Incorporating gender equity assessments into your research<br />Adapting Livestock Systems to Climate Change CRSP Annual M...
A difficult conversation<br />The exercise analogy<br />The prescriptions<br />The excuses<br />The responses<br />Make a ...
Questions?<br />Are there gender differences in the experience of and response to climate change?<br />What are the variou...
Adaptations to climate change -- gender roles and responsibilities<br />Economic<br />Environmental <br />Social <br />Hea...
ECONOMIC IMPACT PATHWAYS<br />Environmental effects of climate change (drought, flooding, cropping season and temperature ...
EFFECTS of climate change on agricultural production<br />Environmental Effects <br />of Climate Change on Production<br /...
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT PATHWAYS<br />Climate change may lead to commercial and subsistence failures in crop and livestock pr...
SOCIAL IMPACT PATHWAYS<br />Crop and livestock failures also have social effects due to lower incomes, depleted savings/as...
Environmental and social consequences of climate change<br />Environmental Effects of Climate Change <br />Crop & livestoc...
HEALTH IMPACT PATHWAYS<br />Environmental effects of climate change shape health outcomes due to impacts on water quality ...
Health consequences of climate change<br />Environmental effects of climate change<br />Water table rises/lowers<br />Adds...
Gender and climate change in developing countries relies on adaptation<br />Economic<br />Environmental<br />Social <br />...
POLICY AND PLANNING IMPLICATIONS<br />Meet immediate food needs while addressing larger climate change issues<br />Strengt...
Strategic gender needs are met when investments are made that empower women<br />Practical - women’s roles as mothers & ho...
Food security and climate change analytics<br />Opportunities<br />Use of technology, market functionality, poverty, malnu...
Feed the Future Indicators and gender assessments<br />Two key objectives:<br />Inclusive agriculture sector growth<br />I...
Required indicators for the two key Feed the future objectives<br />Objective: improved nutritional status, especially of ...
Indicators and m&E<br />Types of Indicators<br />Process, Output, Outcome, Impact<br />Qualitative and Quantitative<br />A...
Indicators and M&E cont.<br />Three Types of Gender Indicators<br />1. Gender Blind<br />Measures changes over time withou...
Indicators and M&E cont.<br />Three Types of Gender Indicators<br />2. Gender Sensitive<br />Measures changes in gender re...
Indicators and M&E cont.<br />Three Types of Gender Indicators<br />3. Sex-Specific<br />Measures changes in women’s (men’...
Indicators and M&E cont.<br />Sex Disaggregated (Data)<br />Data that is cross-classified by sex, presenting information s...
Women or Gender Indicators<br />Proposed indicator<br />Expenditures of rural HH<br /># of individuals receiving agricultu...
Women or Gender Indicators cont.<br />Proposed indicator<br /> # of producer organizations, water users associations, trad...
possible  gender sensitive LCC indicators <br />Percentage of male participation in community group meetings where issues ...
Women or Gender Indicators cont.<br />Proposed indicator<br /># of rural hectares formalized<br />Km of roads improved or ...
Relevance  of FtF gender indicators to Livestock-climate change projects<br />Your LCC-CRSP Project…<br />Constraints and ...
Quiz<br />What are your project’s gender equity objectives?<br />Project participants, e.g., livestock keepers<br />Projec...
Thank you<br />Click and add insert graphic here (5” high x 8.5” wide maximum).<br />
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Livestock-Climate Change Annual Meeting 2011: Gender and Climate Change (S. Russo)

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Tips on incorporating gender equity assessments into research on the interactions of climate change and livestock or agricultural production. Presentation given by S. Russo (University of Florida) at the Livestock-Climate Change CRSP Annual Meeting, Golden, CO, April 26-27, 2011.

