Livestock-Climate Change CRSP Annual Meeting 2011: CHAINS Project Update (P. Little)

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An update on the Livestock-Climate Change CRSP CHAINS Project (Climate variability, pastoralism, and commodity chains in Ethiopia and Kenya) and the current status of the project. Presentation given by P. Littel (Emory University) at the Livestock-Climate Change CRSP Annual Meeting, Golden, CO, April 26-27, 2011.

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Livestock-Climate Change CRSP Annual Meeting 2011: CHAINS Project Update (P. Little)

  1. 1. Climate Variability, Pastoralism, and Commodity Chains in Semi-Arid and Arid Areas of Ethiopia and Kenya (CHAINS)<br />Peter D. Little, Emory University<br />Livestock - Climate Change<br />Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP)<br />Annual Meeting Agenda<br />April 26 – 27, 2011. Table Mountain Inn, Golden CO<br />
  2. 2. Other Team Members and Institutions<br />Hussein Mahmoud, Co-PI, Pwani University College (Kenyatta University)<br />Workneh Negatu, Co-PI, Addis Ababa University<br />Steve Staal, Co-PI, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)<br />Andy Catley ,Tufts University<br />Polly Ericksen, Ecologist<br />Uriel Kitron, Emory University<br />Carla Roncoli, Emory University<br />Additional Collaborators:<br />Amos Omare, ILRI<br />Dejene Negassa, Independent Researcher (Ethiopia)<br />WaktoleTiki, Hawassa University (Ethiopia)<br />
  3. 3. Planning/”Seed” Grant<br /><ul><li>Problem Statement: How does climate variability/change affect different livestock marketing systems and pastoralists’ access to them?
  4. 4. Is it a problem worth studying?
  5. 5. If so, where (sites), what methods to use to address them? What type of skills/disciplines are needed?
  6. 6. Are governments, donor agencies, policy makers interested in it?
  7. 7. What other issues become important:</li></ul>Pastoralist differentiation (wealth, gender, age, location)<br />Animal disease<br />Local/regional institutional capacity to study issue; potential to build both public and private capacity. <br />Project Overview<br />
  8. 8. Project Overview (cont)<br /><ul><li>What other issues hypothesized to be important:</li></ul>Pastoralist differentiation (wealth, gender, age, location) affects who can access which markets.<br />Nature and demands of different markets themselves (export, regional/cross-border, Domestic: national and local)<br />Nature of pastoral herd mobility and how it affects which markets, especially vis-à-vis market centers during different seasons and exposure to disease risks in certain seasons and climate events.<br />
  9. 9. Project Overview (cont)<br />Knowledge Gaps:<br /><ul><li>Understanding tension between marketing as drought coping mechanism versus need to be spatially mobile during droughts and extreme climate events; market centers are not in most productive pasture areas.
  10. 10. Incorporate pastoralists: Most livestock market chain analysis starts post-production so we know little about which pastoralists groups of pastoralists benefit from markets.
  11. 11. Climate variability/change and its effects on different market chains themselves (Kenya/Somalia/Ethiopia cross-border trade is obvious example).</li></li></ul><li>Project Overview (cont)<br />Selected Research Questions:<br /><ul><li>How do herders negotiate the need to seasonally move herds for grazing and watering in remote locations (i.e., mobility), especially in the context of climate variability, with the need to sell animals for cash?
  12. 12. What innovations in feed markets, communication technologies, veterinary services and inputs, and financing assist herders and traders with managing risks and accessing different market chains?
  13. 13. What opportunities for policy intervention are available in different market chains and at what levels in these systems? </li></li></ul><li>Project Overview (cont)<br />RESEARCH Sites:<br />Northeastern Kenya: <br />key market town—Garissa<br />Somali area <br />one very large market <br />mainly cattle<br />Southern Ethiopia : <br />key market towns-Dubluk, Moyale, Yabello.<br />Borana area <br />Several smaller weekly markets); <br />Cattle but also other species—camels, small stock)<br />
  14. 14. Research Sites<br />Blue=Research Area<br />Red=Market Catchment<br />
  15. 15. Garissa, Kenya<br />
  16. 16. Borena, Ethiopia<br />
  17. 17. Broader Research Program and Collaborations<br />Earlier Research Initiatives of PI and Team members<br /><ul><li>BASIS CRSP/OSSREA Cross-Border Livestock Trade Study, 1999-2001
  18. 18. McArthur Foundation/USAID—Somalia/</li></ul> Kenya Cross-Border Livestock Study, 1996-<br /> 2001<br /><ul><li>Pastoral Risk Management (PARIMA), </li></ul> 1999-2004, incl training of PhD students<br /><ul><li>GL-CRSP/LITEK Book project on pastoral</li></ul> markets (2005-2006)<br />ALL OF THESE + OTHERS HAVE TIME-<br />SERIES DATA<br />
  19. 19. Collaborations (cont)<br />Current selected initiatives—(already contacted)<br /><ul><li>Future of Agricultures (pastoralist innovations) (IDS/Sussex)
  20. 20. Different ILRI Initiatives: Rift Valley Fever (RVF); environmental assessment of UasinNyiro basin; Index-based livestock insurance (IBLI) work;
