Livestock-Climate Change CRSP Annual Meeting 2011: FORT Project Update (N. Joshi)


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A description of the Livestock-Climate Change CRSP's FORT Project (Enhancing livestock production systems in Tajikistan to mitigate potential impacts of climate change) and update on the project's current status. Presentation given by N. Joshi (Michigan State University) at the Livestock Climate Change CRSP Annual Meeting, Golden, CO, April 26-27, 2011.

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  • Tajikistan is the poorest country in Central Asian region. Food security remains the major issue.
  • Our project work will be conducted in all the four regions.
  • High temperature and vanishing glaciers severely threaten agricultural and livestock systems.
  • World Bank publication 2008 mention that Tajikistan is the most vulnerable country in Central Asia and Eastern Europe.A World bank study indicated that based on exposure to climate change (indices based on exposure to surface temperature change, rainfall etc), sensitivity to climate change (based on hydropower, agriculture) and adaptive capacity (based on indices of economy, social and cultural attributes) developed an index of vulnerability for 28 countries in Europe and Central Asia. The index is based on 25 points (the max). Tajikistan stands out to be the most vulnerable country of the caucuses and Central Asian countries.
  • Agricultural Land – 800,000 ha or 7 percent of its territoryPastureland – 3.88 million haCrop land - ~0.8 million haIrrigable – 50% irrigableRainfed – 50% rainfed Main crop – Cotton followed by wheatHousehold farmsDehkan farms – could be individual or groupPrivate farmsCooperatives
  • Livestock is very important to the livelihood of rural households of Tajikistan. Animals are crucial productive assets that provide both nutrition and income to families in rural areas. It is a key part of agriculture sector and is of critical importance for coping strategies of poor rural households in Tajikistan.Dairy cattle are raised in 1) enclosures for beef and dairy cattle, 2) combined enclosures and pastures for beef cattle, goats, and sheep 3) pastures for goats and sheep. While goats and sheep raising continue to undergo changes since the managed pasture systems of the soviet era are being modified. This project will focus on improving feed/forage resources for the livestock including, cattle, goats and sheep. Former large state-run cooperatives that used—1) enclosures, 2) combined enclosures and pastures and 3) pastures—were replaced by lease farms, joint stock companies, dehkan (extended family farms) and household plots. Livestock sector remains important in all of these systems.  According to statistics at the end of 2010 in Tajikistan livestock k. r. s. amounts to 1864.7thousand heads, including 967.7 thousand cows goal.,sheep and goats 4248.9 thousand, including 2893.4 thousand sheep and goats 1259.5thousand heads, thousand horse 76.61 heads,birds of all kinds of 43901.0 thousand units.More than 80.0% of sheep and goats, as well as 70,0% of cattle are concentrated in the private sector. Approx 6 million ruminants;3 million ha of pasturelandIndigenous ruminant populationMilk yield is very lowOnly 5% of calories coming from animal productsSeverely degraded pasturelandDecreasing cultivated forage land Agricultural Land – 4,000,000 haPastureland – Crop landIrrigableRainfedMain crop – Cotton followed by wheatHouseholdsDehkan farms Private farmsCooperatives
  • Per capita intake of animal protein is 5% of the total caloric intake.Production of livestock products in the republic in 2010. was:Meat 119 *. 3 thousand tons, 579.4 thousand tons of milk,5.2 thousand tons of wool,eggs 207.4 million units.,2.3 tons of honey.
  • There is plenty of pasture forage available in high mountain pastures during summer. Limited availability of supplemental feed – high taxes expensiveLand for forage production is declining as more farmers are using land for cash crops
  • The aim of this project is to improve forage, leading to higher yields of animal-source protein and milk products, which in tern, could provide a critical source of nutrition for children.To identify feed and forage production issues needed to improve livestock production in Tajikistan. To establish on-farm demonstration sites where locally adapted, draught tolerant forage crops and shrubsTo conduct workshops and training programs for local farmers at 4 different sitesTo integrate forage/fodders in local farming systems
  • 1. Stakeholder Consultation – Workshop on March 1, 20112. Demonstration sites: 4 sites in four regions of Tajikistan NGO representatives: 4 NGO representatives 3. Train Local farmers: (10 to 20 farmers in each region – include women farmers)Women play an important role in agriculture in Tajikistan; The project team will examine the constraints faced by women and gender impacts of livestock production systems; and The project team will ensure gender balance while selecting farmers and NGO representatives for training.
