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  • 1. Imperialism
  • 2. Essential Question
    How did American imperialism at the turn of the twentieth century put the U.S. at the forefront of world powers?
  • 3. Section 1
    Imperialism and America
  • 4. American Expansionism
    Belief in manifest destiny
    Three factors fueled the new American imperialism:
    Desire for Military Strength
    Alfred T. Mahan
    wanted to build up U.S. Navy
    Built 9 steel-hulled cruisers
    Transformed into world’s 3rd largest naval power
    Thirst for new Markets
    Need raw materials for factories
    Need new markets for agricultural and manufactured goods
    Belief in Cultural Superiority
    Combine Social Darwinism and racial superiority of Anglo-Saxons
    Responsibility to spread Christianity and “civilization” to the world’s “inferior peoples”.
  • 5. The United States Acquires Alaska
    William Seward
    Secretary of State under presidents Lincoln and Johnson.
    1867 - Arranged for U.S. to buy Alaska from the Russians for $7.2 million.
    “Seward’s Icebox” or “Seward’s folly”
  • 6. The United States Takes Hawaii
    Midway Islands
    1867 – took over
    0 population, not much attention
    Since 1790’s stop on way to China and East India
    1820s – Yankee missionaries founded Christian schools and churches
    The Cry for Annexation
    Sugar Plantations – ¾ of islands’ wealth
    By 1900, foreigners and laborers outnumber native Hawaiians 3 to 1
    1875, US import Hawaiian sugar duty-free = production growth
    McKinley Tariff of 1890 eliminated the duty-free status = crisis – competition in the American market.
    Military – naval base at Pearl Harbor
    kingdom’s best port
    Use as a refueling station for American ships
  • 7. The United States Takes Hawaii
    The End of a Monarchy
    Forced king to change constitution to grant voting rights only to wealthy land owners.
    1891 – Queen Liliuokalani came to power
    “Hawaii for Hawaiians” agenda
    Proposed removing property-owning qualifications
    Business group and Ambassador John L. Stevens organized a revolution.
    Help of marines, overthrew the queen and set up a government headed by Sanford B. Dole.
    President Cleveland
    restore queen to power
    Formally recognized the Republic of Hawaii
    Refused annexation, unless Hawaiian majority
    Refused to surrender power
    President McKinley
    Favored annexation
    August 12, 1898 – Hawaii an American territory, Hawaiians never voted
  • 8. U.S. Policies for Overseas Expansion
  • 9. Declined With Thanks
    United States expansionist policies
  • 10. Section 2
    Spanish American War
  • 11. Factors that Contribute to US Declaration of War
    Cuban rebels deliberately attack US sugar plantations in Cuba
    Cuban rebels led by Jose Marti (poet and journalist)
    Launch revolution against Spain in 1895
    Did so to provoke US into helping the rebels achieve independence from Spain
    Yellow Journalism
    William Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer engage in this to sell newspapers
    Exaggerate news to lure and enrage readers
  • 12. Contributing Factors Continued
    DeLome Letter
    Letter intercepted and leaked to press
    Criticized President McKinley (weak)
    Enraged Americans
    Sinking of the USS Maine
    Sent to Cuba to bring home American citizens
    Ship blew up in Havana Harbor
    American newspapers blamed Spain
  • 13. War is Declared!
    April 20, 1898
    First battle: Philippine Islands
    Commodore George Dewey destroys Spanish fleet at Manila Bay
    Naval blockade of Cuba
    Naval superiority
    Inexperienced volunteers
    Rough Riders = volunteer cavalry
  • 14. Rough Riders
    Under command of Theodore Roosevelt and Leonard Wood
    Famous land battle near Santiago, Cuba
    San Juan Hill
    Theodore Roosevelt declared a hero of this battle
  • 15. Treaty of Paris of 1898
    Ends Spanish American War
    Grants Cuba independenc
    US acquires Guam and Puerto Rico
    Spain sells Philippines to US for $20 million
  • 16. Section 3
    Acquiring New Lands
  • 17. Ruling Puerto Rico
    US made no promises to Puerto Rico regarding independence or statehood
    Strategically important to US
    Presence in the Caribbean
    Protecting future canal US wanted to build
    1900 Congress passed Foracker Act
  • 18. What was significance of Foracker Act?
