Chapter 5 Part 2 Cst110


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Chapter 5 Part 2 Cst110

  1. 1. Chapter 5, part 2 Verbal Communication
  2. 2. The Language Environment <ul><li>Language is often changed by the environment in which communication happens </li></ul>
  3. 3. People, Purposes, and Rules <ul><li>Language environment is made up of four elements: </li></ul><ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Rules of communication to meet goal </li></ul><ul><li>Type of talk used </li></ul>
  4. 4. People, Purposes, and Rules <ul><li>Ritual language – this type of language takes place where a certain type of language or response is expected of you; greetings are highly ritualized </li></ul><ul><li>Rituals are determined by environment and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Rituals are learned at a young age and used as you grow; they can change </li></ul>
  5. 5. (In)Appropriate Language <ul><li>Racial and ethnic slurs are not </li></ul><ul><li>Language that insults others’ appearance or behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Swearing or obscene language </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive language intended to control others </li></ul>
  6. 6. (In) Appropriate Language <ul><li>Euphemism – language you use to substitute for offensive or unpleasant words; “passed away,” “went to a better place” etc </li></ul><ul><li>Doublespeak – words deliberately constructed for political purposes to create a desired attitude; “Axis of Evil” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Specialization <ul><li>Most jobs and careers have specialized language that outsiders would not often understand - jargon </li></ul><ul><li>Age groups also often have specialized language such as slang </li></ul><ul><li>Your language and understanding of the language changes as you change roles or your status </li></ul>
  8. 8. Style, Roles, and Group Memberships <ul><li>Your language is determined by your past experiences, culture, and upbringing </li></ul><ul><li>Style – the result of the way you select and arrange language; sometimes we equate style more than the words being said with speaker competence amd personality </li></ul>
  9. 9. Gender and Language <ul><li>Men and women vary in speaking style </li></ul><ul><li>Rapport-talk – often associated with women; this is designed to create or lead to intimacy and establish relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Report-talk – often associated with men; goal is to maintain status, demonstrate knowledge and skills </li></ul>
  10. 10. Powerful Talk <ul><li>Talk that quickly and directly gets to the point </li></ul><ul><li>This is often found to be more credible and persuasive </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful language does not use qualifiers or hedges (I guess, maybe) that are seen as weak </li></ul>
  11. 11. Dialect <ul><li>The language of a specific community or part of the country </li></ul><ul><li>Dialect is often stereotyped and is often associated with intelligence, career, attractiveness, personality, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Should you try to “get rid of” your regional dialect if you move away from the location? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Speaking and Writing <ul><li>Verbal language is accompanied by paralanguage – vocal cues, inflection, nonverbals </li></ul><ul><li>Written language do not contain paralanguage so it is often more difficult to get your emotion across; may lead to miscommunication; does not take feedback into account </li></ul>
  13. 13. What Metamessages are You Sending <ul><li>Metamessage - the meaning APART from the actual words you use; subtext </li></ul><ul><li>Some metamessages may be understood by certain cultures or age groups but not others and this is sometimes deliberate </li></ul>
  14. 14. Ethics <ul><li>Language has to be chosen very carefully </li></ul><ul><li>Language choices can influence other peoples’ perceptions of themselves </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Internet and Verbal Communication <ul><li>Four influences the internet has had on language </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of email on language – framin g: the visual of the message; how it is put together on the page </li></ul><ul><li>The impermanence of the Web; think of a blog, Wikipedia, etc </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Internet and Verbal Communication <ul><li>3. Chat rooms; getting many messages from many people in many place at one time </li></ul><ul><li>4. Formality of writing and language usage </li></ul>