1. The violent crime rate is significantly more elevated in this country than any other Western nation (U.S. Department of Justice, 1991). Over the last decade, increased attention has been giving to violence among children and adolescents. One of the reasons is because of the incidents of youth violence in Georgia, Colorado, and Kentucky. These incidents have taken the lives of school children and teachers because guns have been being brought into the schools (Bartholow & Anderson, 2002). The school violence and the different terrorist attacks around the world have increasing brought up the idea of the exposure to media violence. Early research studies revealed that there was enough evidence to declare that media violence was linked to violent behaviors and that even short term exposure showed increased aggressive behaviors (Bushman & Anderson, 2001).2. Whether the research involves children or adults the question is: Does violent video games have an impact on our society? The effects in males or females are unclear as to whether they have the same severity. Video game research is newer and much smaller than the research involving television and movie violence (Anderson & Murphy, 2003). 3. In the last decade there has been a focus on violent video games as a significant part of the media violence. The issue of youth violence can be very complex and difficult to narrow down the true cause or combination of causes. There has been little research done in the areas of the influence of family violence and how that plays into the violence of the youth (Dowd, Singer, & Wilson, 2006). There are a number of studies that have looked at the playing of violent video games and its positive and negative effects on the player. These players can be female or male and range in many different ages from youth, adolescents to adults. A person’s personality can have an influence in whether they become lightly aggressive or show signs of high aggression after playing these violent video games. These personality issues can be but are not limited to cognitive delays, antisocial behavior or psychotic (Markey & Markey, 2010).
In one of the experiments that Anderson and Ford (1986) conducted, the undergraduates were asked to play violent video games. These students were randomly selected to play either the highly violent game, the mildly violent game, or were not assigned a video game. There were 20 students in each group and upon completion they were asked to fill out a questionnaire. The analyses from this experiment showed an increase of hostility whether they played the mildly violent or highly violent game. The same types of results were displayed in the area of anxiety and depression, leading to an overall increase in aggression. The child or adult playing the violent video games showed signs of their emotional state revolving into a negative outcome. Their emotional state became increasingly hostile. (Anderson & Ford, 1986). Their emotional state became increasingly hostile. The strengths of the study by Anderson and Ford are that they were able to recognize the short-term effects of playing violent video games. While the limitations to this study are their analyses had to be combined for the simplicity of their research.The research that Bushman and Anderson (2002) conducted was on short-term exposure to violent video games and non-violent video games. They used a general aggression model to determine the extent of hostility and aggression displayed after playing these games. The results concluded that the participants who played the violent video games showed more aggressive responses than those who played the non-violent video games. The overall consensus showed the participants of violent video games have the potential to handle all conflicts in an aggressive manner, whether it needed to be or not. Many of these games are played with two players or the single player is trying to beat someone else’s scores. Anger based aggression seems to be increased when there is competition (Anderson & Morrow, 1995). The research studies on the game Mortal Kombat show the players having a higher score on hostility situations and a higher heart rate level (Ballard & Weist, 1996). The strengths of these studies are their structure of their research and how they compared their results at each check point. The limitations are that Bushman and Anderson tested their results to the General Aggression Model only.
Women and men were being studied in these types of settings specifically for the outcome of their gender. The only difference was that women showed a little less aggression then the men in all cases (Bartholow & Anderson, 2002) (Anderson & Murphy, 2003). It important to remember that playing video games can be addictive in nature, therefore the violent video games could reinforce unwanted behavior. One such research showed that the components of violent video games is joined with the reinforcing properties of the violent game, a stronger learning experience happens (Anderson & Dill, 2000). Anderson and Dill (2000) also concluded that the continued exposure to violent video games alter a person’s basic personality, which lead to increased aggression. The strengths of these studies are that they equally compare men and women regarding the levels of aggression from playing violent video games. The limitations are the availability for the same amount of genders involved in each study.Many think that playing video games is just moving the joystick or other controller with your hands. It is much more than that. When playing a violent video game the player is rehearsing the violent and aggressive actions and thoughts. This leads to antisocial behavior and desensitizes the player to the violence and aggression (Bailey, West & Anderson, 2011: Anderson & Bushman, 2001; Anderson, Shibuya, Ihori, Swing, Bushman, Sakamoto, Rothstein, & Saleem, 2010). Some of the strengths of these authors’ studies are the emphasis on the possibility of desensitization to violent material, and what it does to the game players. The limitations to these studies are the prosocial effects of violent games. Other research suggests that these violent games cause a decrease in prosocial behavior, physiological arousal and desensitization/empathy (Barlett, Anderson & Swing, 2009). The strengths of Barlett, Anderson & Swings study are the variety of video games played, non-violent and violent. The limitations are the lack of research in the longitude of the affects of violent video games and aggression.
