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Adapting Livestock Production System to Climate Change in Nepal (Durga D. Poudel, University of Louisiana, Lafayette; September 20, 2011)
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Adapting Livestock Production System to Climate Change in Nepal (Durga D. Poudel, University of Louisiana, Lafayette; September 20, 2011)


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A talk presented by Dr. Durga Poudel, Project Leader of the LCC CRSP SLPS Project (, to the School of Geosciences at the University of Louisiana, …

A talk presented by Dr. Durga Poudel, Project Leader of the LCC CRSP SLPS Project (, to the School of Geosciences at the University of Louisiana, Lafayette on September 20, 2011.

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  • 1. Presented to UL Lafayette Faculty, Staff and Students September 20, 2011 Durga D. Poudel Project LeaderLivestock-Climate Change CRSP/USAID sponsored Nepal Seed Grant Program SLPS Project Professor and Coordinator Environmental Science Program School of Geosciences UL Lafayette
  • 2. Regional Perspective- South Asia
  • 3. Plate Tectonics and Indian Subcontinent
  • 4. The fault line in South Asia. Major earth quakes. -2005 Kashmir Earth Quake, 7.5 Richter Scale, 75,000 death tolls in Pakistan -2001 Gujrat Earth Quake. - September 18, 2011 Sikkim Earth Quake, at least 50 people dead, a lot of damages.Map source –
  • 5. For South Asian sub-regions please see Poudel’s article at
  • 6. Country profile: NepalData/information Source7.5 million people (1/4th of country’s population) living Newsletter of the Adapting Livestock Systems to Collaborativebelow poverty line. Research Support Program, Spring 2011Nepal is the poorest country in South Asia and the 13th Newsletter of the Adapting Livestock Systems to Collaborativepoorest nation in the world; in 2009, 43 of 75 districts Research Support Program,faced food deficit and 23 were chronically insecure. Spring 2011Approximately 55% Nepalese live below the World Bank, World Development Indicators, cited by US AID’s Feedinternational poverty line of $1.25/day. The Future Initiative: Nepal, FY 2010 Implementation Plan.More than 80% of the population works in agriculture Feed The Future Initiative: Nepal, FY 2010 Implementation Plan.sector that accounts for 38% of GDP.Nearly half of children six months to five years of age UNICEF State of the World’s Children and 2005 Ethiopiaare anemic; 49% of under-five children suffering from Demographic and Health Survey,stunting; 13% suffering from wasting; and 39% cited by USAID’s Feed the Futureunderweight. Initiative: Nepal, FY 2010 Implementation Plan.
  • 7. “Recent declining agricultural production hasdepressed rural economies and increasedwidespread hunger and urban migrationthroughout Nepal. This situation is compoundedby a population growth rate of over two percentper year and one of the highest ratios ofpopulation to arable land in the world.” Sources: Feed the Future Initiative: Nepal, FY 2010 Implementation Plan, and World Bank;
  • 8. TranshumanceSystem in Nepal
  • 9. Livestock production in Mid-hills
  • 10. Source: http//www..