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  • It is good for you to exercise daily and regularly.Excuses for not exercising range from:I’ll watch someone else do it, e.g., sports on TVI don’t have time, I’m too fat, I’m too old, I’ll hurt myself, I don’t like to sweatI walk to the car from the office, that’s enoughThe responses:Nod your head and do nothing differentJoin a gym but don’t use itGet in a golf game or a bike ride on the weekendGrudgingly go to the gym ‘when you have time’OR: Make a plan and set goalsHire a trainerEnlist family and friendsFind something you enjoy doingPut exercise in your calendar dailyKeep it interesting by making progress and adjusting your goals
  • Dashed lines are reinforcing effects
  • Women are central to the FTF first level objective “inclusive agricultural sector growth”The empowerment of women in their roles and engagement throughout the various areas of the agriculture sector, as it grows, in both quantity and quality and operationalize that improvement by measuring variables:Women’s role in household decision-making around agricultural productionWomen’s access to productive capital, such as loans or land (outside household) The adequacy of woman’s income to feed familyWomen’s access to leadership roles within the communityWomen’s labor time allocations
  • Index variables must measure aspects of each domain and be applicable across cultures.Some illustrative examples:Decision-making authority:  Frequency/intensity with which the woman is involved in making decisions about crops, inputs, etc.Access to land and financial capital:   Woman’s ability to access land for farming purposesAdequacy of woman’s income:  Degree to which the woman believes she has adequate income or services to feed her children an acceptable dietWomen’s access to leadership roles:   Degree to which the woman perceives it is possible for her to become the most successful farmer in the villageLabor time changes:  Distribution of time spent on critical activities related to agriculture and food preparation/consumption  
  • LCC-CRSP asked for process, output, and outcome indicators – hard to do for a one year project. Why?
  • Caveats – these are still not finalized the BFS M&amp;E team
  • How could these become outcome or impact indicators?These could be disaggregated by sex of members, sex of leaders of the organizations, etc.
  • Back to the exercise analogy.Do you have a plan, objectives and goals? Who is involved? Do you need help?
  • Livestock-Climate Change Annual Meeting 2011: Gender and Climate Change (S. Russo)

    1. 1. Incorporating gender equity assessments into your research<br />Adapting Livestock Systems to Climate Change CRSP Annual Meeting<br />April 26-27, 2011<br />Sandra L. Russo, University of Florida<br />Gender and Climate Change<br />
    2. 2. A difficult conversation<br />The exercise analogy<br />The prescriptions<br />The excuses<br />The responses<br />Make a plan<br />Success!<br />
    3. 3. Questions?<br />Are there gender differences in the experience of and response to climate change?<br />What are the various pathways and impacts where gender may be important?<br />How is gender assessed in livestock production? And in climate change research? <br />What indicators can be used to assess gender and climate change in livestock projects?<br />
    4. 4. Adaptations to climate change -- gender roles and responsibilities<br />Economic<br />Environmental <br />Social <br />Health<br />
    5. 5. ECONOMIC IMPACT PATHWAYS<br />Environmental effects of climate change (drought, flooding, cropping season and temperature variations)lead to:<br />Crop losses/failures<br />Depleted livestock pastures<br />Immediate effects: food deficits/insecurity; reduced income; depleted savings; livestock mortality<br />Responses include:<br />Male labor out-migration<br />Changes in gender roles and responsibilities <br />Increased burden on women<br />Outcomes: <br />Reduced productivity<br />Feedback effect: increased food deficits, reduced income<br />
    6. 6. EFFECTS of climate change on agricultural production<br />Environmental Effects <br />of Climate Change on Production<br />Crop losses or failure<br />Depleted pastures<br />Food deficits<br />Reduced income<br />Depleted savings<br />Livestock mortality<br />Reduced draft power<br />Male labor out-migration<br />Increased use of hand tillage<br />Changed gender roles <br />& responsibilities<br />Increased burden on women<br />Economic Impact = Reduced Productivity<br />