  • ICARDA, Tajik Academy of Agricultural Sciences – 13 Research Institutions – RIL, VRI, FRIMinistry of Agriculture – Department of AgricultureUniversity of Central Asia – campus at Khorog, GBAO regionUSAID – projects: Family Farming ProgramUSAID – Chemonics – Land Certification programIFAD _ Pasture Management Program - IFAD
  • Breakout Group Presentations for Four Regions
  • There is plenty of pasture forage available in high mountain pastures during summer. Limited availability of supplemental feed – high taxes expensiveLand for forage production is declining as more farmers are using land for cash crops
  • Research and Demonstration Sites GBAO Region: Ishkashim Jamoat of Ishkashim district - Mr. Shohnazarov Parpishoh, Pasture specialist, Department of AgricultureKhatlon Region: Dehbaland Jamoat of Muminabad district - Mr. Rahimov Haidar, Farm economySugd Region: Utkansai Jamoat, Bobojon Gafurov district - Dr. Kosimov Matazim, Director of branch of RILRRS Region: Mukcuy Jamoat of Jirgatol district - Mr. Ikromov Nozim, Agriculture specialist
  • Work plan has been developed for each of the four districts identified for research and demonstration sites
  • Work plan has been developed for each of the four districts identified for research and demonstration sites
  • Work plan has been developed for each of the four districts identified for research and demonstration sites
  • Work plan has been developed for each of the four districts identified for research and demonstration sitesAdd crops to be tested in each of the region – included, Stakeholders -
  • Livestock-Climate Change CRSP Annual Meeting 2011: FORT Project Update (N. Joshi)

    1. 1. Livestock - Climate Change<br />Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP) <br />Project Report <br />Enhancing Livestock Production Systems in Tajikistan to Mitigate Potential Impacts of Climate Change<br />Dr. Nanda Joshi and Dr. Karim Maredia <br />Michigan State UniversityEast Lansing, MI<br />April 26, 2011<br />
    2. 2. Outline of presentation<br /><ul><li>Background on Tajikistan
    3. 3. Livestock Sector in Tajikistan
    4. 4. Livestock CC CRSP Pilot project in Tajikistan
    5. 5. Objectives, Approaches and Timeline
    6. 6. Stakeholder consultation
    7. 7. Work plans</li></li></ul><li>Central Asia<br />3<br />
    8. 8. Tajikistan at a Glance<br />Area: 143,100 Sq km<br />Sep 9, 1991 Independence <br />Topography:93% mountainous Arable Land: 7% Population: 7.3 million (2010) Per capita Income: $370Crop Land: ~ 0.8 million haGrazing Land: ~3.9 million ha<br />Major Crops: Cotton, WheatLivestock: ~ 6 million (Cattle, Sheep and goats ) Major export: Aluminum, Electricity, <br />Literacy rate: 97.4%Language: Tajik, Russian widely used <br />
    9. 9. Four Regions of Tajikistan <br />
    10. 10. Tajikistan and Potential Impact of Climate Change <br />6<br />Current scenario:<br /><ul><li>Most vulnerable country amongst Central Asian Countries
    11. 11. Rising surface temperature (2 – 4 C) by the end of 21st century (WBGU, 2007)
    12. 12. Melting of glaciers – shrinking glacier
    13. 13. Deforestation – loss of vegetation (carbon sink)
    14. 14. Frequent draught conditions</li></li></ul><li>Index of Vulnerability to Climate Change<br />Source: World Bank (2009)<br />
    15. 15. Agriculture Sector in Tajikistan<br /><ul><li>Tajikistan is a country with an ancient history of agricultural civilization
    16. 16. Agriculture is the primary source of employment (~60% of the population) generating ~30% of national GDP;
    17. 17. Cotton and wheat are the two major crops;
    18. 18. Cattle, sheep and goats are the ruminants of importance
    19. 19. It frequently suffers from food insecurity;
    20. 20. Extension service is weak and non-existent in most parts: NGOs are doing extension and technology transfer</li></li></ul><li>
    21. 21.
