Energy Auditing the Electrical   Utilities BHEL CCDP                                       By                             ...
Introduction   A complete and comprehensive energy audit study    was conducted on the electrical utilities, BHEL    CCDP...
Objective Main objective of the project is to audit the  electrical equipments and propose suitable savings  with payback...
BHEL CCDP(Combined Cycle Demonstration Plant) Trichy   CCDP is an IGCC(Integrated gasification combined    cycle) plant t...
IGCC (Integrated Gasification CombinedCycle)                     Fig IGCC Plant Process                                 ...
Gasification Reactions   Exothermic    ◦   C + O2              CO2    ◦   C + ½ O2             CO    ◦   C + 2H2         ...
PLANTPROCESSDIAGRAM    7
TNEB Bill for R&D Side as on ( 06-01-2012 ) :Statement of electrical energy consumption During the Month of DEC-2011 in re...
Auditing Electrical UtilitiesEquipment Audited Motors Compressors Cooling    Towers Lighting Pumps Transformers
Motor Auditing ReportImportant Data In Motor Auditing :% Loading – Working Power *100           Rated PowerWere, Loading o...
Efficiency vs Loading graph                                Efficiency vs Loading             100              90          ...
Power factor vs Loading                                       PF Vs Working Load               1.2                1       ...
Motor Details BHEL CCDP   There are about 139 Motors running in    the Plant including motor and    compressor drives   ...
Under-Loading MotorsVibrator-4( Rated Power-7.5 kW)    % Loading                -      38.667 %    Working Efficiency     ...
Under loading Motors  Crusher (Rated Power-30 kW)     % Loading            -     46.67 %     Working Efficiency   -     77...
Motor Calculations :   Make: NGEF(vibrator 4)          Rated Power             : 7.5 KW          Rated Current           ...
   Solution        Iron Loss with friction Windage loss        Pi + fw=Pnl-Pst.cu (Stator Cu loss)        Pst.cu= 3*(No l...
     Full load slipNs=     120f/p   S=        Ns-N/NsPr=          Rated power/(1-S)       WattsNs--=120*50/4       = 1500...
 Motor Efficiency:% ɳ=Rated output/Power Input *100    = 7.5/9.531 *100    =78.69% Power FactorPF=Pi/√3* Rated Voltage*R...
Payback and ProposalsProposals       Installation of ʎ-∆ convertor       Installation of VSD Drive       Installation of r...
Compressor Auditing Report   The Compressor is an Least efficient device the compressor    is major electrical consumptio...
Data Collection Name Plate data      Design CFM      Rated Power W      Storage tank Capacity m3      Cut in Pressure kg/...
Formula usedCorrection factor = [(273+ambient air temperature)/ (273+temperature ofdischarge air)]Actual FAD (m3/s) = [(P2...
Compressor Auditing   Instrument AirRated power                 :   37 kWDesign CFM                  :   162.5087Actual C...
Compressor Auditing   LPCRated power                 :   1.07 MWDesign CFM                  :   36034.56 CFMActual CFM   ...
Proposals and PaybackObservation : Instrument ,service air compressors are installed in the air 1985 and LPC  installed i...
Savings Analysis (With Leakage arresting of20%)Compressor     Leakage    Energy Waste Energy       Cost saved             ...
Lighting Auditing Report   The CCDP Plant utilize Mercury vapor lamps (125 W &    400W),FTL 40W and rare Sodium vapour (2...
Formula Used  Total Watts utilized:       With the help of power analyzer the total watts utilized bythe room is measured...
Lighting Auditing Report   Lighting consumption data at different    sectionsGasifier Section              -     105.36un...
Lighting calculations   Turbine & Crane Hall:   Length                     :        70 m   Width                      :...
Contd..   Watts / Sq.m : Total Watts / Floor area             8.4*103 / 4950 = 1.7 W/m2   Actual lux / (W/m2) : Average ...
Light AuditingPlace              Area     TotalWatts   ILERGasifier Section   375m2    1.155kW      0.74(Ground Floor)Powe...
Proposals and Savings Turbine and Crane Operating Hall :        This room consist of an two turbines(gas and steam turbi...
Proposals and Savings   Gasifier section and gas cleaning section mostly uses    an Mercury vapour lamp in most of the pl...
SavingsPlace              Energy Waste   Energy saved     Costs saved                   units          with new         ` ...
Cooling Tower   Cooling towers are heat removal devices used to transfer    process waste heat to the atmosphere. Cooling...
Formula used   Range (°C)= [CW inlet temp ( C) – CW outlet temp    ( C)]   Approach (°C)= [CW outlet temp ( C) – Wet bul...
Cooling Tower in CCDP The plant uses 2 cooling towers .The cooling tower type used is the Induced draft counter flowcooli...
CCDP Cooling Tower(1)                 4.88 ϕ m 4.88 ϕ m 4.88 ϕ m                                                          ...
CCDP Cooling Tower (2)                4.88 ϕ m 4.88 ϕ m 4.88 ϕ m                                                          ...
