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Brian Simulator (a draft)

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  • 1. Brian Simulator (a draft) Speaker : Tony Tseng, Jimmy Lu Advisor : Hsing Mei Web Computing Laboratory(WECO Lab) Computer Science and Information Engineering Department Fu Jen Catholic University
  • 2. Outline  Graph Theoretical Analysis in AD  Disconnection Syndrome  Brain Simulator—a draft  Purpose  Basic structure  Brain features  Proposed brain simulator WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/6/6 2 http://www.weco.net
  • 3. Graph Theoretical Analysis in AD WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/6/6 3 http://www.weco.net
  • 4. Introduction  AD as a Disconnection Syndrome  Two problems need further attention  Assessment of functional connectivity with EEG and MEG can be biased by volume conduction  Lack a framework to discriminate between normal and abnormal networks in the brain  Today’s talk will focus on the theoretical framework WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/6/6 4 http://www.weco.net
  • 5. Graph Analysis  Brain disease or aging gives rise to a deviation from the small world configuration of brain network  Weighted graph reflects the strength of the relation between two vertices. WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/6/6 5 http://www.weco.net
  • 6. Network Damage Models  The Random Failure Model  Network changes are due to a random decrease in strength of edges  The Targeted Attack Model  Edges connecting hubs will be more vulnerable to attack  Our proposed Model  Aging Model  Disease-specific network change model WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/6/6 6 http://www.weco.net
  • 7. Damage modeling procedure WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/6/6 7 http://www.weco.net
  • 8. Result analysis - weighted MEG graphs WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/6/6 8 http://www.weco.net
  • 9. Result analysis - Comparison of normalized weighted clustering coefficient (left panel) and path length (right panel) WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/6/6 9 http://www.weco.net
  • 10. Disconnection Syndrome WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/6/6 10 http://www.weco.net
  • 11. Disconnection Syndrome  The classical associationist era  Karl Wernicke’s school: associationism  Fundamental psychic elements or memory images  Higher functions were not localized in specific regions but were the result of associative connections between motor and sensory memory image area  No cortical specializations WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/6/6 11 http://www.weco.net
  • 12. The Classical Disconnection Syndrome WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/6/6 12 http://www.weco.net
  • 13. Disconnection Syndrome  Geschwind’s neo-associationism  Shift away from pure holism  Flechsig’s rule: association cortex acted, in effect, as an obligatory relay between different brain regions and that a lesion to it would serve to disconnect them  A comparative phylogenetic perspective to the development of associations WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/6/6 13 http://www.weco.net
  • 14. Geschwind’s view of the evolution of cross-modality associations WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/6/6 14 http://www.weco.net
  • 15. Geschwind’s disconnection syndromes WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/6/6 15 http://www.weco.net
  • 16. Disconnection Syndrome  Disconnection syndromes after Geschwind  Weakness of Geschwind’s theory  Extended territories composed of many specialized cortical subregions serving different but related functions  Feed-back and parallel pathways  Hodotopic framwork  Topological mechanism (place)  Hodological mechanism (road or path)  Hyperconnection and cortical hyperfunction WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/6/6 16 http://www.weco.net
  • 17. A hodotopic framwork for clinicopathological correlations WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/6/6 17 http://www.weco.net
  • 18. Brain simulator (a draft) WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/6/6 18 http://www.weco.net
  • 19. What is the purpose?  Short term: Provide an information about how the Alzheimer’s disease effects brain structural and functional connectivity  Medium term: extend the models to brain diseases  Long term: whole brain models including sleep WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/6/6 19 http://www.weco.net
  • 20. It is based on...  Three types of brain network (structure)  Neural Darwin selection (development)  Hodotopic framwork (syndrome/function)  Default-mode network/resting state (state)  Four stage of Alzheimer’s disease (time)  Hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease  Damage model (topology) WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/6/6 20 http://www.weco.net
  • 21. Selection of brain features  Self-organized  Degeneracy  Parallel distributed processing (PDP)  Small-world, scale free, random topology  Feed forward and back  Reconfigurations toward damages  Balance and Dynamics WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/6/6 21 http://www.weco.net
  • 22. How does it work? fMRI EEG/ MEG psycho- Proposed Brain metrics Simulator WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/6/6 22 http://www.weco.net
  • 23. Thalamo- Polysynaptic Diffuse cortical motif loop structure ascending Space projections Network Development Model Developmental Experiential Reentrant Selection Selection Mapping Time Network Aging Network Model Damage Model Decision Making Model Balance & Dynamics Proposed brain simulator WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/6/6 23 http://www.weco.net
  • 24. Reference  [1] C. J. Stam, W. de Haan, A. Daffertshofer, B. F. Jones, I. Manshanden, A. M. van Cappellen van Walsum, T. Montez, J. P. A. Verbunt, J. C. de Munck, B. W. van Dijk, H. W. Berendse and P. Scheltens, “Graph theoretical analysis of magnetoencephalographic functional connectivity in Alzheimer’s disease”, Brain 2009: 132; 213–224  [2] Marco Catani, Dominic H. ffytche, “The rises and falls of disconnection syndromes”, Brain 2005: 128, 2224–2239  [3] “Alzheimer's disease ”, Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alzheimer's_disease  [4] Gerald M. Edelman, “Wider than the Sky: The Phenomenal Gift of Consciousness”, Yale University Press (March 10, 2004) WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/6/6 24 http://www.weco.net