    22. 22. Breeds of dairy cattle<br />Tajik style black-and-white breed (average yield of 3,500-7,000 kg, fat content 3,8-3,9%<br />Nogo cattle (average yield of 3,500-4,000 kg, fat content 4,0-4,2%)<br />Photos: Dr. Fazliddin Ikromov, Director, RIL <br />
    23. 23. Karakul Breed<br />Tajik sheep breed<br />Hissar Sheep Breed<br />Breeds of sheep and goats in Tajikistan<br />Darvaz fine-wool breed<br />Photo: Dr. Fazliddin Ikromov<br />Tajik goat wool breeds<br />Sheep breed Jaidar<br />Pamir downy goats<br />
    24. 24.
    25. 25. Livestock Feed and Forage <br /><ul><li>Grassland (3881 thousand ha) is the main source of green fodder for livestock and accounts for ~ ¾ available fodder.
    26. 26. Pasture Issues
    27. 27. Degraded pasture - overgrazing
    28. 28. Limited access to summer high mountain pastures – infrastructure (road, bridges)
    29. 29. Lack of knowledge in good pasture management practices (rotation, controlled grazing)
    30. 30. Forage crop production Issues
    31. 31. Decreasing land available for forage cultivation
    32. 32. Lack of forage conservation technologies
    33. 33. Lack of good seeds and other facilities</li></li></ul><li>
    34. 34. Objectives of Livestock CC CRSP Pilot Project <br /><ul><li>To identify forage production and pasture management issues for improved livestock production in Tajikistan;
    35. 35. To establish long term research and demonstration site(s) in four regions, and
    36. 36. To train farmers and NGO representatives in forage cultivation and conservation techniques and help integrate forage in their farming systems </li></li></ul><li>Project Approaches<br /><ul><li>Build partnerships: Livestock Research Institute under Tajik Academy of Agricultural Sciences (TAAS), Tajik Agrarian University (TAU), CGIAR – ICARDA Center, University of Central Asia (UCA), and local NGOs;
    37. 37. Establish research and demonstration sites: Research and demonstration sites in four geographic regions of Tajikistan for forage cultivation and pasture management; and
    38. 38. Participatory training: Train farmers and local NGO representatives in pasture management and forage crop cultivation</li></li></ul><li>Project Timeline January – December (2011)<br />
    39. 39. Monitoring &Impact Evaluation<br />19<br />
    40. 40. Impact Indicators<br />20<br />
    41. 41. Project Launch Workshop,Dushanbe, Tajikistan, March 1, 2011<br />
    42. 42. 22<br />SOGD <br />KHATLON <br />Breakout group discussion on research and demonstration sites<br />RRS<br />GBAO<br />
    43. 43. Key Issues in livestock sector<br /><ul><li>Lack of support for R&D
    44. 44. Degradation and deterioration of the pasture land
    45. 45. Lack of input availability – supply of feed supplements, forage crops seeds, medicine etc
    46. 46. Value chain not well established – marketing weak</li></li></ul><li>Workshop Recommendations <br /><ul><li>Pasture Management – controlled grazing, reseeding and restoration of grazing land
    47. 47. Forage cultivation – Introduce leguminous species
    48. 48. Conduct training - farmers and NGO representatives on forming pasture users groups, forage conservation techniques (hay, silage)
    49. 49. Establish research and demonstration sites at
    50. 50. SOGD Region – Utkansai Jamoat, Bobojon Gafurov District
    51. 51. GBAO – Ishkashim Jamoat of Ishkashim district
    52. 52. Khatlon – Dehbaland Jamoat of Muminabad district
