Peer-to-peer: past, present, futureCristina Cărbunaru16 February 2011
Peer-to-peer   Internet today    ◦ Large number of hosts    ◦ Large amount of content Significant challenges for traditi...
Client-server vs. P2p                        3
The Peer   Double function:    ◦ Client - consumer    ◦ Server - producer Incentives to offer service, not just  benefit...
P2p Goals Reduced central control Heterogeneity Flat topology Autonomy Fault resilience…                            5
History   File sharing applications    ◦   1999: Napster    ◦   Gnutella, Kazaa, Freenet    ◦   2001: BitTorrent (Bram Co...
The beginnings: Napster                          7
BitTorrent             Seed             Tracker                       8
BitTorrent              SeedLeecher              Tracker                        9
BitTorrent             10
BitTorrent             11
BitTorrent             12
BitTorrent             13
BitTorrent             14
BitTorrent             15
BitTorrent             Free-rider                          16
Swarm Behavior   Incentive mechanisms    ◦ Why offer service?   Flash crowd    ◦ Large number of peers choke the      pe...
Peer Behavior   Free riding    ◦ Evaluate performance loss    ◦ Methods to prevent   Best results with minimum of effort...
Approaches   Measurement    ◦ Real swarms    ◦ Experimental platforms: PlanetLab, EmuLab   Simulation   Modeling   Pro...
P2p in 2008/2009 (Ipoque study)                                  20
Popularity   Decreasing popularity for p2p file    sharing    ◦   Packet filtering    ◦   Packet inspection    ◦   Lawsui...
What to Research?   Packet filtering    ◦ Glasnost   Hiding identity    ◦ Tor    ◦ Anonymous p2p   Copyright issues    ...
What’s Next?   Increasing usage of p2p protocols in    other contexts:    ◦   Media streaming, communication    ◦   Insid...
Future   New technologies    ◦ IPv6    ◦ Mobile devices   From computer-to-computer to    human-to-human    ◦ commons-ba...
Conclusions   Successful piece of research    ◦ P2p transcended computer science   Changed the way we share    ◦ Files  ...
Questions?        Thank you!                     26
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CSTalks - Peer-to-peer - 16 Feb

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CSTalks - Peer-to-peer - 16 Feb

  1. 1. Peer-to-peer: past, present, futureCristina Cărbunaru16 February 2011
  2. 2. Peer-to-peer Internet today ◦ Large number of hosts ◦ Large amount of content Significant challenges for traditional client-server architectures Make use of the inter-connectivity of the nodes in the Internet ◦ Alleviate the load from servers 2
  3. 3. Client-server vs. P2p 3
  4. 4. The Peer Double function: ◦ Client - consumer ◦ Server - producer Incentives to offer service, not just benefit from service More peers means more capacity added to the system 4
  5. 5. P2p Goals Reduced central control Heterogeneity Flat topology Autonomy Fault resilience… 5
  6. 6. History File sharing applications ◦ 1999: Napster ◦ Gnutella, Kazaa, Freenet ◦ 2001: BitTorrent (Bram Cohen) ◦ Multiple variations of p2p programs Nowadays: ◦ File sharing – among individual users or in the data centers ◦ Media streaming – on-demand or live content ◦ Communication – Skype! 6
  7. 7. The beginnings: Napster 7
  8. 8. BitTorrent Seed Tracker 8
  9. 9. BitTorrent SeedLeecher Tracker 9
  10. 10. BitTorrent 10
  11. 11. BitTorrent 11
  12. 12. BitTorrent 12
  13. 13. BitTorrent 13
  14. 14. BitTorrent 14
  15. 15. BitTorrent 15
  16. 16. BitTorrent Free-rider 16
  17. 17. Swarm Behavior Incentive mechanisms ◦ Why offer service? Flash crowd ◦ Large number of peers choke the performance Steady state ◦ Number of peers stays constant over time ◦ Easy to predict performance Lifetime ◦ When and why is the torrent dying? ... 17
  18. 18. Peer Behavior Free riding ◦ Evaluate performance loss ◦ Methods to prevent Best results with minimum of effort ◦ Cheating, but not exactly Clustering of peers ◦ Peers download/upload to similar bandwidth peers Security of content ◦ Malicious data Connectivity ◦ NAT boxes 18
  19. 19. Approaches Measurement ◦ Real swarms ◦ Experimental platforms: PlanetLab, EmuLab Simulation Modeling Proposing new p2p protocols that solve different problems ◦ Proportional upload bandwidth: PropShare ◦ Amount of data transferred: Avalanche ◦ Upload bandwidth allocation among peers to get the best download speed: BitTyrant 19
  20. 20. P2p in 2008/2009 (Ipoque study) 20
  21. 21. Popularity Decreasing popularity for p2p file sharing ◦ Packet filtering ◦ Packet inspection ◦ Lawsuit against Pirate Bay ◦ … One click file hosting services (Rapidshare, Hotfile) become popular 21
  22. 22. What to Research? Packet filtering ◦ Glasnost Hiding identity ◦ Tor ◦ Anonymous p2p Copyright issues ◦ Download might be legal in some countries ◦ Upload is illegal … 22
  23. 23. What’s Next? Increasing usage of p2p protocols in other contexts: ◦ Media streaming, communication ◦ Inside the data centers ◦ Social networks ◦ Economics 23
  24. 24. Future New technologies ◦ IPv6 ◦ Mobile devices From computer-to-computer to human-to-human ◦ commons-based peer production (Yochai Benkler):  Peer governance  Peer property  Peer distribution 24
  25. 25. Conclusions Successful piece of research ◦ P2p transcended computer science Changed the way we share ◦ Files ◦ Knowledge ◦ Peer generated content P2p is here to stay! 25
  26. 26. Questions? Thank you! 26
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