World war i


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  • Critical Thinking Transparencies – CT19 World War IWith the whole class discuss the questions on page 10. In table groups, have students answer question #4.
  • Geography Transparencies – G19 Europe Goes to WarWith the whole class discuss the questions on page 10. In table groups, have students answer question #4. Provide them with the declaration of war timeline found on the next slide.
  • Critical Thinking Transparencies – CT53 The Human and Financial Costs of World War IWith the whole class discuss the questions on page 27. In table groups, have students answer question #6.
  • This stark painting of a front-line stronghold near Arras in northern France conveys the unearthly desolation of trench warfare after three years of often stalemate fighting. Trench warfare, in which armies fought and died to gain mere yards of territory, was a nightmare to the combatants who often stood in wet trenches for hours at a time. They were surrounded by filth, rats, and the stench of poison gas and decaying bodies. Sleep was almost impossible as bombardments continued for hours at a time.John Nash (1893-1977), born in London, had no formal training as a painter, but was persuaded by his brother, Paul, to take up the career of an artist. He was an official War Artist in 1918 and 1940. Nash is best know for landscape and illustrations for botanical works.
  • Critical Thinking Transparencies – CT19 World War IWith the whole class discuss the questions on page 10. In table groups, have students answer question #4.
  • World war i

    1. 1. World War I
    2. 2. World War I Begins Section 1
    3. 3. Causes of World War I Nationalism  Led to competitive and antagonistic rivalries among nations  Feared Germany’s growing power  Russia – protector of Europe’s Slavic peoples  Serbs – Slavic people, under rule of Austria-Hungary  Russia and Austria-Hungary rivals
    4. 4. Causes of World War I• Imperialism • Germany competed with France and Britain in the contest for colonies
    5. 5. Causes of World War I Militarism  Germany - strongest nation on the European continent.  Britain – strongest navy in the world  1897 Germany competes to build up largest battleships and destroyers  France, Italy, Japan, & United States join the naval arms race.
    6. 6. Causes of World War I Alliance System  Triple Entente (AKA: Allies) – France, Britain, & Russia  Triple Alliance (AKA: Central Powers) – Germany, Austria-Hungary, & Italy, later Ottoman Empire
    7. 7. An Assassination Leads to War• Balkan Peninsula • Russia wanted for Mediterranean Sea access • Germany wanted for rail link to Ottoman Empire • Austria-Hungary taken control of Bosnia
    8. 8. An Assassination Leads to War• Archduke Franz Ferdinand • Heir to Austrian throne, shot while driving through the Bosnian capital Sarajevo by Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip (member of Black Hand) • One nation after another pulled into the conflict
    9. 9. The Fighting Starts• Three kinds of trenches – front line, support, & reserve• First Battle of the Somme – 1.2 million casualties, only 7 miles of ground changed hands
    10. 10. Americans Question Neutrality Divided Loyalties  Socialists – war as capitalist  Imperialist – struggle between Germany and Britain to control markets and colonies in China, Africa & Middle East  Pacifists – war was evil and the US should set an example of peace to the world.  Parents – didn’t want sons to experience horrors of war  Naturalized US Citizens – ties to nations from which the emigrated
    11. 11. The War Hits Home• The British Blockade • Blockade the German coast to prevent weapons, other military supplies & food getting through
    12. 12. The War Hits Home German U-Boat Response  U-boat = submarine – sunk any ship in British waters  Lusitania - May 7, 1915 - 128 Americans killed  Arabic – July 1915 – 2 Americans killed  Sussex – March 1916 – 80 passengers killed
    13. 13. The War Hits Home• The 1916 Election • Democrat – Wilson, “He Kept Us Out of War” • Republic – Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes, believed he won
    14. 14. The United States Declares War German Provocation  Zimmermann note – Germany ally with Mexico America Acts  April 2, 1917 – President Wilson deliver war resolution  Neutrally finally shattered – pave way for future order of peace and freedom
    15. 15. World War I Begins Foldable Title: World War I Begins Helped to ignite the war in Europe  Nationalism, Imperialism, Militarism, Alliances, Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand (pages 373-374) Opposed U.S. participation in the war  Naturalized Citizens, Socialists, Pacifists, Parents (page 377) Encouraged U.S. participation in the war  Britain (page 377), Germany (page 378-379) , Russia (page 379-380) Back cover: Alliances during World War I (page 379)  Allies, Central Powers
    16. 16. Section 1: Primary Source The Zimmerman note
    17. 17. Section 1: Primary Source The Zimmerman note According to this telegram, what did the German government decide to begin on February 1, 1917?  Unlimited submarine warfare What did Zimmerman propose if the United States went to war with Germany during World War I?  He proposed that if Mexico formed a military alliance with Germany, then Germany would help Mexico recover New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona from the United States. If this telegram had not been intercepted by British agents, what do you think might have happened? Cite evidence from your textbook to support your opinion.
