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Livestock-Climate Change CRSP Annual Meeting 2011: TRANS Project Update (N. Hanan)
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Livestock-Climate Change CRSP Annual Meeting 2011: TRANS Project Update (N. Hanan)

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An overview of the Livestock-Climate Change CRSP TRANS (Transhumance, natural resources, and conflict in the Sahel: a pilot project) Project and update on the project's current status. Presentation ...

An overview of the Livestock-Climate Change CRSP TRANS (Transhumance, natural resources, and conflict in the Sahel: a pilot project) Project and update on the project's current status. Presentation given by N. Hanan (South Dakota State University) at the Livestock-Climate Change CRSP Annual Meeting, Golden, CO, April 26-27, 2011.

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  • We’ll let our local experts, the NGO’s, define precisely where each of them will work and which corridors to survey. But, since they are based in Nioro, Diema and Sevare, we anticipate they will select someplace nearby.

Livestock-Climate Change CRSP Annual Meeting 2011: TRANS Project Update (N. Hanan) Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Transhumance, natural resources and conflict in the Sahel: a pilot project
    PI: N. Hanan, Co-I’s: L. Prihodko, F. Dembele, M. Karembe, I. Barry, M. Diarra, B. Telly, G. Tappan
  • 2. Team
    PI Niall Hanan (South Dakota State University)
    Co-I’s
    Lara Prihodko (CSU/SDSU)
    FadialaDembélé (Institute Polytechnique Rural)
    MoussaKarembé (University of Bamako)
    Ibrahim Barry (CEPAP, Nioro)
    MamadouDiarra (ADISSAH, Diéma)
    BalougoTelly (RICAD, Sevaré)
    Gray Tappan (USGS-EROS)
  • 3. Malian NGO Partners
    • MamadouDiarra (ADISSAH, Diéma)
    ADISSAH (Association pour le Développement Intégré dans la Savane et le Sahel) basée à Diéma avec une antenne à Dioumara.
    • Ibrahim Barry (CEPAP, Nioro)
    CEPAP (Centre d’études pour la Promotion Agro-Pastorale) basée à Nioro du Sahel.
    • BalougoTelly (RICAD, Sevaré)
    RICAD (Recherched’Initiatives et de Coopération pour un DéveloppementCommunautaire et Autonome) basée à Sevaré
  • 4. Background – Sahelian Transhumance
    Traditional movement corridors link the Sahel to more humid regions in the south
    Gradient of increasing forage quality but decreasing water resources from South to North
    Pastoralists travel north in the rainy season to graze – out of southern agricultural regions
    Travel back south as surface water availability declines in dry season
    Dry season grazing on crop residue… fertilize fields
    Complementarity
    Map of West Africa showing examples of large scale, transhumance patterns (grey and black lines) and more meso-scale movement patterns (blue lines) in West Africa. Red circle shows primary study zone in the Nioro-Dièma-Baouléand Delta regions of Mali. Base map updated from Kamuanga et al, 2008; meso scale patterns drawn from Legrosse 1999; Adriensen and Neilsen 2002; Turner 2006; Clanet and Ogilvie 2010; Wane et al. 2010.
  • 5. “Gradient of increasing forage quality… S to N”
    North South
    North South
    KosiwaAmévor et al. in preparation
  • 6. Agriculture and Transhumance Conflicts
    An age-old problem…
    But…
    Agricultural encroachment is occurring
    Potential for more serious conflict…
    Problems arise when cattle and un-harvested crops are in the same region at the same time
    When pastoralists see their ability to graze, access water and move restricted…
    When farmers see their crops damaged…
  • 7. Agriculture and Transhumance Conflicts
    Lake Agoufou, Gourma Region
    Agriculture in the Diema Region
    There are four traditionally utilized north-south transhumance routes within 80 km of Dièma in central Kayes region, each of which has challenges with respect to access to water, forage and agricultural encroachment.
    Newly settled lake in the Gourma region of Mali. Notice small agricultural holdings near the lake. We are investigating how settlement is changing transhumant pastoralist access to water and nearby grazing.
  • 8. Project Plan
  • 9. Pilot Project: Objectives
    Locate transhumance movement corridors in intensive study areas
    Develop methods to map these corridors over larger areas
    Examine trends in land use, grazing and water resources to identify constraints on corridors
    Identify potential resource based flash points
    Build capacity
    Plan for more expansive future project
    Going somewhere…
  • 10. Pilot Project: Process 1/3
    Herd GPS monitoring in intensive study areas
    For location, status and current utilization
    Field surveys of:
    Transhumance Corridors
    Intensity of activities