    7. 7. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT PATHWAYS<br />Climate change may lead to commercial and subsistence failures in crop and livestock production<br />To cope with livelihood crises, people may resort to land management practices which may be environmentally degrading and unsustainable:<br />Deforestation<br />Overgrazing<br />Overuse of water points, or over-pumping of wells<br />Slope or riparian farming<br />Crop intensification<br />
    8. 8. SOCIAL IMPACT PATHWAYS<br />Crop and livestock failures also have social effects due to lower incomes, depleted savings/assets, or food deficits<br />Forced and early marriages <br />Prostitution<br />“Loaning” of children<br />Family breakdown as members leave to find employment<br />Changes in gender roles<br />De-agrarianization<br />Gender-based violence<br />Removal from school<br />
    9. 9. Environmental and social consequences of climate change<br />Environmental Effects of Climate Change <br />Crop & livestock production failures<br />Depleted savings/<br />assets<br />Food deficits<br />Reduced income<br />Responses to livelihood crises<br />Unsustainable resource management practices<br />Negative social effects<br />Environmental degradation<br />Further reductions in production<br />
    10. 10. HEALTH IMPACT PATHWAYS<br />Environmental effects of climate change shape health outcomes due to impacts on water quality and quantity<br />Water table fluctuations (flooding or drought)<br />Boreholes run dry<br />Home gardens are under- or over-watered, <br /> leading to food deficits & malnutrition<br />Water access points (for domestic use) <br /> further away<br />Adds to women’s labor burden & time poverty<br />Less water consumed<br />Poorer hygiene<br />Water supply is of lower quality<br />Pollution runoff, salinity, or mineral-laden<br />Water-borne diseases, vector-breeding grounds<br />Resulting outcomes:<br />Poor health<br />Reduced productivity due to lower human capital<br />
    11. 11. Health consequences of climate change<br />Environmental effects of climate change<br />Water table rises/lowers<br />Adds to women’s time poverty<br />Poor water quality<br />Homegardens <br />under/over watered<br />Water points <br />further away<br />Less water for <br />domestic uses<br />Food deficits<br />Hunger & Malnutrition<br />Reduced consumption, hygiene & sanitation<br />Poor health<br />(lower human capital)<br />Reduced productivity<br />
    12. 12. Gender and climate change in developing countries relies on adaptation<br />Economic<br />Environmental<br />Social <br />Health<br />
    13. 13. POLICY AND PLANNING IMPLICATIONS<br />Meet immediate food needs while addressing larger climate change issues<br />Strengthen women’s role as farmers in their own right<br />Introduce environmentally sustainable long-term solutions to food deficits (strategic) vs. short-term solutions that may immediately improve conditions but do not empower women (practical)<br />
    14. 14. Strategic gender needs are met when investments are made that empower women<br />Practical - women’s roles as mothers & housekeepers<br />Strategic – women’s roles as economic actors<br />
    15. 15. Food security and climate change analytics<br />Opportunities<br />Use of technology, market functionality, poverty, malnutrition, and gender can be analyzed along with observed environmental changes<br />Assessments<br />Interface between gender, community-based natural resources management, livestock management, and climate change<br />Socioeconomic variables and gender concerns<br />
    16. 16. Feed the Future Indicators and gender assessments<br />Two key objectives:<br />Inclusive agriculture sector growth<br />Improved nutritional status of women and children<br />
    17. 17. Required indicators for the two key Feed the future objectives<br />Objective: improved nutritional status, especially of women and children<br />Prevalence of stunted children under 5<br />Prevalence of wasted children under 5<br />Prevalence of underweight women<br />Objective: inclusive agricultural sector growth<br />Percent growth in agricultural GDP<br />Expenditures of rural HH<br />
    18. 18. Indicators and m&E<br />Types of Indicators<br />Process, Output, Outcome, Impact<br />Qualitative and Quantitative<br />ALL quantitative indicators that deal with people must be sex disaggregated. <br />Qualitative indicators are used to illustrate changes in trends, values, roles, responsibilities.<br />
    19. 19. Indicators and M&E cont.<br />Three Types of Gender Indicators<br />1. Gender Blind<br />Measures changes over time without recognizing gender differences.<br />Example:<br />Result: Increased literacy<br />Indicator: Literacy levels over 5 years<br />Stats: 1970: 24% 1975: 36%<br />We don’t know what proportions are women or men<br />