Cooling tower pump analysis   Cooling Tower -1ACW Pump 1 & II          These pumps are working under interval basis if on...
   Cooling Tower -1CW Pump 1 & II       These pumps are working under interval basis if onepump operated other been at st...
   Cooling Tower -2       PFBG pump I & II      Both pumps are running.Flow                        450 m3/hrMeasured flow...
   Cooling Tower -2       MHD I & II      These pumps are working under intervalbasis if one pump operated other been at ...
   Cooling Tower -2       HP Aux Pump      These pumps are working under intervalbasis if one pump operated other been at...
Proposals   Water used is found to be contaminated ,will cause slates    on the surface condenser. maintainance of water ...
Payback analysis Reduction of make up water by changing the tower  frame  Power consumption on Hp Aux is greatly variesOl...
Installing an efficient pump  By installing efficient pumps 2% of current energy consumption is   reduced. Old consumpti...
Transformer Auditing report:   Transformer :      BHEL CCDP Uses 2 transformer which has been       installed as per the...
Transformer Audit  1500 kVA TransformerNo load loss                - 1.32 KWFull Load Loss              - 8.5 kWTotal los...
1500 kVA Best loadingBest loading-√(no load loss/FL loss)*Rated kVA             = √ (1.32/1.85)*1500             = 766.94 ...
Proposals Currently the 1500 KVA is running under  42% loading but the best efficiency 51%  its recommended to increase t...
Power Factor ManagementApr-11-0.85May-11-0.67   NEED For PF CorrectionJun-11-0.78              AVG PF : 0.8 lagJul-11-0.77...
PF Correction   1500 KVA Installed with 150 KVAR to maintain 0.8 PF its recommended to increase from    0.8 to 0.9   Fro...
Transformer Summary   Costs SavedPF Correction      - 39,260 `/yearIncrease Loading %       - Increasing loading from42 %...
Pump Auditing The Main data to be found out during  pump auditing is     Hydraulic Power     Shaft Power     Pump Efficie...
Pump AuditFormula Used :   Hydraulic (kW) = Q x Total Head, (hd – hs) x   xg                                  1000•   Pum...
Auditing CalculationsMotor name plate details: (Liquor Pump –Quench Column)      Make :Kriloskar      Power : 75 kW      C...
Datas   Motor consumption details :       Power input Pi : 86.34 kW       Motor working ɳ: 80%Pump :     Capacity : 59.8...
CalculationsPump calculations (with measured values):Hydraulic power       = Q*H*ρ*g / 1000                = 59.8 * 238*10...
Pump Report Auxiliary Boiler Feed Pump:Hydraulic Power         = 3.374 kWShaft Power             = 9.3 kWPump ɳ          ...
Pump Report DM Plant back Wash Pump:Hydraulic Power      = 3.345 kWShaft Power          = 6.885 kWPump ɳ               = ...
Condensate PumpCapacity Q : 30 m3/hr (or) 0.00833 m3/secHead        : 100 mHydraulic Power     =7.685kWShaft Power        ...
Savings and Payback    Liquor pump:    Rated flow                 :   61 m3/hr    Flow Measured              :   59.8 m...
Payback:Annual Energy Savings: (Present power – Expected power) * Annual                                                wo...
Savings in PumpsPump               Energy         Cost           Return of                   Savings/year   savings/year  ...
Conclusion On auditing the electrical utilities of the  plant I am concluding the project with  savings summaryMotors    ...
Bibiliography   Bibliography   Handbook on Energy Audit and Environment Managementby Abbi   The Codes Guidebook for Int...
Bibiligraphy   Handbook of Energy Engineering-Albert Thumann, D. Paul Mehta   Energy Management-Dr. Parag Diwan & Mohamm...