  • 11. Human population of Nepal (millions)30.000 Estimated livestock population25.000 for 2009/2010 in Nepal was as follows: goats 8,762,000, cattle20.000 7,199,000, buffalo 4,832,000, pigs15.000 1,062,000, and sheep 797,000.10.000 Buffalo contributed 1,066,000 5.000 MT (71.3%) of the total milk 0.000 production, and 162,213 MT 1979-80 1996-97 2009-10 (65.3%) of the total meat 6,000 production in 2009/2010. Number of buffaloes and buffalo milk and meat production in Nepal 5,000 There is 89.91% increase in human population from 1979/80 to 4,000 2009/10 and the corresponding Number (000) 3,000 Milk prod. (000 MT) increase in buffalo population was Meat prod. (000 MT) 85.49%. Cattle population 2,000 increased from 5,986,000 to 7,199,000 during the same period. 1,000 0 Poudel, 2011. 1979-80 1996-97 2009-10
  • 12. Climate Change ImpactsThe South Asia Environment Outlook 2009 published by UNEP, SAARC andDA reports nearly 15,000 glaciers will likely to retreat from their present totalarea of 500,000 sq. km. to the total area of 100,000 sq. km. by 2035 in SouthAsian region.IPCC Climate Change 2007 publication projects crop yields decline about 2.5 –10% in 2020s and 5 to 30% in 2050s compared with 1990s levels in some partsof Asia. More human diseases, especially water borne diseases, diarrhea, andcholera associated with climate change are expected to increase in the future.Droughts, flash floods, and torrential rains in Afghanistan; outburst of glaciallakes in Nepal; glacier melts in Bhutan; rise in sea level rise in Maldives;increased in saline areas, flooding, and cyclones in Bangladesh; decliningground water table in India; and flooding in Pakistan.Increase on mosquito-transmitted diseases, diarrhea and lack of clean watersupply, desertification and land degradation, river cuttings, temperature rise,shifting of habitats and cropping zones, and changes on hydrology.
  • 13. Retreat ofAX010 glacierin SorongHimal Nepal:a. Mapshowing thechanges in theglacier area b.Changes in theglacierand the rate ofterminusretreat c.Photographsof glacierterminusbetween 1978-1996Source : WWFNepal Program2005.
  • 14. LirungGlacier ,Nepal in1985 and2002.Source:WWF NepalProgram2005.
  • 15. Flooding in Pakistan, Sep 19, 2011
  • 16. Nepal’s Halji Village experiencesglacial lake outbrust flood
  • 17. With an average of 0.06oC/year, a rise intemperature from 1975 to 2006 by 1.8oC hasbeen recorded in Nepal (Malla, 2008).From analysis of the Madi River (1979-2006),annual flow has been increased by 0.149 %annually with increased loss of top soil eachyear.“More than 30 million people were displaced lastyear by environmental and weather-relateddisasters across Asia, experts have warned, and theproblem is only likely to grow worse as climatechange exacerbates such problems.” Fiona Harvey, Sept 19, 2011
  • 18. Capacity-building and strengthening oflivestock production system whileadapting to climate change in NepalUL Lafayette, NARC Nepal, Tribhuvan University Nepal, CARE-Nepal, ADB Nepal, Asta-Ja Abhiyan Nepal, Nyayik Sansar Nepal Objectives Identify factors that are responsible for the downward spiral of livestock production systems. Identify impacts of climates change on livestock production and adaptation measures. Assess opportunities and challenges for capacity-building. Disseminate project finding.
  • 19. Hypothesis “… that the livestock production system in Nepal isintricately related to forest resources, soil quality, andcrop productivity, and its development and adaptation to climate change requires capacity-building and strengthening of the production system.”
  • 20. We seek to answer the following research questions:1. What are the interrelationships and linkages with respect to livestock production, forest resources, soil quality, crop productivity, farm labor, climate change, government policies, and community capacity?2. What are the factors responsible for the downward spiral of the livestock production system?3. How is climate change impacting livestock production?4. How are livestock systems adapting to these changes?5. What opportunities and challenges exist in relation to capacity-building at the national, district, and the community level for strengthening livestock production system and adapting to climate change?
  • 21. Project ImplementationProject Partners’ MeetingWatershed VisitFormation of Community Livestock Groups (CLGs)CLG TrainingLCC-CRSP Stakeholders’ MeetingWater Quantity and Quality MonitoringLivestock Production Record KeepingFecal Sample AnalysesLivestock Climate Change Adaptation MeasuresProject Evaluation
  • 22. Project Partners’ Meeting (I) Kathmandu, June 15, 2011 Guest Speaker - Mr. Mukesh Raj Shrestha, SME (Small Micro-enterprise) Chief, ADB Ltd. Participants: NARC = 1; ADB Ltd = 5; CARE-Nepal = 1 Asta-Ja Abhiyan Nepal = 9 Asta-Ja Abhiyan Nepal Nuwakot = 4 Nyayik Sansar = 1 UL Lafayette, LA = 1; TU Nepal = 1 MAHA Agriculture Pvt. Ltd. = 1
  • 23. Major outcomes from KTM partners’ meetingInvolving District Soil Conservation Office Nuwakot in project implementation.Better understanding of the project by local stakeholders and project partners prior to its implementation.Involving youths in the project.Insufficient feed availability as one of the major problems in livestock production.Learning lessons from previous similar watershed studies conducted especially by CARE-Nepal, WWF, FECOFUN, NTNC, and DFID.