The Department of Criminal Justice and Behavior did its own research in the area of violent video games and aggression. Their research involves two different studies in vivo and the laboratory. In the first study the participants had not family history of family violence. The findings after playing the violent video games showed the males were more aggressive than females. The second study the participants had a history of family violence. The researchers felt their findings showed not enough evidence to make a conclusive decision that violent video games caused enough aggression to make a difference in society (Ferguson, Rueda, Cruz, Ferguson, Fritz, & Smith, 2008). The strengths to this study by the Department of Criminal Justice and Behavior are their using other research to compare and contrast their research. The limitations to their study are that they limit the previous research to what can be looked at like the model of aggression.
These violent video games desensitize anyone who plays the games, whether they are children or adults. Data does show that playing these violent video games increases aggression and desensitization to violence (Bailey, West, & Anderson, 2011). Further research indicates that men are more affected by the increased aggression than women (Bartholow & Anderson, 2002).
Older research shows that there is be short-term effects that are negative in nature when playing these video games. The child or adult playing these games suffer from negative effects on their emotional state (Anderson & Ford, 1986). Their emotional state became increasingly hostile. Would even playing these games occasionally increase the violent nature we see in society? Whether the violent video games are played alone or with other players it still brings out aggression. Competition brings out an even more anger based aggression (Anderson & Morrow, 1995). The game Mortal Kombat shows researchers that the hostility levels were higher along with their heart rate during and after playing this game (Ballard & Weist, 1996). Research shows long term effects of playing these violent games increase the players’ way they deal with real life conflicts (Anderson & Dill, 2000). Long term effects in males and females show the development of aggressive cognition and of aggressive personality (Anderson & Bushman, 2001).
In some cases other effects have been high neuroticism (emotional), acting without thinking, and no concern for others that were found in players of violent video games (Markey & Markey, 2010). Bushman & Anderson did a test on the general aggression model which indicated that violent video games do manipulate the level of aggressive opportunity that people conjure up in reaction to possible conflict situations (2002) (Barlett et al, 2009). There is enough research to support the hypothesis that violent video games have an impact on the increased violence in society. There is a video game in every home, and these games have some type of violent content (Anderson et al, 2010).
Further research needs to be done on the longitudinal effects that alter a person’s personality and their increased aggressive social behavior. Another question, what are the cognitive changes on game players? Other factors need to be looked at like the family violence exposure, possible brain damage or injury and whether or not they were previously abused and any (Dowd et al, 2006) (Ferguson et al, 2008). Longitudinal studies need to be done in different economic and social status areas to show that violent video games makes cognitive and personality changes on all types of children and adults. These studies need to include highly violent, moderately violent, and lightly violent video games.While looking at the different levels of violence, they also need to look at the specific features of these games that could possibly increase aggressive thoughts, behaviors and mind-set (Anderson & Murphy, 2003).