    20. 20. Indicators and M&E cont.<br />Three Types of Gender Indicators<br />2. Gender Sensitive<br />Measures changes in gender relations and is used to assess progress in achieving gender equality by measuring changes in status in women and men over time.<br />Signals changes in power relations between men and women over time.<br />Determines access, use and control of resources and distribution of cost and benefits.<br />Used to determine reduced gender inequality and/or exacerbated gender inequalities<br />Example:<br />Result: Increased literacy for women and men<br />Indicator: Literacy levels over 5 years for women and men<br />Stats: 2004: 24% 2009: 36% (women)<br />Stats: 2004: 34% 2009: 55% ( men)<br />
    21. 21. Indicators and M&E cont.<br />Three Types of Gender Indicators<br />3. Sex-Specific<br />Measures changes in women’s (men’s) condition/positive relation to women (men) over time.<br />Gender inequalities.<br />Example:<br />Result: Increased decision-making among women in senior management<br />Indicator: Levels of decision making of women in senior management<br />Stats: 2004: 24% 2009: 36% (women)<br />
    22. 22. Indicators and M&E cont.<br />Sex Disaggregated (Data)<br />Data that is cross-classified by sex, presenting information separately for men, women, boys and girls.<br />A precursor to tracking results but not the overarching objective; not the stopping point.<br />Critical for identifying and assessing the real and potential contributions of the fully-described population.<br />Examples:<br />Prevalence of Poverty: Percent of people (men/women) living on less than $1.25/day.<br />Number of people (men/women) trained in child health and nutrition through USG-supported health area programs. <br />
    23. 23. Women or Gender Indicators<br />Proposed indicator<br />Expenditures of rural HH<br /># of individuals receiving agricultural productivity or food security training<br /># of additional hectares under improved technologies or management practices <br /># of farmers who have applied new technologies or management practices<br />Type/Unit of analysis/disaggregation<br />Impact/dollars/sex of HH head<br />Output/individual/sex<br />Outcome/ha<br />Outcome/individual/sex<br />
    24. 24. Women or Gender Indicators cont.<br />Proposed indicator<br /> # of producer organizations, water users associations, trade and business associations, and community-based organizations receiving assistance<br /> # of private enterprises, POs, WUA, and CBOs applying new technologies or management practices<br />Type/Unit of analysis/disaggregation<br />Output/organization<br />Output/organization<br />
    25. 25. possible gender sensitive LCC indicators <br />Percentage of male participation in community group meetings where issues of nutrition, healthcare, and intra-family food distribution are discussed<br />Number and percentage of village model farmers/livestock owners who are women<br />Change in perceptions about natural resources problems and solutions, disaggregated by sex<br />
    26. 26. Women or Gender Indicators cont.<br />Proposed indicator<br /># of rural hectares formalized<br />Km of roads improved or constructed<br />Value of agricultural and rural loans <br />Type/Unit of analysis/disaggregation<br />Outcome/ha/<br />Outcome/km<br />Outcome/dollars<br />Are these people-level indicators? <br />Are there any gender issues?<br />
    27. 27. Relevance of FtF gender indicators to Livestock-climate change projects<br />Your LCC-CRSP Project…<br />Constraints and issues<br />Which FtF objective are you addressing?<br />What is your time frame?<br />Do you have or did you establish a baseline against which to measure?<br />At what level are you assessing achievements?<br />Agricultural growth or improved nutrition and health of women and girls?<br />LCC Seed projects are one year<br />If not, you can only report anecdotes <br />Probably people level, process or output indicators<br />
    28. 28. Quiz<br />What are your project’s gender equity objectives?<br />Project participants, e.g., livestock keepers<br />Project personnel, partners and graduate students<br />Are you achieving these objectives?<br />Do you have/did you conduct a gender analysis? Who does what, when, where? Who has access and control of resources? How does this affect your project’s objectives?<br />Do you know where to go/who to ask for assistance? Do you have the tools?<br />
    29. 29. Thank you<br />Click and add insert graphic here (5” high x 8.5” wide maximum).<br />

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