  • 24. Contd..Pre-existence of some livestock groups affiliated with governmental agencies in the watershed.Criteria for CLG formation - based on common pasture or VDC representation. Stream network, resource use and interactions, or geomorphic units (besi vs lekh) could be other criteria for CLG formation.Possibility of acquiring soil and plant analyses kits locally available.
  • 25. Thulo Khola Watershed, Nuwakot - Field Visit, June 26, 2011 Participants: NARC = 1; TU Nepal = 1; CARE-Nepal = 1; Asta-Ja Abhiyan Nepal = 3; Asta-Ja Abhiyan Nepal Nuwakot = 3; UL Lafayette, LA = 1; Nyayik Sansar = 1; Local people = 3; Other = 1
  • 26. Thulo Khola Watershed, Nuwakot
  • 27. Climate change impact, environmental hazards Dried Road spring Erosion Road Falling slip tree
  • 28. Livestock production challenges Parasites are major problems- liver flukes (buffalo, cattle, goat), round worm (goat), and tape worm (buffalo, goat, pig). Skin disease appears to be the most common problem followed by infectious diseases such as Pestidis Pestis Ruminantis (goat), Chronic Respiratory Disease (chicken), pneumonia (goat), respiratory disease, mastitis for buffalo and cow (almost 90% affected), and F&M disease (ox and buffalo). Remarkable increase in the livestock diseases mainly respiratory disease, mastitis, skin diseases, and pneumonia (especially on goat) in recent years.
  • 29. Occurrence of very high level of drug resistance in livestock.With respect to our questions on climate change and its impacts onlivestock and agricultural production, Mr. Koirala feels that climate changemight have caused drug resistance in livestock, increased incidence ofdiseases (blast in rice) and pests in crop, and corn sterility.Disappearance of pasture land, grazing restrictions by CFUGs, high cost ofanimals, and lack of animal feed are some of the major constrains for livestockproduction.Major grass species promoted by the government targeting livestock systemare jai, berseem, stylo and napier. However, only a limited number of farmershave planted these grass species in their fields.Marketing of milk is not a problem at all, and cattle milk exceeds buffalomilk in terms of the volume of production. Large animals are stall-fed.
  • 30. Livestock production challenges -management Poor health, very scrawny animals Poor feed and fodder supply Extremely poor living conditions, bad shape pens and sheds, no ventilation, unhygienic management.
  • 31. Vet Doctor in the watershed Dr. Ram Pukar Thakur, one of our team members, starts treating and prescribing medicine for injured and sick animals in the watershed. Emergency livestock veterinary support fund is necessary while a team with a vet doctor visits the watershed. Farmers expect free service from the vet doctor and the vet doctor ethically cannot ignore the sick animals. Farmers were happy with Dr. Thakur’s services.
