Chapter 2 Cst229


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Chapter 2 Cst229

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Culture: The Heart of Diversity
  2. 2. Culture Defined <ul><li>Culture includes “knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, customs and habits…” p 20 </li></ul><ul><li>Society differs from culture ; society : people carrying on a life. Culture : what people produce and practice, culture is more action. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Broad Version of Culture <ul><li>Artifacts – the things people produce to make life easier, better </li></ul>
  4. 4. Broad Version of Culture <ul><li>Sociofacts – the practices that people follow that govern behavior, including unwritten codes of behavior </li></ul>
  5. 5. Broad Version of Culture <ul><li>Mentifacts – things that influence our thinking such as needs, values, attitudes </li></ul>
  6. 6. High vs Low Culture <ul><li>High culture – things like opera and ballet that are seen as more higher class, expensive, upper crust </li></ul><ul><li>Low culture – activities that everyone has access to such as sports, rock music, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Mass media has made high culture activities more available to everyone through TV, the internet, etc </li></ul>
  7. 7. Culture’s Characteristics <ul><li>Pervasiveness – culture is seen in every aspect of life, even things that we do not see or things that we do subconsciously </li></ul><ul><li>Learned – we are not born with a culture, we learn from others around us and act as they do to fit in. If we do not follow or break rules, we face consequences (from being an outcast to jail) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Culture’s Characteristics <ul><li>Shared – culture binds us together as people and makes us an identifiable group </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted – we adapt to our surroundings; our culture is the best way to act and survive within our surroundings </li></ul>
  9. 9. Culture’s Characteristics <ul><li>Explicit Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviors that are taught to us (such as how to eat with utensils) </li></ul><ul><li>Most likely to concentrate on when we don’t want to make a fool of ourselves </li></ul><ul><li>Implicit Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>These are not taught to us; we pick up these ways of acting unconsciously and are often unaware that we are doing them; habits </li></ul><ul><li>Most mistakes will be made here </li></ul>
  10. 10. Culture’s Characteristics <ul><li>Changeability – cultures constantly undergo change as a result of: </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural borrowing </li></ul><ul><li>Disasters and crises </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental reasons </li></ul><ul><li>For example, think how we would have to change if we lost and never regained electricity… </li></ul>
  11. 11. Culture’s Characteristics <ul><li>Ethnocentricity – we think that our way of thinking is the only right and good ways and others’ thinking is wrong or stupid </li></ul><ul><li>It can prevent us from getting to know or understanding how others live </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between ethnocentrism and patriotism? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cultural Universals <ul><li>These are basic things that are important or in some way part of every culture in the world. Methods differ from culture to culture but they exist in some form. </li></ul><ul><li>See page 27 for the list </li></ul><ul><li>See page 28 for a list of cultural truisms </li></ul>
  13. 13. Cultural Impact on Life <ul><li>Every person turns to his/her culture in order to answer the following: </li></ul><ul><li>What is a human’s relation to nature? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the modality of human activity? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the temporal focus of human life? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the character of innate human nature? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the relationship of the individual to others? </li></ul>