The gilded age

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  • 1. The Gilded Age
    Chapter 7, Sections 1 & 3
  • 2. Essential Question
    How was the Gilded Age a time of social and political change in the United States?
  • 3. The New Immigrants
    Chapter 7 – Section 1
  • 4. Why did they come?
    Escape religious persecution
    Rising population in Europe
    Independent lives in America
    Shortage of work in homeland
  • 5. Where did they come from?
    Southern and Eastern Europe
    Northeast States
    China & Japan
    West Coast
    West Indies
    Eastern and Southeast States
    Southwestern States
  • 6. A Difficult Journey
    Cargo hold of
  • 7. Ellis Island
    New York Harbor
    Open 1892-1924
    Chief immigration station for East coast
    2% denied entry
    Processing took about 5 hours
    Physical exam
    Government inspector – easy questioning
    17 million immigrants passed through
  • 8. Ellis Island
  • 9. Angel Island
    San Francisco Bay
    Open 1910-1940
    Chief immigration station for West coast
    Processing took weeks to months
    Lived in filthy buildings
    Physical exam
    Government inspector - harsh questioning
    Approximately 50,000 Chinese passed through
  • 10. Angel Island
  • 11. Nativism
    Favoritism toward native born Americans
  • 12. What did they believe?
    Anglo-Saxons superior
    Immigrants from“right”countries OK
    Immigrants from“wrong”countries caused the problems
    Objected to religious beliefs of Jews and Roman Catholics
    Immigration restrictions
  • 13. Nativism Groups
    American Protective Association
    Vicious anti-Catholic attacks
    Immigration Restriction League
    Pushed for literacy tests
  • 14. Chinese Exclusion Act
    Banned entry to all Chinese except
    Government officials
    Not repealed until 1943
  • 15. Gentleman’s Agreement
    Japan agreed to limit emigration of unskilled workers to US
    In exchange for repeal of San Francisco segregation order
    Local government segregated Japanese children in separate schools
  • 16.
  • 17. Politics in the Gilded Age
    Section 3
  • 18. What does it mean?
    Gild: to coat with gold leaf or a gold color. To make seem more attractive or valuable than it is.
    Synonyms: overlay with gold, varnish, give glitter to, paint in rosy colors
  • 19. The Gilded Age1876-1900
    The term Gilded Age refers to the political and economic situation of the United States from approximately 1876-1900.
    It created a number of immensely successful businessmen as public figures; these were often referred to as the“robber barons”.
  • 20. “What is the chief end of man? To get rich. In what way? Dishonestly if we can; honestly if we must.”
    -Mark Twain 1871
  • 21. The Gilded Age
    Phrase coined by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner in their 1873 book.
  • 22. It was the best of times for the rich, it was the worst of times for the poor.
    At the height of the Gilded Age, 90% of the nation’s families earned less than $1,200 a year and the average annual income was $380, well below the poverty line.
  • 23. Robber Barons built mansions on Fifth Avenue
  • 24. While the rich wore diamonds, many wore rags.
    For immediate relief, the urban poor turned to political machines.
  • 25. The Political Machine
    An organized group that controlled the activities of a political party in a city by taking advantage of the needs of the immigrants and urban poor.
    Ensured voter loyalty by providing jobs and social services to immigrants’ most pressing problems.
  • 26. The Political Machine
    City Boss
    Controlled the activities of the political party throughout the city.
    Ward Boss
    Secure the vote in all the precincts in the ward, or electoral district.
    Local precinct workers & captains
    Gained voters’ support on a city block or neighborhood.
  • 27. What was the role of the political boss?
    Controlled access to municipal jobs and business licenses
    Influenced the courts and other municipal agencies
    Provide government support for new businesses
    Often paid extremely well
    Reinforce voters’ loyalty
    Win additional political support
    Extend influence
  • 28. What role did immigrants play?
    Immigrants provided the political machine with votes.
    Many precinct captains and political bosses were 1st or 2nd generation immigrants
    Entered politics & worked way up from bottom
    Able to provide solutions
  • 29. How did political machines maintain power?
    Graft – illegal use of political influence for personal gain
    “kicked back”
    Granted favors in return for cash
    Credit Mobilier
  • 30. Tammany Hall
    NYC Democratic political machine
  • 31. The Tweed Ring
    William Tweed (Boss Tweed) head of Tammany Hall 1868
    Graft involving construction of NY County Courthouse
    Group of corrupt politicians
    The “forty thieves”
    Cost taxpayers $13 million, actual cost $3 million
    Tweed and his henchmen were tried, convicted and jailed in the scandal
  • 32. Thomas Nast
    Political cartoonist
    Santa Claus, Uncle Sam, and political symbols – elephant & donkey
    Aroused public outrage against Tammany Hall’s graft, and broke the Tweed Ring.
    Boss Tweed offered money to get him to cease cartoon attacks.
  • 33.
  • 34.
  • 35.
  • 36. Patronage
    Giving of government jobs to people who had helped a candidate get elected.
    “spoils system”
    Employees not qualified for positions
    Used positions for personal gain
    Reformers pressed for adoption of merit system
    Civil service
  • 37. Could not convince Congress to support reform.
    Named independents to his cabinet
    Set up commission to investigate corrupt custom houses
    President Rutherford B. Hayes
  • 38. Roscoe Conkling
    New York senator and political boss.
    Head of The Stalwarts.
    Opposed change in the spoils system.
  • 39. President James Garfield
    Gave reformers most of the patronage jobs`
    July 1881 was shot 2 times by mentally unbalanced lawyer whom Garfield had turned down for a job
  • 40. President Chester A. Arthur
    Nominated for vice president by Conkling supporters.
    Turned reformer in office
    Encouraged Congress to pass civil service law
  • 41. Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883
    Authorized a bipartisan (supported by two parties) civil service commission
    To make appointments to federal jobs through a merit system
    Based on performance on an examination
  • 42. Business Buys Influence
    With civil service reform, employees no longer source of campaign contributions
    Turned to wealthy business owners
    Alliance between government and big business
    Business wanted tariffs raised to protect domestic industry from foreign competition
  • 43. President Grover Cleveland
    Democratic president
    elected in 1884
    Tried to lower tariff rates
    Congress refused to support him
  • 44. President Benjamin Harrison
    Defeated President Grover Cleveland in 1888
    Won passage of the McKinley Tariff Act of 1890
    Raised tariffs to their highest levels
  • 45. Here comes Cleveland again…
    Only president to serve two non-consecutive terms
    Supported a bill to lower the McKinley Tariff
    Would not sign the bill because it contained a federal income tax
    Wilson-Gorman Tariff became law in 1894 without his signature
  • 46. President William McKinley
    Inaugurated in 1897
    Raised tariffs once again
  • 47. Taking Notes
    In a chart like the one shown, list examples of corruption in 19th century politics.
  • 48. Taking Notes
    In a chart like the one shown, list examples of corruption in 19th century politics.
    Election fraud