    18. 18. World War I Map Activity
    19. 19. American Power Tips the Balance Section 2
    20. 20. American StoriesAce of AcesEddie Rickenbacker and the FirstWorld War
    21. 21. America Mobilizes Raising an Army  Selective Service Act – required men to register with the government in order to be randomly selected for military service  24 million registered – 3 million called up  Most did not attend high school; 1 in 5 foreign born  400,000 African-Americans,  Segregated units, excluded from navy & marines, non- combat duties.  Henry Johnson & Needham Roberts – first Americans to receive France’s highest military honor – the “cross of war”
    22. 22. America Mobilizes Mass Production  Exempted many shipyard workers from the draft  US Chamber of Commerce joined in a public relations campaign to emphasize the importance of shipyard work  Used prefabrication techniques – 95 ships  Government took over commercial and private ships, converted for war use.
    23. 23. America Turns the Tide  Convoy system, barrier of mines Fighting in Europe  Allied forces tired, Americans fresh & enthusiastic
    24. 24. American Expeditionary Force – General John J. PershingNew Weapons machine gun, tank, airplane, observation balloons
    25. 25. Filth, lice, rats, pollutedwater, poison gas,stench of decayingbodies, lack of sleep,battle fatigue, trench foot& mouth
    26. 26. AmericanTroops Go onthe OffensiveAmerican War Hero Alvin York - Conscientious objector – Medal of Honor
    27. 27. American Troops Go on the Offensive The Collapse of Germany  November 3, 1918 – Austria-Hungary surrender to the Allies  11th hour, 11th day, 11th month of 1918 – Germany signed armistice
    28. 28. American Troops Go on the Offensive The Final Toll  22 million deaths, 20 million wounded, 10 million refugees, cost $338 billion  United States – 48,000 lost in battle, 62,000 died of disease, 200,000 wounded
    29. 29. Section 2: Primary Source Patriotic Song Why do you think this song was used as a marching song? Why did it spur people to give money for the war effort? Over There
    30. 30. Oppy Wood (1917), John Nash
    31. 31. Oppy Wood Imagine for a moment that you are a soldier fighting in this place.On an index card, write a journal entry about your feelings and experiences.
    32. 32. The War at Home Section 3
    33. 33. Congress Gives Power to Wilson War Industries Board  Allocates scarce materials, establishes production priorities, and sets prices
    34. 34. Congress Gives Power to Wilson War Economy  Wages increased  Company stock increased  Uneven pay between labor and management, increasing work hours, child labor, dangerous conditions, unions boomed.  National War Labor Board – 1918 – established to settle disputes between management and labor.  Refusing meant losing draft exemptions  Improved factory conditions, 8-hour work day, safety inspections, and child labor ban
    35. 35. Congress Gives Power to Wilson Food Administration  Help produce and conserve food; “gospel of the clean plate”; one day a week “meatless”, “sweetless”, two days “wheatless”, two days “porkless”.  Victory Gardens
    36. 36. Selling the War War Financing  US spent $35.5 billion on the war effort  1/3 raised through taxes; progressive income tax, war-profits tax, excise tax on tobacco, liquor, and luxury goods.  2/3 raised by selling “Liberty Loan” and “Victory Loan” bonds
    37. 37. Selling the War Committee on Public Information  Propaganda agency, designed to influence people’s thoughts and actions.  George Creel  Persuaded artists and advertising agencies to create thousands of painting, posters, cartoons, and sculptures to promote the war.  “Four-Minute Men” – spoke about everything relating to the war  Printed 25 million copies of “How the War Came to America” – which included Wilson’s war message  Promoted patriotism, but inflamed hatred and violations of the civil liberties of certain ethnic groups and opponents of the war
    38. 38. Attacks on Civil Liberties Increase Anti-Immigrant Hysteria  Main targets: Americans who had emigrated from other nations, especially Germany and Austria-Hungary  Lost jobs, orchestras refused to play German music, towns changed names, schools stopped teaching German, library books by German authors removed
    39. 39. Attacks on Civil Liberties Increase Espionage and Sedition Acts  Violated the spirit of the First Amendment  Targeted socialists and labor leaders Video
    40. 40. The War Encourages Social Change African Americans and the War  WEB DuBois believed African- Americans should support the war to strengthen racial justice
    41. 41. Encourages  The Great Migration Social  After turn of the Change century trickle of Southern Blacks to Northern cities became a tidal wave  Contributing factors: escape racial discrimination, boll weevil infestation, job opportunities Video
    42. 42. The War Encourages Social Change Women in the War  Moved into job typically held by men  Bolstered support for woman suffrage
    43. 43. The War Encourages Social Change The Flu Epidemic  Fall of 1918, affected about ¼ of the US population  Possibly spread by soldiers, killed 500,000 Americans, 30 million worldwide
    44. 44. Methods that the government used to persuade Americans to buy bonds…Promotions by such movie Speeches by & Newspaper the Sales talks asrallies paradesstarsBond drives Fairbanks, Douglas between theater Four-Minute Men billboard ads Mary Pickford, and Charlie
    45. 45. Section 3: Primary Source Liberty Bond Poster How much money was raised for the war through sales of Liberty Bonds?  Bonds raised about $21 million for the war effort.