  21. 21. IGAD work on livestock policy/regional trade;
  22. 22. USAID/COMESA—Regional trade/animal health (SPS)
  23. 23. FAO study of informal livestock trade—Somalia, NE Kenya, southern Ethiopia
  24. 24. Kenyan Dryland Livestock Development Program (USAID)—based in Garissa, Kenya </li></li></ul><li>Progress<br />Completed: <br />c. 22 trader interviews;<br /> c. 12 focus group interviews with herders; <br />stakeholder meetings both in Garissa and southern Ethiopia; <br />discussions with 20+ key development, NGO, government officials in both sites; <br />on-going literature/ secondary data review; <br />2 field site visits to ETH site and 2 to KEN site;<br />planning for June research planning meeting;<br />continued data collection through August 2011. <br />
  25. 25. Preliminary Findings<br />Recent Changes :<br /><ul><li>Local perceptions of increased drought frequency—feed defined ETH; feed_water defined KEN. Climate data do not show this in sites.
  26. 26. Trader high use of mobile phones </li></ul> + increase for herders (4-5 %; Ken>15%) <br /><ul><li>More pastoralists (Borana) involved in </li></ul> trading occupations; <br /><ul><li>Male still dominate but women benefit </li></ul> from other sales at markets.<br /><ul><li>Increase sales in southern ETH; Growth </li></ul>in prices esp. since 2007 (camels, Boran)<br />
  27. 27. Livestock Exports, Ethiopia<br />Based on: Trade Bulletin 4, April, 2011, p. 4. Ethiopia Sanitary & Phytosanitary Standards and Livestock & Meat Marketing Program , Addis Ababa.<br />
  28. 28. Cattle and Camel Exports, Ethiopia, 2008-2010<br />Based on: Trade Bulletin 4, April, 2011, p. 4. Ethiopia Sanitary & Phytosanitary Standards and Livestock & Meat Marketing Program , Addis Ababa.<br />
  29. 29. Preliminary Findings<br /><ul><li>Market’s breed specifications increasingly demanding (Boran, large Somali camel, Somali goat).
  30. 30. Increased export trade esp southern Ethiopia; North Africa/Middle East turmoil affecting markets.
  31. 31. Garissa—increased sales for ranches for fattening near Mombasa and growing importance of Mombasa
  32. 32. Because prices have increased considerably on Ethiopia side, fewer animals going cross-border to Kenya. More livestock move toward feed lots Adama and Addis; and less toward Kenya/Nairobi market.</li></li></ul><li>Trader Networks and Partnerships (long distances)<br />Source: Teka et al. 1999: 73; Author’s field notes<br />
  33. 33. Challenges and Lessons<br />Disaggregate climate issues from other major ‘drivers’ in research sites, especially land use and settlement changes (‘drought is “lack of grass/feed”). <br />Methodological: Cost-effective way to include the pastoralist household/livelihood perspective into study--integrate with other components of study.<br />Right mix of institutional partners/ collaborators for research program<br />Policy challenge of livestock-<br /> based systems in ASALs versus <br /> other competing political econ. <br /> forces in areas (e.g., irrigation,<br /> foreign investment, wildlife/<br /> tourism) <br />
  34. 34. Next Steps<br />Research Planning Meeting, June 21-22, 2011, Addis Ababa<br />June-July, 2011: Produce Research plan for project<br />Final round of fieldwork and interviews, August, 2011<br />August-November, 2011, Analysis and Write-up. Complete:<br />Literature review; workshop report; 1 journal article; 1 research policy brief;<br />
  35. 35. Issues, Knowledge Gaps, Priorities<br />Marketing:<br /><ul><li>How different groups of livestock producers use markets to cope with and/or benefit from climate variability.
  36. 36. Benefits/costs to local producers (especially poor/smaller herd owners) and local economies from different</li></ul> livestock commodity <br /> chains.<br /><ul><li>Employment/income</li></ul> multipliers of livestock<br /> trade.<br /><ul><li>Policy models for regional cross-border trade and distribution of benefits between government and traders/herders.</li></li></ul><li>Issues, Knowledge Gaps, Priorities<br />Pastoral livelihoods and land use:<br /><ul><li>Changes in pastoralists herd structures (incl gender and specie composition), mobility patterns in response to increased market opportunities?
  37. 37. Understand the impacts of recent food price spikes </li></ul> (2008-) on pastoralist sales patterns and pastoralist welfare—not well understood.<br /><ul><li>Effects of settlement and land use changes </li></ul> (especially conversion to agriculture and ‘land <br /> grabbing’) on “increased drought frequency”? <br />
  38. 38. Issues, Knowledge Gaps, Priorities<br />Innovations:<br /><ul><li>Technologies: mobile phone, internet </li></ul>and effects on markets and information<br /><ul><li>Niche markets (camels, Somali goats)
  39. 39. Inputs: fodder/feed, veterinary drugs, </li></ul>water to cope w/ climate/market <br />variability<br />Institutional: tenure and groups<br />
  40. 40. Asante sana! (Thank you!)<br />This presentation was made possible by the United States Agency for International Development and the generous support of the American people through Grant No. EEM-A-00-10-0001. The opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. Agency for International Development or the U.S. Government.<br />

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