh yes, I know that” but then coming to explain it to someone else its just different </li></ul><ul><li>(Toni 1) </li></ul>
    22. 22. SDL <ul><li>I probably do a lot more research […] I engage in it off my own back, I’m not told what to do. I do a lot of my research, […] because I want to, not because its what I’m supposed to be doing or I guess not being spoon fed the information anymore </li></ul><ul><li>(Terry 1) </li></ul>
    23. 23. Motivation <ul><li>… when you’re presented with a case you actually, you’re motivated and you want to find out things, which makes doing the work, for me more enjoyable, you know, less a job and more of a interest type thing. Yes that’s pretty much my main motivation, just wanting to know the information </li></ul><ul><li>(Terry, 1) </li></ul>
    24. 24. Use of resources <ul><li>I’ve pretty much been using the data bases, because there’s so much focus on the research so you actually want to have their research project and their method and all that to have the results, whereas in the last couple of years I would mainly have used the text books from the library, because they were just giving you the facts and they weren’t giving you the actual research study that brought about those facts </li></ul><ul><li>(Toni 1) </li></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>I look for as many different resources as I can, so I’d look at text books, I’d look at internet websites, I’d look at journal articles and things like that and then I would sift through the information that I have and sort of analyse what seems to be consistent across all the different resources and that’s what I would generally accept as the right answer </li></ul><ul><li>(Jay 1) </li></ul>
    26. 26. Knowledge retention <ul><li>In year one and two you would just learn that tiny little bit about this point that they wanted you to know for the exam, […] and there was so much of that you kind of didn’t really have the capacity to learn extra, and now I think because I’m not writing hundreds of pages of notes on every thing, I’ve just, I don’t know, like now, I never used to be able to retain anything from just reading it, but now I can </li></ul><ul><li>(Toni 1) </li></ul>
    27. 27. Goals <ul><li>Wanting high marks; To get into medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Personal growth </li></ul><ul><li>I have to get in to medicine, well not ‘I have to’ but I mean like ‘want to’ my aspirations, my dreams (Alex 1) </li></ul><ul><li>I do aim to get the highest grades (Jamie 1) </li></ul><ul><li>Using the criticism constructively to change what I was doing (Terry 1) </li></ul><ul><li>Try and contribute more in PBL, develop confidence (Toni 1) </li></ul>
    28. 28. Change over time <ul><li>Data still to come: from observations, second interview, portfolio’s to be coded </li></ul><ul><li>Alex as a case study so far: </li></ul><ul><li>I think I’ve kind of learnt a better way of forcing myself or getting in to the mood of trying to do work and its not really a chore anymore I don’t actually mind doing work, keeps me busy (Alex 1) </li></ul>
    29. 29. Alex <ul><li>I’ll just clarify everything, which is something I’ve never ever, ever done. I was always a person that was like if I need help I’ll work it out myself; I was never a person who’d go ask for help </li></ul><ul><li>Using lecturers and tutors more than in in previous years </li></ul><ul><li>Change in goals – more high eg. l ike first year a bad mark for me would be a fail, now a bad mark for me is a credit. Like that’s where I’ve come or even a high credit its like “I’m only satisfied if I get a distinction plus” </li></ul>
    30. 30. Q3: How effective is PBL for SRL? <ul><li>Affordances and constraints for learning </li></ul><ul><li>The effect of group dynamic and of others on learning </li></ul><ul><li>However…… data set incomplete at this stage </li></ul>
    31. 31. Affordances and constraints for learning <ul><li>Affordances </li></ul><ul><li>Small PBL group </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating learning verbally </li></ul><ul><li>Self, peer and tutor-evaluation assessment tasks </li></ul><ul><li>New library </li></ul><ul><li>Contact with staff </li></ul><ul><li>Content expert tutors </li></ul><ul><li>PBL process </li></ul><ul><li>Content based lectures </li></ul><ul><li>Authenticity of cases </li></ul><ul><li>Constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of exams; motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of others in learning; group disinterest </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of defined boundaries for learning </li></ul><ul><li>PBL cases being too “straight forward and common sense” </li></ul><ul><li>Small numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Having only one subject coordinator </li></ul><ul><li>One PBL group </li></ul><ul><li>Not being ‘busy’ enough </li></ul><ul><li>Being the first cohort </li></ul>