Au Psy492 M7 A2 Power Point Stephenson C
Increasing Violence Connected to Violent Video Games <br />By<br />Cynthia Stephenson<br />Argosy University<br />
Hypothesis Support<br />Anderson & Ford study<br />Findings of aggression increasing from violent video games<br /> Strengths and limitations<br />Bushman & Anderson study, Anderson & Morrow study, Ballard & West study<br />Findings of aggression increasing from violent video games<br /> Strengths and limitations<br />
Bartholow & Anderson study, Anderson & Murphy study, Anderson & Dill study<br />Findings of aggression increasing from violent video games<br />Strengths and limitations<br />Bailey, West, & Anderson study, Anderson & Bushman study, Anderson, Shibuya, Ihori, Swing, Bushman, Sakamoto, Rothstein & Saleem study, Barlett, Anderson, & Swing, study<br />Findings of aggression increasing from violent video games<br />Strengths and limitations<br />
Hypothesis Unsupported<br />Ferguson, Rueda, Cruz, Ferguson, Fritz, & Smith study<br />Findings of aggression increasing from violent video games<br />Strengths and limitations<br />
Conclusion<br />What contributions does the literature have to help with the hypothesis?<br />
References:<br />Anderson, C, & Bushman, B. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive <br /> cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the <br /> scientific literature. Psychological Science, 12, 353-359.<br />Anderson, C., & Dill, K. (2000). Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the <br /> laboratory and in life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(4), 772-790. doi: 1031037//0022- <br /> 35220.127.116.112<br />Anderson, C., & Ford, C. (1986). Affect of the game player: short-term effects of highly and mildly aggressive <br /> video games. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 12(4),. 390-402. <br />Anderson, C., & Morrow, M. (1995). Competitive aggression without interaction: effects of competitive versus <br /> cooperative instructions on aggressive behavior in video games. Personality and Social Psychology <br /> Bulletin, 21(10), 1020-1030.<br />Anderson, C., & Murphy, C. (2003). Violent video games and aggressive behavior in young women. <br /> Aggressive behavior, 29, 423-429.<br />Anderson, C., Shibuya, A., Ihori, N., Swing, E., Bushman, B., Sakamoto, A., Rothstein, H., & Saleem, M. <br /> (2010). Violent video game effects on aggression, empathy, and prosocial behavior in eastern and western <br /> countries: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin. 136(2), 151-173. doi: 10.1037/a0018251 <br />Bailey, K., West, R. & Anderson, C. (2011). The association between chronic exposure to video . Game violence and <br /> affective picture processing: an ERP study. Cognitive Affect Behavior Neuroscience, 11, 259-276.<br /> <br />
References Continued<br />Ballard, M, & Weist, J. (1996). Mortal kombat: the effects of violent video game play on males hostility and <br /> cardiovascular responding. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26, 717-730.<br />Barlett, C., Anderson, C., & Swing, E. (2009). Video game effects-confirmed, suspected, and speculative: a <br /> review of the evidence. Simulation & Gaming, 40(3), 377-403.<br />Bartholow, B., & Anderson, C. (2002). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior: potential sex <br /> differences. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 283-290. doi: 10.1006/jesp.2001.1502<br />Bushman, B., & Anderson, C., (2001). Media violence and the American public: scientific facts versus media <br /> misinformation. American Psychologist, 56, 477-489.<br />Bushman, B., & Anderson, C. (2002). Violent video games and hostile expectations: a test of the general <br /> aggression model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(12), 1679-1686.<br />Dowd, N., Singer, D., & Wilson, R. (2006). Handbook of children, culture, and violence. Thousand Oaks, <br /> California: Sage Publications, Inc.<br />Ferguson, C., Rueda, S., Cruz, A., Ferguson, D., Fritz, S., & Smith, S. (2008). Violent video games and <br /> aggression: causal relationship or byproduct of family violence and intrinsic violence motivation? <br /> Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(3), 311-332 doi: 10.1177?0093854807311719<br />Markey, P. & Markey, C. (2010). Vulnerability to violent video games: a review and integration of <br /> personality research. Review of General Psychology, 14(2), 82-91. doi: 10.1037/a0019000<br />U.S. Department of Justice. (1991). Uniform crime reports: 1990, crime in the United States.<br />Washington, DC: Federal Bureau of Investigation.<br /> <br />