  • 32. Livestock grazing, community forests, and Murrah buffalo
  • 33. Community interest
  • 34. CLG formation localities, approx. households, stream and streammonitoring location
  • 35. Project Partners’ Meeting (I) Nuwakot, June 27, 2011 Participants: NARC = 1; ADB Ltd = 1; CARE-Nepal = 1 Asta-Ja Abhiyan Nepal = 3 Asta-Ja Abhiyan Nepal Nuwakot = 4 UL Lafayette, LA = 1; TU Nepal = 1 District Agriculture Office, Nuwakot = 1 District Soil and Water Conserv. Nuwakot = 1 District Forest Office, Nuwakot = 1 Community Forest Association = 1 Bidur Municipality = 1
  • 36. Major outcomes from Nuwakot partners’ meetingIn order to monitor water level at the outlet of the Thulo Khola wedecided to request DWIDP (Department of Water Induced DisasterPrevention).To avoid any confusion while project implementation, Mr. Humagainsuggested informing local political leaders about the project.Participants suggested consultation of Nuwakot AgriculturalCommittee which is under the leadership of the Local DevelopmentOfficer (LDO).Formation of a CLGs co-ordination group consisting of the groupleaders from the nine CLGs for better co-ordination. Need for experimental research with respect to various livestock related issues such as landuse conversion to support livestock production, improved livestock sheds, or comparative studies on feed production.
  • 37. CLG formation and CLG workshop, July 3, 2011.Grop Village Group Name Members Stream MonitoringNo. Station1. Chanaute Tallo Bagar Ghat Ms. Iswori Nepal Thulo Khola Bridge Gaun Ms. Sumitra Nepal Ms. Anita Poudel Ms. Manju Adhikari Ms. Sirjana Subedi2. Lamichane Gaun Lamichane Gaun Mr. Prakash Nepal Thulo Khola Boksi Chhango Mr. Madhab Nepal Mr. Shiva Rijal Mr. Shiva Prasad Phuwal Ms. Ganga Nepal3. Banje Gaun Banje Gaun, Ms. Sirjana Adhikari Thulo Khola Ghore Paharo Panchkhale Ms. Chadni Nepal Ms. Sangita Nepal Mr. Gopi Nepal Mr. Prem Bdr. Adhikari4. Khani Gaun Khani Ms.Gita Nepal Bimire Khola Mahadev Than Gaun/Chakleti Ms. Sumitra Khatiwada Chapleti Gaun Mr. Bishnu Prasad Nepal Mr. Krishna Prasad Rimal Ms. Sangita Nepali Ms. Sushila Nepal
  • 38. Grop No. Village Group Name Members Stream Monitoring Station5. Bet Pani, Nepal Dupcheshwor Mr. Ramhari Ghimire Bimire Khola Chok Mr. Bishnu Prasad Rijal Deurali Mr. Sambhu Prasad Rijal Ms. Rewati Nepal Mr. Ram Prasad Nepal Ms. Binda Nepal Ms. Kalpana Nepal6. Utpanneshowor Bhangeri Mr. Jibraj Khatiwada Sisneri Khola Chhamure Mr. Ramesh Bdr. Khatiwada Mr. Buddhi Prasad Paneru Ms. Ganga Devi Rijal Mr. Indra Bahadur Khatiwada Mr. Ambar Bahadur Tamang Mr. Dinesh Tamang7. Bhasme Bageshwori Ms. Manju Khatiwada Thulo Khola Khalte Bari Ms. Sita Khatiwada Ms. Gita Shrestha Mr. Devi Bahadur Shrestha Mr. Kul Bahadur Shrestha
  • 39. Grop Village Group Name Members Stream MonitoringNo. Station8. Gurung Gaun Khatiwada Gaun Ms. Sumitra Adhikari Thulo Sungara Ms. Pabitra Adhikari Khola Ms. Laxmi Thapa Mr. Sagar Phuwal Ms. Sarswati Tamang9. Gopale Malika Mr. Toran Bahadur Tamang Thulo Hariya Lekh Bhanjyang Gauraghar Mr. Tirtha Bahadur Tamang Khola Mr. Bishnu Bahadur Tamang Mr. Som Raj Tamang Mr. Kumar Bahadur Tamang Ms. Hira Maya Tamang Female = 25, Male = 26, Students = 9, Teacher cum student = 2, Teacher = 2; Farmers = 38
  • 40. CLG workshop- Livestock monitoring, record keeping, and water quality monitoring training, July 3 2011
  • 41. Livestock production system monitoring variables and record keeping by each CLG member Variables Household profile Pasture management Health recording Breeding Livestock management Forest use Fodder /grass supply Reproduction interval Feed supply Income Manure production Monitoring Daily record keeping Monitoring every 15 days by monitoring staff
  • 42. Fecal coliform, pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and phosphate determination in Thulo Khola water sample by the participants