    32. 32. <ul><li>other people are more positive towards everything, which then helps me to be more motivated and keep going with this year </li></ul><ul><li>(Jamie 1) </li></ul>Working as a group
    33. 33. Authenticity of cases <ul><li>… we thought “oh god, you know, it’s going to be actual real cases and we can question the patient” and that sort of thing. The things we’re all busting to do, because we’re getting in to Medicine soon </li></ul><ul><li>(Dani 1) </li></ul>
    34. 34. One subject coordinator <ul><li>… if you stuff up on one thing they’ll know it, if you stuff up on everything they’ll know it. Its not like you can stuff up on one subject and be okay, you can fail one subject the other lecturer won’t know </li></ul><ul><li>(Alex 1) </li></ul>
    35. 35. <ul><li>… found it hard to motivate myself to do self directed learning because there’s no like knowledge assessment in the course… there’s know one telling you to go and learn this </li></ul><ul><li>(Tony 1) </li></ul>Lack of exams
    36. 36. <ul><li>… because the first two years were so full on and this year isn’t, [...] we just don’t feel like we’re busy enough I guess… there was more motivation because you had to do exams </li></ul><ul><li>(Dani 1) </li></ul>
    37. 37. The effect of others <ul><li>… I say “okay I’m going to get more involved and I’m going to research and do everything that I’m supposed to do” and other people are not, so it makes me feel, well maybe I shouldn’t be showing off and I shouldn’t be talking so much in class because know no one else is really being involved themselves </li></ul><ul><li>(Jay 1) </li></ul>
    38. 38. Constraint - others <ul><li>… you just let other people affect you for a while and then you just have to like, it might take a little while and then you realise like “why am I letting the affect me so much?” </li></ul><ul><li>(Toni 1) </li></ul>
    39. 39. Equal contribution <ul><li>… if people have actually researched something for the class, like its those classes that always run so much better than the other ones because it’s the ones where know ones done any prior work that they just feel pointless and we go off track </li></ul><ul><li>(Toni 1) </li></ul>
    40. 40. <ul><li>Social processes  Individual; </li></ul><ul><li>Interdependence of social and individual processes in any learning environment, but especially in PBL </li></ul>What do the results show overall?
    41. 41. Improvements needed <ul><li>I think may be there could have been more, more material to sort of engage us and keep us occupied, not occupied, sort of stimulated through out the week. (Chris 1) </li></ul><ul><li>Changing the focus of it […] playing a role that would be similar to the one’s we hope to endeavour to be. Because you (Dani 1) </li></ul>
    42. 42. Strategies to improve <ul><li>More assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Have more than one group </li></ul>
    43. 43. Response to research questions <ul><li>How do Clinical Science students regulate their learning in a PBL year? </li></ul><ul><li>2. How does this change over time? </li></ul><ul><li>3. How effective is the PBL design in achieving high levels of student academic regulation in third year? </li></ul>
    44. 44. Implications for practice <ul><li>May need to embed/facilitate SRL earlier in the course, prior to PBL </li></ul><ul><li>Support strategies for students in the PBL year – mentors? </li></ul><ul><li>Early intervention </li></ul>
    45. 45. References <ul><li>Evensen et al (2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Finucane, Johnson et al. 1998; Hadwin 1996; Hendry, Frommer et al. 1999; Norman and Schmidt 1992; Ryan 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Pintrich, R. R., & DeGroot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance , Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 33-40 </li></ul><ul><li>Zimmerman, B. J. (1989a). &quot;A social cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning.&quot; Journal of Educational Psychology 81(3): 329-339 </li></ul>
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