Chapter 5 classical greece


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Chapter 5 classical greece

  1. 1. Chapter 5 Notes: Classical GreeceSection 1: Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea-Geography shapes Greek life: 1. The sea– linked w/ other societies for travel and trade 2. The land– mountains divided land into regions; created numerous small, independent communities w/ own governments; transportation difficult 3. The climate– moderate temperatures allowed for an outdoor/civic life; preserved structures/buildingsTwo cultures developed in Early Greece:Minoans:• seaborne trade, fishing, sailing• Women played significant role (priests)• writing systems unclearLinear A• core of Greek religious practice, art, politics, and literatureMycenaeans:• The first ‘Greeks’-spoke form of Greek language• Writing has been translated• rocky ridge on southern Greece; surrounded by defensive barrier• ruled by warrior-king; frequent warfare between cities
  2. 2. Sparta Athens
  3. 3. Chapter 5 Notes (cont’d)-Trojan War *10 year war w/ Troy (Turkey), Trojan HorseGreek City-States:*city-state or polis= fundamental political unit inGreece (i.e. Corinth) Map -acropolis: fortified hilltop (picture of acropolis: acropolis pic) Ancient Wonders on Greeces Acropolis*Greek Governments: 1.monarchy…..king, queen 2. aristocracy…..small group of nobles/landowners 3. oligarchy…..few powerful people -tyrants: seized control of govt. w/ local support 4. democracy…..representative govt., rule by people (Athens) The Acropolis: Deconstructed
  4. 4. Sparta• Conquered the Peloponnesus• Made Messenians into helots (state slaves)• Emphasis on war/keeping order in society• Training of soldiers -physical/mental toughness by mother until age 7, combat school until age 20, then became hoplites (foot soldiers) for 10 years Spartan Videos!!
  5. 5. Acropolis Aphrodite PericlesAgora Poseidon
  6. 6. Gods & Heroes-Greek legends and myths (stories told to explain natural phenomena or events ofthe distant past) Greek Gods-Gods of Olympus (12 influential gods)—pg. 132 in textbook MinotaurSection 2: The Classical Age Athenian Democracy~500 BC -development of democracy through reformers: Draco, Solon, Peisistratus (tyrant), and Cleisthenes (set stage for Athenian democracy, how?) Tribe -only free males over the age of 20 who Council of 500 Tribe completed military training could vote (10% of pop)-3 main bodies: 1. Assembly…made laws, all people voted directly on issues (direct democracy) 2. Council of 500…write laws to be voted on Archon: chief of 3. Series of courts…heard trials/sentenced criminals State of Athens
  7. 7. Chapter 5 Notes (cont’d)The Persian Wars (490-479 BC) -root of conflict: Greek cities fell under Persian rule in Ionia (Turkey) -Greeks revolt in 499 BC but are put down…Darius seeks revenge *First Persian War -Marathon (490 BC) -Greeks use phalanx approach; a tight rectangle formation in which soldiers held long spears out ahead of a wall of shields greek phalanx -legend of Marathon *Second Persian War (pg. 137 in textbook) -Xerxes vs. Greek allies at Thermopylae, Persians burn down Athens -Greek strategy and the movie ‘300?’….Greek victory -Battle of Salamis: Greek naval victory battle plan -Plataea: Persians give up on invasion and agree to peace settlementGolden Age of Athens-Athens, Sparta most powerful city-states-Greece establishes Delian League: alliance of Greek city-states that defended one anotherand punished Persia for their invasion—Athens gains influence/power, resentment-Athens rebuilds their city thanks to Pericles: the arts (Parthenon), democracy Peracles-Peloponnesian War (431 BC): Sparta vs. Athens; land vs. sea, Peloponnesian vs. Delianleague….years of fighting weakens both cities until Macedonia from the north takes control ofGreece
  8. 8. Chapter 5 Notes (cont’d)Section 3: Greek Achievements Philosophy: search for wisdom and knowledge 1. Socrates -sought truths about truth, justice, and virtue; ask questions in order to learn -philosophers should study human behavior to learn how to improve society as a whole 2. Plato -philosophers were best suited to govern other people -did not support Athenian democracy (student of Socrates) 3. Aristotle -use of reason (clear and ordered thinking) and logic (making inferences) to study the natural world -influenced development of science (taught Alexander the Great) Literature -Homer’s Epics: tell stories about great events and heroes (Illiad, Odyssey) -lyric poetry, writing of history, drama (playwriting) or tragedies (hardships of Greek heroes) Architecture/Art -sculpture, the Parthenon, painting
  9. 9. School of Athens
  10. 10. Chapter 5 Notes (cont’d)Section 4: Alexander the Great and His Legacy-Macedonia rises to power, King Phillip II-Alexander the Great (20 years old) defeatsPersians…creates largest empire the world had ever seen Alexander creates a new type of culture that blended elements of Greek civilization with ideas from Persia, Egypt, Central Asia, and other regions= Hellenistic or Greek-like check out Alexander’s empire!....11,000 miles in 11 years!
  11. 11. You are here!
  12. 12. Where in the world isAlexander the Great?
  13. 13. Where did the nameArgonauts come from?
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