  • 43. Water quality test results for the outlet ofThulo Khola watershed, July 3, 2011.Water quality Water quality ConditionparameterpH 8 GoodFecal Coliform Positive PoorDissolved Oxygen 8 PPM ExcellentTurbidity > 100 JTU PoorPhosphate > 4 PPM PoorNitrate < 5 PPM Good
  • 44. Handing out water quality monitoring kits – fecal coliform, turbidity, pH, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, phosphate to the CLG group members
  • 45. CLGs and water quality monitoring in Thulo Khola watershed-fecal coliform will be monitored every month while rest of theparameters will be monitored every fifteen days by each group.CLG Group Water quality monitoringnumber1 Fecal coliform, pH, turbidity, DO, nitrate, phosphate2 Fecal coliform3 Fecal coliform4 Fecal colifrom, pH, DO, nitrate, phosphate5 Fecal coliform6 Fecal coliform, pH, turbidity, DO, nitrate, phosphate7 Fecal coliform8 Fecal coliform9 Fecal coliform, pH, DO, nitrate, phosphate
  • 46. Livestock parasites, soil quality, and fodder nutrient analyses for livestockherd, agricultural land, and fodder tress and grass of each CLG member inThulo Khola watershed, NuwakotSampling and Analysis Time intervalmonitoringLivestock fecal and Parasites Every monthurineSoils pH, N, P, K, soil texture, Once in project bulk density, OM durationFodder, grass, straw Nutrient content Different stages of fodder, grass
  • 47. Fecal Sample AnalysesCoccidia egg in ecal sample Strongyle egg in fecal sample
  • 48. We have tested total 112 faecal samples (47 from buffalo, 31from cattle and 34 goat), of which 15 (32%), 18 (58%) and 29(85%) samples respectively were positive for parasites.In cattle and buffalo, Fasciola was predominant in allpositive samples followed by Paramphistomes.The highest prevalence of mixed type of parasites wereobserved in Goats (85%). In goats, mixed infection withStrongyles, Coccidia, Moneizia and Trichuris were observed.The predominant species were Strongyles and Coccidia.These species of parasites cause severe diarrohea,dehydration, weakness, loss of weight and death of affectedgoats.
  • 49. LCC-CRSP Stakeholders Meeting, July 6, 2011 Priority research area of livestock system climate change identified: Animal health (especially parasitic, epidemic, and zoonotic disease management) Water management Soil health Female empowerment Climate change communication Breed productivity Market incentives in rural areas Climate change adaptation research Capacity-building
  • 50. Preliminary findingsClimate change impacts – dried stream, drought, floods, untimely rainsFarmers’ awareness and perception with regard to climate change– diseases, parasitesClimate change, adaptation and mitigationLivestock management, parasites, diseasesNutrient loss (P) from manureLivestock sheds, pens conditionFeed and nutritionForest use and forest conditionEnvironmental hazards, soil erosion, nutrient lossAnimal procurement, concentrated feed, herd managementFamily nutrition and health, sanitationCommunity support and enthusiasm for the projectImplementation of research findings and the scaling up of the project
  • 51. Future activitiesReconnaissance visit for the characterization of geology, climate change, soils,hydrology, forests, feed supply, and cropping systems. Interdisciplinary team will do a survey of geology, climate change, hydrology, land resources, soil quality, assess and characterize farming systems, fodder trees, biomass production, and forest types in the watershed.Household surveys A sizeable proportion of the total households in the watershed will be included in the survey. Survey data will be analyzed and the results will be reported.Institutional analyses Review of literature, policies, and programs, institutional surveys, round-table discussions, and office visits will be some of the techniques utilized for institutional information collection and analyses.
