Causes of World War I Nationalism Led to competitive and antagonistic rivalries among nations Feared Germany’s growing power Russia – protector of Europe’s Slavic peoples Serbs – Slavic people, under rule of Austria-Hungary Russia and Austria-Hungary rivals
Causes of World War I• Imperialism • Germany competed with France and Britain in the contest for colonies
Causes of World War I Militarism Germany - strongest nation on the European continent. Britain – strongest navy in the world 1897 Germany competes to build up largest battleships and destroyers France, Italy, Japan, & United States join the naval arms race.
Causes of World War I Alliance System Triple Entente (AKA: Allies) – France, Britain, & Russia Triple Alliance (AKA: Central Powers) – Germany, Austria-Hungary, & Italy, later Ottoman Empire
An Assassination Leads to War• Balkan Peninsula • Russia wanted for Mediterranean Sea access • Germany wanted for rail link to Ottoman Empire • Austria-Hungary taken control of Bosnia
An Assassination Leads to War• Archduke Franz Ferdinand • Heir to Austrian throne, shot while driving through the Bosnian capital Sarajevo by Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip (member of Black Hand) • One nation after another pulled into the conflict
The Fighting Starts• Three kinds of trenches – front line, support, & reserve• First Battle of the Somme – 1.2 million casualties, only 7 miles of ground changed hands
Americans Question Neutrality Divided Loyalties Socialists – war as capitalist Imperialist – struggle between Germany and Britain to control markets and colonies in China, Africa & Middle East Pacifists – war was evil and the US should set an example of peace to the world. Parents – didn’t want sons to experience horrors of war Naturalized US Citizens – ties to nations from which the emigrated
The War Hits Home• The British Blockade • Blockade the German coast to prevent weapons, other military supplies & food getting through
The War Hits Home German U-Boat Response U-boat = submarine – sunk any ship in British waters Lusitania - May 7, 1915 - 128 Americans killed Arabic – July 1915 – 2 Americans killed Sussex – March 1916 – 80 passengers killed
The War Hits Home• The 1916 Election • Democrat – Wilson, “He Kept Us Out of War” • Republic – Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes, believed he won
The United States Declares War German Provocation Zimmermann note – Germany ally with Mexico America Acts April 2, 1917 – President Wilson deliver war resolution Neutrally finally shattered – pave way for future order of peace and freedom
World War I Begins Foldable Title: World War I Begins Helped to ignite the war in Europe Nationalism, Imperialism, Militarism, Alliances, Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand (pages 373-374) Opposed U.S. participation in the war Naturalized Citizens, Socialists, Pacifists, Parents (page 377) Encouraged U.S. participation in the war Britain (page 377), Germany (page 378-379) , Russia (page 379-380) Back cover: Alliances during World War I (page 379) Allies, Central Powers
Section 1: Primary Source The Zimmerman note
Section 1: Primary Source The Zimmerman note According to this telegram, what did the German government decide to begin on February 1, 1917? Unlimited submarine warfare What did Zimmerman propose if the United States went to war with Germany during World War I? He proposed that if Mexico formed a military alliance with Germany, then Germany would help Mexico recover New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona from the United States. If this telegram had not been intercepted by British agents, what do you think might have happened? Cite evidence from your textbook to support your opinion.
World War I Map Activity
American Power Tips the Balance Section 2
American StoriesAce of AcesEddie Rickenbacker and the FirstWorld War
America Mobilizes Raising an Army Selective Service Act – required men to register with the government in order to be randomly selected for military service 24 million registered – 3 million called up Most did not attend high school; 1 in 5 foreign born 400,000 African-Americans, Segregated units, excluded from navy & marines, non- combat duties. Henry Johnson & Needham Roberts – first Americans to receive France’s highest military honor – the “cross of war”
America Mobilizes Mass Production Exempted many shipyard workers from the draft US Chamber of Commerce joined in a public relations campaign to emphasize the importance of shipyard work Used prefabrication techniques – 95 ships Government took over commercial and private ships, converted for war use.
America Turns the Tide Convoy system, barrier of mines Fighting in Europe Allied forces tired, Americans fresh & enthusiastic
American Expeditionary Force – General John J. PershingNew Weapons machine gun, tank, airplane, observation balloons
Filth, lice, rats, pollutedwater, poison gas,stench of decayingbodies, lack of sleep,battle fatigue, trench foot& mouth
AmericanTroops Go onthe OffensiveAmerican War Hero Alvin York - Conscientious objector – Medal of Honor
American Troops Go on the Offensive The Collapse of Germany November 3, 1918 – Austria-Hungary surrender to the Allies 11th hour, 11th day, 11th month of 1918 – Germany signed armistice
American Troops Go on the Offensive The Final Toll 22 million deaths, 20 million wounded, 10 million refugees, cost $338 billion United States – 48,000 lost in battle, 62,000 died of disease, 200,000 wounded
Section 2: Primary Source Patriotic Song Why do you think this song was used as a marching song? Why did it spur people to give money for the war effort? Over There
Oppy Wood (1917), John Nash
Oppy Wood Imagine for a moment that you are a soldier fighting in this place.On an index card, write a journal entry about your feelings and experiences.