    Ended military rule in Puerto Rico
    Set up civil government
    US President could appoint governor
    Upper House of legislature
    Puerto Ricans select lower house of legislature
    1901 Insular Cases
    Supreme Court said Constitution did not automatically apply to people in acquired territories
  • 19. Cuba and the United States
    Treaty of Paris guaranteed Cuba independence
    American troops occupied Cuba
    Same officials under Spain, remained in office
    Military government provided food, clothing, etc.
    1900 Cuba wrote Constitution
    1901 US insisted they add the Platt Amendment
  • 20. What did the Platt Amendment state?
    Cuba could not make treaties with foreign governments that limit its independence
    US could intervene in Cuba
    Cuba could not go into debt
    US could buy or lease land for naval stations
    US army would not withdraw until they added the Platt Amendment: becomes a protectorate
  • 21. What is a protectorate?
    A country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power.
  • 22. Why?
    Most important reasons for US to maintain a strong political presence in Cuba was to protect American businesses that had invested in Cuba: sugar, tobacco, mining
  • 23. Filipinos Rebel
    Philippine-American War
    February 1899
    US assumed same role that Spain had played
    Forced to live in designated zones
    3 years to put down the rebellion
    20,000 Filipinos died
    4,000 Americans
    $400 million – 20 times the price US paid to purchase
  • 24. Why did Filipinos feel betrayed?
    Felt that US had promised them independence
  • 25. Foreign Influence In China
    France, Germany, Britain, Japan and Russia established “spheres of influence”
    Areas where each nation claimed special rights and economic privileges
    Why did western powers seek to establish spheres of influence in China?
    Vast potential market
    Had already established prosperous settlements along coast of China
  • 26. Who was John Hay?
    US Secretary of State
    What were the Open Door Notes?
    Series of policy statements he issued in 1899
    Afraid US traders would be shut out of China
    Letters addressed to leaders of imperialist nations proposing they share trading rights with US
    Creating an “open door”
    No nation would have a monopoly on trade in China
  • 27. Boxer RebellionWhat were causes?
    Europeans dominated most large cities
    Chinese resentment grew
    Secret societies to rid county of “foreign devils” (Boxers)
    Killed hundreds of missionaries and foreigners
    International force put down rebellion
  • 28. Open Door Policy Reflects American Beliefs
    Growth of US economy depended on exports
    US had right to intervene to protect foreign markets
    Feared closing of an area to America threatened US survival
  • 29. Athletic Contest
    (1915), Max Weber
  • 30. Section 4
    America as a World Power
  • 31. U.S. Foreign Policy Under Roosevelt
    Russo-Japanese War
    Russia declares war on Japan over Korea
    Roosevelt mediates peace negotiations between Japan and Russia (Treaty of Portsmouth)
    Won him Nobel Peace Prize and enhanced US position in the world
    Wanted US to be prominent power in Caribbean and Central America
    Used Monroe Doctrine
    1823, issued by Pres. James Monroe- stay out of Latin America
  • 32. Panama Canal
    How did US gain control of land needed to build the canal?
    Supported a Panamanian rebellion against Colombia
    Paid $10 million + annual rent to Panama for land across Panama
    What 2 possible locations had US considered?
  • 33. US Achieved Foreign Policy Goals in Early 20th Century
    Expanded access to foreign markets to ensure continued growth of domestic economy
    Built a modern navy to protect its interests
    Exercised its international police power to ensure dominance in Latin America
  • 34. Strategic importance
    Reduce travel time for commercial and military ships between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
    Who was first country to attempt to build canal?
  • 35. Panama Canal
  • 36.
  • 37. US Intervenes in Latin America, 1890
  • 38. US Trade with Central America, 1913-1920
  • 39. “Big Stick”
    Latin American foreign policy
    Roosevelt Corollary added to Monroe Doctrine 1904
    US could use force to protect its economic interests in Latin America.
    Justified American intervention
    Expanded US role in Caribbean and Central America
  • 40. US Foreign Policy Under Taft
    Dollar Diplomacy
    US government guarantees loans made to foreign countries by American business people
    US use force if necessary to protect its interests (Roosevelt Corollary)
    Marines sent to Central American countries to protect our interests
    Supported private investment overseas
    Expansion of US influence in the world
  • 41. US Foreign Policy Under Wilson
    Missionary Diplomacy
    US had moral responsibility to deny recognition to any Latin American government it viewed as oppressive, undemocratic or hostile to US interests
    Pressured nations in Western Hemisphere to establish democratic governments
    Put to test in Mexico
    1911 Mexican Revolution
    1914 came close to war with Mexico