    Transhumant movements
    Herd counts
    Agriculture
    Community knowledge, attitudes and perceptions
    Recognized flash-points
    Sahel grazing lands
  • 11. Pilot Project: Process 2/3
    Remote sensing and geospatial analysis training at SDSU-GIScE
    Corridor detection, mapping and modeling activities with trainees
    Integration of new transhumance corridor information with land use trends data sets
    Identification of areas of potential conflict
    End of the dry season
  • 12. Pilot Project: Process 3/3
    Combine survey and geospatial data to analyze resource based conflicts
    Community outreach and dissemination of results
    Workshop
    Draft reports, manuscripts
    Prioritize key needs
    Identify opportunities for continued research
    Follow-on proposal
    Grazing on agricultural residue
  • 13. Tappan
    “Rapid Land Cover Mapper”
    Resource for LULCC and additional high res. analyses
    Mapping Land Cover and Land Use Change
    Mali & Mauritania Land Cover Assessment for the Year 2000
  • 14. Tappan
    “Rapid Land Cover Mapper”
    Resource for LULCC and additional high res. analyses
    Mapping Land Cover and Land Use Change
  • 15. Pastoral Resource Mapping (Region de Kayes)
    NGO’sCEPAP & ADISSAH
    Pastoral resources (grazing, water, movement corridors)
  • 16. Pastoral Resource Mapping(Region de Mopti)
    NGO’sRICAD
    Pastoral resources (grazing, water, movement corridors)
  • 17. Transhumance Corridor Geolocation and Mapping
    Sample transhumance pathways in Kayes and Mopti
    GPS mapping
    High intensity route geo-location
    Community (herder and agriculturalist) surveys
    Transhumance corridors (routes, histories, key resources and primary ‘foyer de tension’ (“hot-spots”)
    GPS collars on herd sample
    Mapping annual, daily and foraging behaviors
    GPS data: develop and test RS approaches
    Survey: initial insight into locations, causes, of conflict
  • 18. Remote Sensing for Detection and Mapping of Transhumance Corridors
    Data Acquisition for Corridor Detection
    Medium & high spatial resolution optical, thermal and radar
    ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission & Reflection Radiometer)
    14 channel (Visible through Thermal IR)
    15 – 90 meter pixel
    Landsat – Enhanced thematic Mapper
    8 channel visible
    15 – 30 meter pixel
    ALOS-PALSAR (Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar)
    Dual polarization
    15 meter pixel
  • 19. Training and Capacity Building
    Small beginnings…
    Faculty at InstitutPolytechnique Rural & University of Bamako; three NGO’s
    Students at IPR & UB
    Training in remote sensing, GIS and “Land Cover Land Use Change” (LCLUC) analysis at SDSU
    Candidates for training opportunity (KadiToure…)
  • 20. Pilot Project: Outcomes
    Provision of spatially explicit data on pastoral and agricultural interactions and changes
    Improved understanding of physical and social conditions in intensive study regions
    Increased capacity in geospatial science
    New mapping techniques
    Development of new collaborative interdisciplinary team
  • 21. Pilot Project: Impact
    Increased in-country capacity for research & informed management
    Increased gender representation in geospatial sciences
    Established US-Malian research partnerships
    Strong foundation for expanded CRSP proposal on pastoral-agricultural integration and conflict avoidance
  • 22. On resources and conflict…
  • 23. On resources and conflict…
    Pilot Project: we are exploring resource-based potential drivers of conflict, but we are not (yet) addressing the socio-political triggers of actual conflict
    • Expand team for full proposal…
  • Future proposal
    Expand land use change analysis and intersection with pastoral access to resources, effects of climate variability, etc.
    Which areas are nearing critical points based on spatial contact and/or limiting resources?
    Can traditional strategies and structures for pastoral-agricultural interactions cope/adapt to these new pressures?
    What alternatives can be developed to mitigate conflict?
    Apply coupled social-ecological modeling systems to issues of West African pastoral management
    Involve additional social scientists skilled in conflict management to more fully integrate across climate-ecological-pastoral-social fields
    Develop intervention strategies targeting national/regional/local political and traditional structures and NGO partners
    Continue and expand education and capacity building components
  • 24. Future Impact…?
    THANK YOU
  • 25. “Gradient of increasing forage quality … S to N”
    South North
    1300 mm 400 mm
    Dystrophic savanna, Southern Mali
    Eutrophic savanna, Northern Mali