The War at Home Section 3
Congress Gives Power to Wilson War Industries Board Allocates scarce materials, establishes production priorities, and sets prices
Congress Gives Power to Wilson War Economy Wages increased Company stock increased Uneven pay between labor and management, increasing work hours, child labor, dangerous conditions, unions boomed. National War Labor Board – 1918 – established to settle disputes between management and labor. Refusing meant losing draft exemptions Improved factory conditions, 8-hour work day, safety inspections, and child labor ban
Congress Gives Power to Wilson Food Administration Help produce and conserve food; “gospel of the clean plate”; one day a week “meatless”, “sweetless”, two days “wheatless”, two days “porkless”. Victory Gardens
Selling the War War Financing US spent $35.5 billion on the war effort 1/3 raised through taxes; progressive income tax, war-profits tax, excise tax on tobacco, liquor, and luxury goods. 2/3 raised by selling “Liberty Loan” and “Victory Loan” bonds
Selling the War Committee on Public Information Propaganda agency, designed to influence people’s thoughts and actions. George Creel Persuaded artists and advertising agencies to create thousands of painting, posters, cartoons, and sculptures to promote the war. “Four-Minute Men” – spoke about everything relating to the war Printed 25 million copies of “How the War Came to America” – which included Wilson’s war message Promoted patriotism, but inflamed hatred and violations of the civil liberties of certain ethnic groups and opponents of the war
Attacks on Civil Liberties Increase Anti-Immigrant Hysteria Main targets: Americans who had emigrated from other nations, especially Germany and Austria-Hungary Lost jobs, orchestras refused to play German music, towns changed names, schools stopped teaching German, library books by German authors removed
Attacks on Civil Liberties Increase Espionage and Sedition Acts Violated the spirit of the First Amendment Targeted socialists and labor leaders Video
The War Encourages Social Change African Americans and the War WEB DuBois believed African- Americans should support the war to strengthen racial justice
Encourages The Great Migration Social After turn of the Change century trickle of Southern Blacks to Northern cities became a tidal wave Contributing factors: escape racial discrimination, boll weevil infestation, job opportunities Video
The War Encourages Social Change Women in the War Moved into job typically held by men Bolstered support for woman suffrage
The War Encourages Social Change The Flu Epidemic Fall of 1918, affected about ¼ of the US population Possibly spread by soldiers, killed 500,000 Americans, 30 million worldwide
Methods that the government used to persuade Americans to buy bonds…Promotions by such movie Speeches by & Newspaper the Sales talks asrallies paradesstarsBond drives Fairbanks, Douglas between theater Four-Minute Men billboard ads Mary Pickford, and Charlie
Section 3: Primary Source Liberty Bond Poster How much money was raised for the war through sales of Liberty Bonds? Bonds raised about $21 million for the war effort.
Section 3: Primary Source Liberty Bond Poster On average how much did every American spend on Liberty Bonds? Every American spent an average of $400 on bonds
Section 3: Primary Source Liberty Bond Poster How did the sale of Liberty Bonds affect the national debt? Heavy borrowing caused the national debt to soar from $1 billion in 1914 to $27 billion in 1919.
Section 3: Primary Source Returning Soldiers According to DuBois, what positive principles did African Americans fight for during World War I? For the liberations of France, for freedom, for America’s ideals.
Section 3: Primary Source Returning Soldiers Why does he characterize the United States as “a shameful land”? Because the United States does not treat all of its citizens fairly and subjects African Americans to lynching, disenfranchisement, discrimination in education, cheating, and insults.
Section 3: Primary Source Returning Soldiers What fight does he believe should be fought now that African-American soldiers have returned home? The fight for democracy, equality, and justice in the United States.
Section 3: Primary Source Returning Soldiers Members of Congress accused DuBois of inciting race riots. What evidence, if any, do you find in this excerpt to support their accusations? Some may say that DuBois uses inflammatory language and urges his readers to fight for democracy. Others may say that this excerpt contains no evidence that DuBois incited race riots.
Wilson Fights for Peace Section 4
Wilson Presents His Plan Fourteen Points Plan for world peace; points 1-5 = to prevent another war, 6-13 = boundary changes, 14 = creation of League of Nations The Allies Reject Wilson’s Plan Allied leaders angry, wanted to punish Central Powers Central Powers had no say Wilson conceded on most of Fourteen Points in return for League of Nations
Debating the Treaty ofVersailles Provisions of the Treaty 9 new nations France & Britain temporarily gain 4 areas of the Ottoman Empire Germany has no army & forced to pay reparations of $33 billion to Allies
Debating the Treaty of Versailles The Treaty’s Weaknesses The severe treatment of Germany fails to provide a lasting peace; problems eventually led to WWII Germany – Humiliated; war-guilt clause; no way to pay reparations due to lost territories Russia excluded – lost territory, wanted it back Ignored claims of colonized people for self- determination
Debating the Treaty of Versailles Opposition to the Treaty Too harsh with dire economic consequences Did not end colonialism Treaty did not satisfy self-determination demands of ethnic groups
Debating the Treaty of Versailles Debate Over the League of Nations A few thought it threatened the US foreign policy of isolationism Conservative senators were suspicious of the provision for joint economic and military action against aggression. Wanted the constitutional right of Congress to declare war.
Debating the Treaty of Versailles Video Wilson Refuses to Compromise Wilson set out on 8,000 mile tour giving 34 speeches explaining why the US should join the League of Nations; suffered a stroke, partially paralyzed for more than 2 months Senate added amendments which qualified the terms under which the US would enter the League of Nations; Senate rejected the amendments, failed to ratify the treaty Wilson refused to compromise; Senate again failed to ratify US signed a separate treaty with Germany in 1921 with
The Legacy of War America – strengthened US military and power of government; accelerated social change; fears and antagonisms left unchanneled Europe – destruction and massive loss of life severely damaged social and political systems Called “the war to end all wars”, however, unresolved issues would create another war; Treaty of Versailles solved nothing
Interrupting the CeremonyThis 1918 cartoon showsSenate opposition to U.S.membership in the League ofNations. At President Wilson’sinsistence, the covenant toestablish the League hadbeen written into theVersailles Treaty, whichended World War I. TheUnited States never signedthe Treaty, largely because ofdisagreement over America’sinvolvement in the League ofNations.