    46. 46. Section 3: Primary Source Liberty Bond Poster On average how much did every American spend on Liberty Bonds?  Every American spent an average of $400 on bonds
    47. 47. Section 3: Primary Source Liberty Bond Poster How did the sale of Liberty Bonds affect the national debt?  Heavy borrowing caused the national debt to soar from $1 billion in 1914 to $27 billion in 1919.
    48. 48. Section 3: Primary Source Returning Soldiers According to DuBois, what positive principles did African Americans fight for during World War I?  For the liberations of France, for freedom, for America’s ideals.
    49. 49. Section 3: Primary Source Returning Soldiers Why does he characterize the United States as “a shameful land”?  Because the United States does not treat all of its citizens fairly and subjects African Americans to lynching, disenfranchisement, discrimination in education, cheating, and insults.
    50. 50. Section 3: Primary Source Returning Soldiers What fight does he believe should be fought now that African-American soldiers have returned home?  The fight for democracy, equality, and justice in the United States.
    51. 51. Section 3: Primary Source Returning Soldiers Members of Congress accused DuBois of inciting race riots. What evidence, if any, do you find in this excerpt to support their accusations?  Some may say that DuBois uses inflammatory language and urges his readers to fight for democracy. Others may say that this excerpt contains no evidence that DuBois incited race riots.
    52. 52. Wilson Fights for Peace Section 4
    53. 53. Wilson Presents His Plan Fourteen Points  Plan for world peace; points 1-5 = to prevent another war, 6-13 = boundary changes, 14 = creation of League of Nations The Allies Reject Wilson’s Plan  Allied leaders angry, wanted to punish Central Powers  Central Powers had no say  Wilson conceded on most of Fourteen Points in return for League of Nations
    54. 54. Debating the Treaty ofVersailles Provisions of the Treaty  9 new nations  France & Britain temporarily gain 4 areas of the Ottoman Empire  Germany has no army & forced to pay reparations of $33 billion to Allies
    55. 55. Debating the Treaty of Versailles The Treaty’s Weaknesses  The severe treatment of Germany fails to provide a lasting peace; problems eventually led to WWII  Germany – Humiliated; war-guilt clause; no way to pay reparations due to lost territories  Russia excluded – lost territory, wanted it back  Ignored claims of colonized people for self- determination
    56. 56. Debating the Treaty of Versailles Opposition to the Treaty  Too harsh with dire economic consequences  Did not end colonialism  Treaty did not satisfy self-determination demands of ethnic groups
    57. 57. Debating the Treaty of Versailles Debate Over the League of Nations  A few thought it threatened the US foreign policy of isolationism  Conservative senators were suspicious of the provision for joint economic and military action against aggression. Wanted the constitutional right of Congress to declare war.
    58. 58. Debating the Treaty of Versailles Video Wilson Refuses to Compromise  Wilson set out on 8,000 mile tour giving 34 speeches explaining why the US should join the League of Nations; suffered a stroke, partially paralyzed for more than 2 months  Senate added amendments which qualified the terms under which the US would enter the League of Nations; Senate rejected the amendments, failed to ratify the treaty  Wilson refused to compromise; Senate again failed to ratify  US signed a separate treaty with Germany in 1921 with
    59. 59. The Legacy of War America – strengthened US military and power of government; accelerated social change; fears and antagonisms left unchanneled Europe – destruction and massive loss of life severely damaged social and political systems Called “the war to end all wars”, however, unresolved issues would create another war; Treaty of Versailles solved nothing
    60. 60. Interrupting the CeremonyThis 1918 cartoon showsSenate opposition to U.S.membership in the League ofNations. At President Wilson’sinsistence, the covenant toestablish the League hadbeen written into theVersailles Treaty, whichended World War I. TheUnited States never signedthe Treaty, largely because ofdisagreement over America’sinvolvement in the League ofNations.