  • 52. Expected results1. Factors responsible for the downward spiral of the livestock production system. Survey data will go through analysis to identify different factors responsible for the deterioration of livestock production in the watershed. This analysis will enhance our understanding of the system and enable us in suggesting possible intervention measures for sustainable livestock production.2. Identification and characterization of livestock management systems and feed supply. It is important to investigate the opportunities and constraints of existing and emerging livestock management systems so that their linkages with respect to livestock production, forest resource, soil quality, and crop production could be understood and quantified accurately. We will also assess year-round feed supply, nutrient status, and constraints.
  • 53. 3. Implementation of adaptation measures to climate change. Identify various measures that farmers have already adapted or are going to adapt to cope with climate change impacts on livestock production. Implementation of adaptation measures4. Opportunities and challenges for capacity-building Formation of CLGs and their performance, raising awareness, trainings and skills development, and results from institutional analyses and program and policy reviews will serve as the basis for our output in relation to capacity-building for livestock management. Opportunities and challenges for capacity-building will be reported.
  • 54. Livestock Climate Change Adaptation Measures Nine themes of our project: Water availability Animal health Forest health Soil health Crop production Female empowerment Policy issue Climate change communication Capacity-building
  • 55. Adaptation measuresClimate change adaptation measures to water availability include:•Reforestation of the watershed for increased water conservation.•Minimizing water wastage.•Runoff collection ponds for irrigation water and buffalo wallowing.•Rain water harvest for household use, livestock water supply, and gardening.•Irrigation management and enhancing water use efficiency.•Soil moisture conservation.•Watershed plan for water diversion or reservoir construction for water supply.•Introducing crops that require less amount of water.•Livestock species selection according to water availability.•Source protection to avoid water pollution.•Nonpoint source water pollution control.
  • 56. Theme Climate change adaptation measuresAnimal health Animal insurance, community awareness of the link between climate change and animal health, early warning system of disease outbreak, surveillance and response system, governmental capacity-building, feed improvement, livestock shed improvementForest health Controlling invasive species, controlling forest diseases and pests, improving forest soils and rangeland’s condition, improving forest status and forest cover, understanding climate change impacts on forest health e.g. lichen communities, reforestationSoil health Improving soil quality - Soil pH, CEC, organic matter content, soil aggregate stability, base saturation, nutrient content, soil PMN, infiltration rate, soil moisture content; controlling soil erosion and land degradationCrop production Controlling diseases and pest, improving crop yields, controlling weeds and invasive species, enhancing nutrient management, controlling nutrient loss, and enhancing plant health research capabilityFemale Promoting gender equality, enhancing educational and political empowerment, increasingempowerment women’s influence in household and public decision making, training for women, women entrepreneurs, women in community organizationsPolicy issue Policy advocacy, policy training, political engagement on climate change issue, public engagement with climate changeClimate change Timely climate change communication for policy makers, educators, communicators, andcommunication media; climate change threats to the society, attitudes and behavioral changes, climate change impacts and opportunities for economic growth, jobs, and innovationCapacity-building Education and community awareness, motivation, partnerships development, project planning and implementation, training and skills development, facilities
  • 57. Opportunities ChallengesCollaborative partnerships Coordination and communicationIndigenous knowledge and Modern technologies, quick-fixtechnologiesDiversified farming system Commercialized agricultureCommunication system Ignoring climate change issuesCommunity organizations Heavily politicalGovernment policies and programs Policy failures, poor implementationDonor’s supports, aids Citizen versus clientCommunity enthusiasm and Sustaining the enthusiasmparticipationEconomic development through Appropriate measures, sustained effort,climate change adaptation and capacity-buildingClimate change adaptation measures Expenses and skills needed
  • 58. AcknowledgementsThis presentation was made possible by the United States Agencyfor International Development and the generous support of theAmerican people through Grant No. EEM-A-00-10-00001. Theopinions expressed herein are those of the author and do notnecessarily reflect the views of the U.S. Agency for InternationalDevelopment or the U.S. government.
  • 59. Thank You