    53. 53. RRS – Mukcuy Jamoat of Jirgatol District</li></li></ul><li>25<br />Site Coordinators <br />Sogd: Utkansai Jamoat, Bobojon Gafurov district <br />Executing Officer: Dr. Kosimov M.A., Director of Sogd branch of Research Institute of Livestock of Tajik Academy of Agricultural Science<br />GBAO: Ishkashim Jamoat of Ishkashim district <br />Executing officer: Mr. Shonazarov Parpishoh Akumatshoevich – Director of branch of the «Pasture melioration Trust» in GBAO.<br />RRS: Mukcuy Jamoat of Jirgatol district <br />Executing officer: Mr. Ikromov Nozim – Agriculture specialist of Mukcuy Jamoat of Jirgatol district<br />Khatlon: DehbalandJamoat of Muminabad district <br />Executing officer: Mr. Rahimov Haidar – Farm economy <br />
    54. 54. Region Specific Work Plans <br />Sogd Region: <br /><ul><li>Selection and composition of winter (Kurgon Tract) and summer (Utkansoy Jamoat) pastures
    55. 55. Increasing productivity of natural pasture around settlement: direct sowing ephemeral –wormwood (Artemisia) pasture with grasswort (Salsola) and Cochia prostrata; Introduction of a drought resistant wattle (Australian acacia)
    56. 56. Improvement of pasture land around Utkansoy Jamoat: N fertilization
    57. 57. Introducing soybean, sorghum and African millet to traditional Maize cropping under irrigated condition </li></ul>Gorno-Badakhasan Region:<br /><ul><li>Selection and cultivation of promising forage crops under irrigated conditions: Alfalfa, Maize triticale, millet etc.
    58. 58. Improvement of pasture land around Yakshivol village: N fertilization </li></ul>Khatlon Region: <br /><ul><li>Selection and cultivation of promising forage crops under irrigated conditions: Alfalfa, Maize triticale, millet etc.
    59. 59. Improvement of pasture land around Dehbaland Jamoat: N fertilization</li></ul>Region of Republican Subordination (RRS): <br /><ul><li>Selection and cultivation of promising forage crops under irrigated conditions: Alfalfa, Maize triticale, millet etc.
    60. 60. Improvement of pasture land around Mukcuy Jamoat: N fertilization</li></li></ul><li>27<br />Bobojon Gafurov district <br />SOGD<br />Jirgatol district <br />RRS<br />Dushanbe<br />Muminabad district <br />GBAO<br />KHATLON<br />Ishkashim district <br />
    61. 61. SOGD Work Plan<br />28<br />SOGD REGION <br />Utkansai Jamoat, Bobojon Gafurov District <br />Photo: Dr. Kosimov M.A.<br />
    62. 62. GBAO Work Plan<br />29<br />Gorno-Badakhashan Region<br />Ishkashim Jamoat of Ishkashim district <br />Ishkashim Jamoat of Ishkashim district <br />Photos: Mr. Shonazarov Parpishoh<br />
    63. 63. Khatlon Work Plan<br />30<br />Khatlon Regions<br />Dehbaland Jamoat of Muminabad district <br />Photo: Mr. Rahimov Haidar<br />
    64. 64. RRS Work Plan<br />31<br />Region of Republican Subordination<br />Mukcuy Jamoat of Jirgatol District<br />Photo: Mr. Ikromov Nozim<br />
    65. 65. Feed/Forage Crops and linked to Climate Change<br /><ul><li>Performance and productivity of pasture;
    66. 66. Productivity of forage crops;
    67. 67. Environmental benefits: soil erosion, soil fertility, drought tolerance
    68. 68. Scaling up and replications of the research sites in other countries in Central Asia
    69. 69. Overall impacts on livestock productivity and in-turn food and nutritional security</li></li></ul><li>Thank you<br />Your suggestions, inputs and ideas are welcome<br />