Chapter 3 Intro To Comm


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Chapter 3 Intro To Comm

  1. 1. Chapter 3 Intercultural Communication
  2. 2. What is Culture? <ul><li>Culture – “the ever-changing values, traditions, social and political relationships, and worldview created and shared by a group of people bound together by a combination of factors” </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Culture? <ul><li>Worldview – a set of principles that govern the way we live and interact with others </li></ul><ul><li>These principles differ depending on where you are from, your background, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture greatly influences self and perception </li></ul>
  4. 5. You are a Cultural Being <ul><li>Cultural identity – the degree to which you identify with your culture </li></ul><ul><li>You have many cultural identities (country of origin, religion, family, memberships, sports, etc) Your secondary cultural identity can be called a co-culture </li></ul>
  5. 6. You are a Cultural Being <ul><li>Cultural identities are LEARNED </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural identities vary in strength </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural identities vary in content (not every person defines what it means to be an American or a student in the same way) </li></ul><ul><li>You often define your culture in the terms of the context of the situation </li></ul><ul><li>See pages 60-62 for importance of studying </li></ul>
  6. 7. Intercultural Communication and the Communication Model <ul><li>Culture influences: </li></ul><ul><li>Senders and receivers </li></ul><ul><li>Messages and feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Setting </li></ul>
  7. 8. Power Distance <ul><li>The measure of social inequality in cultures; for example how do employees talk with their boss or what is interaction like between sexes or families </li></ul><ul><li>The US is a low-power-distance country. What does this mean? Do you agree with this? What are some countries that might be high-power-distance? </li></ul>
  8. 9. Individualism versus Collectivism <ul><li>How connected you feel with your culture. Individualistic countries think more of “me”; collectivistic countries think more of “we” </li></ul><ul><li>Which do you think the US is? </li></ul>
  9. 10. Femininity versus Masculinity <ul><li>The division of rules between men and women; for example, who “wears the pants” in the society…are both sexes equal when it comes to work and pay, family responsibility, etc </li></ul><ul><li>See text for characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Which is the US? </li></ul>
  10. 11. Uncertainty Avoidance <ul><li>Tolerance for the unknown in communication situations; is there a feeling of being threatened by uncertain situations </li></ul><ul><li>If a person is from a high-uncertainty avoidance country they will try to avoid uncertain situations to avoid the possibility of making a fool of him/herself </li></ul>
  11. 12. Long-Term Orientation <ul><li>This measures the trade-offs of long-term versus short-term goals and gains </li></ul><ul><li>For example, is it better to stick with traditional ways of doing things? It has always worked and may be slower but it is sure and steady and can be trusted. </li></ul>
  12. 13. High Context Versus Low Context <ul><li>Low context – messages are often coded and have to be figured out; they are not said directly but interpreted by the receiver </li></ul><ul><li>High context – the meaning is explicitly known without the sender coming right out and explaining everything to the receiver. Ex: if you have dated for a long time, you have the “codes” already figured out </li></ul>
  13. 14. Ethnocentrism (-) <ul><li>The belief that one’s own culture is the best and that your way is the ONLY right way and other cultures have to be wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Patriotism is different; with patriotism you love your country but can still accept how other people do things in other cultures </li></ul>
  14. 15. Stereotyping (-) <ul><li>Oversimplification of a person or culture that is different than you. Ex: all Asians are great at math </li></ul><ul><li>How do stereotypes begin? Why do they exist and spread? </li></ul>
  15. 16. Prejudice (-) and Discrimination (-) <ul><li>Prejudice - a negative attitude toward a group with little or no knowledge or reason </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination – actions taken to exclude, avoid, or distance yourself from a group. This can be done by one person, other groups or a nation. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Communication Between Groups <ul><li>Dominant Culture </li></ul><ul><li>- In the US this means white people with a European background </li></ul><ul><li>Nondominant Culture </li></ul><ul><li>-in the US this means nonwhite, women, gays and low class </li></ul>
  17. 18. Assimilation <ul><li>When nondominants use assimilation, they drop any distinguishing cultural difference (such as ethnic dress, food, speech pattern, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>There are three types of strategies used: nonassertive, assertive, and aggressive </li></ul>
  18. 19. Assimilation Strategies <ul><li>Nonassertive – minority members try to be like the majority by emphasizing the similarities and downplaying the differences (even sometimes to the point of self-censorship) </li></ul><ul><li>An example is a woman may try to fit in with male counterparts at work by dressing (suits) and talking (sports) the same way the men do </li></ul>
  19. 20. Assimilation <ul><li>Assertive – a minority member may try too hard to be accepted by the majority by overcompensating. </li></ul><ul><li>The woman at work will try to outdo her male counterparts by working twice as long and knowing more than the men </li></ul>
  20. 21. Assimilation <ul><li>Aggressive – a minority member wants to fit in at any cost. The person will downplay any differences and possibly even put their own group down to be accepted. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Accommodation <ul><li>The works toward getting the dominant group to reinvent or change the rules so that they incorporate experiences of the nondominant group. </li></ul><ul><li>The three types are: nonassertive, assertive, and aggressive </li></ul>
  22. 23. Accommodation Strategies <ul><li>Nonassertive – the nondominant person tries to make others more informed about the nondominant group as well as trying to dispel stereotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Assertive – the nondominant person tries to educate their own group; possibly uses mentors from the dominant group to speak to and educate; the goal is a balance between groups </li></ul>
  23. 24. Accommodation Strategies <ul><li>Aggressive – the goal is to get into the dominant group change them from the inside out; may include confrontations between dominant and nondominant </li></ul>
  24. 25. Separation <ul><li>Nondominant-group members have essentially given up; the nondominants do not want anything to do with the dominant group and want to stay away from them. </li></ul><ul><li>The three types are: nonassertive, assertive, and aggressive </li></ul>
  25. 26. Separation Strategies <ul><li>Nonassertive – the nondominant person avoids the dominant whenever possible </li></ul><ul><li>Assertive – the nondominants try to form organizations that can be separate from the dominant; for example special clubs that you need to be a member of a certain minority to gain entrance or membership </li></ul>
  26. 27. Separation Strategies <ul><li>Aggressive – nondominants separate from dominant and expect others like them to do so also; if not, then they may be ridiculed. </li></ul><ul><li>If interaction has to happen, the nondominant may try to undermine the dominants </li></ul><ul><li>See text for ways to improve intercultural communication </li></ul>