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BHEL CCDP audit

  1. 1. Energy Auditing the Electrical Utilities BHEL CCDP By Renga Ramanujan C Reg No. 01110548014Guided by, Internal Guide : External Guide : Mrs. Gomathi E Mr. Ramakrishnan D (Asst Prof Petrochemical Dept.) (AGM CCDP BHEL) Anna University R&D BHEL Trichy Trichy 1
  2. 2. Introduction A complete and comprehensive energy audit study was conducted on the electrical utilities, BHEL CCDP in Thiruchirapalli, in the months of Jan-Apr 2012 Study was performed aiming the following objectives. Conservation of energy, as a social responsibility, as a commercial benefit to user Participate in the proposed, perform and achieve in trade (PAT Scheme) under, National mission on enhanced energy efficiency program 2
  3. 3. Objective Main objective of the project is to audit the electrical equipments and propose suitable savings with paybacksThe following equipments considered in Auditing : Motor Pumps Cooling Tower Lighting Compressor Transformer 3
  4. 4. BHEL CCDP(Combined Cycle Demonstration Plant) Trichy CCDP is an IGCC(Integrated gasification combined cycle) plant type. Installed year 1984 Total plant efficiency 58 % Capacity of the plant is 6.25 MW  2.25 MW ( Steam Turbine )  4.00 MW ( Gas Turbine ) 2.75 MW utilized by the plant and remaining power is uploaded to the TNEB grid 4
  5. 5. IGCC (Integrated Gasification CombinedCycle)  Fig IGCC Plant Process 5
  6. 6. Gasification Reactions Exothermic ◦ C + O2 CO2 ◦ C + ½ O2 CO ◦ C + 2H2 CH4 ◦ CO + H2O CO2 + H2 Endothermic ◦ C + CO2 2CO ◦ C + H2O CO + H2 Incomplete Combustion of coal forms an gas called as syn-gas (CO+H2 ). Coal gas has the Calorific value(in CCDP) is ( 1030 Kcal/Nm3 ) . These gasification reaction is taken place in a gasifier which kept in an high pressurized conditions. 6
  7. 7. PLANTPROCESSDIAGRAM 7
  8. 8. TNEB Bill for R&D Side as on ( 06-01-2012 ) :Statement of electrical energy consumption During the Month of DEC-2011 in respect of HT SC.No.58 CCDP SI NO Description Electrical Consumption In Units 01 CCDP 1,20,060 02 FCB 22,200 03 Welding research institute 38,300 04 Misc.Buildings,Street Lights 3,500 Total 1,84,060 Sanctioned demand in KVA 2000 Maximum demand touched in KVA during 1885.80 the month of DEC 2011 Power Factor 0.96 lag Energy Supplied by TNEB 1,84,060 Units Per Unit rate 6.76 ` Amount Paid to TNEB 12,44,245 ` 8
  9. 9. Auditing Electrical UtilitiesEquipment Audited Motors Compressors Cooling Towers Lighting Pumps Transformers
  10. 10. Motor Auditing ReportImportant Data In Motor Auditing :% Loading – Working Power *100 Rated PowerWere, Loading of an Motor Determines;75 % Loading- All motors designed efficiency is under this loading % only. PF factor is in the range of 0.8 -0.9 at this % loading. So its necessary step in auditing the motor to measure the loading percentage.Efficiency- Efficiency is measured by the losses method ,this efficiency plays the main role in energy consumption of the device.
  11. 11. Efficiency vs Loading graph Efficiency vs Loading 100 90 80 70 60Efficiency 50 75-100 HP 30-60 HP 40 15-25 HP 0-10 HP 30 20 10 0 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% loading
  12. 12. Power factor vs Loading PF Vs Working Load 1.2 1 0.8Power Factor 0.6 75-100 HP 30-60 HP 15-25 HP 0.4 0-10 HP 0.2 0 35% 45% 55% 65% 75% 85% 95% 100% Full load-Amperage
  13. 13. Motor Details BHEL CCDP There are about 139 Motors running in the Plant including motor and compressor drives The loading % is calculated in all the motors its found that 25 motors are running in under loading conditions among which 6 motors are high rated Motors which has been taken and efficiency has been calculated for that Motors
  14. 14. Under-Loading MotorsVibrator-4( Rated Power-7.5 kW) % Loading - 38.667 % Working Efficiency - 78.69 % PF - 0.92Belt Conveyor( Rated Power- 5.5 kW) % Loading - 41.81 % Working Efficiency - 80.13 % PF - 0.88 Bucket Elevator (Rated Power-5.5 kW) % Loading - 47.27 % Working Efficiency - 78.52 % PF - 0.85
  15. 15. Under loading Motors Crusher (Rated Power-30 kW) % Loading - 46.67 % Working Efficiency - 77.02 % PF - 0.92 Belt Conveyor(Rated Power-15 kW) % Loading - 47.27% Working Efficiency - 81.00% PF - 0.86 Ash conveyor(Rated Power-3.5kW) % Loading - 42.85% Working Efficiency - 73.11% PF - 0.48
  16. 16. Motor Calculations : Make: NGEF(vibrator 4) Rated Power : 7.5 KW Rated Current : 13.7 Amps Rated speed : 1440 RPM Insulation class : F Duty cycle : S1 Designed efficiency ɳ : 88% Number of Poles :4 Connection : Delta Starter : DOL No Load (15% load setting) Voltage : 415 V Current : 5A Frequency : 50 Hz Stator resistance : 1.75Ω Power : 1200 W Load (75% load setting) Voltage : 415 V Current : 12.5 A Power : 2900 W 16
  17. 17.  Solution Iron Loss with friction Windage loss Pi + fw=Pnl-Pst.cu (Stator Cu loss) Pst.cu= 3*(No load current/√3) 2*Stator Resistance =3*(5/√3)2*1.75 Pst.cu = 43.75 W Pi + fw=1200-43.75 = 1156.25 WStator resistance at working condition with respect to insulationclassStator resistance = (1.75)*(110+235/ 30+235) =2.28 ΩStator Copper losses at Full load Pst.Cu(FL)=(3*(13.5/√3)2/2.28 = 427.67. W 17
  18. 18.  Full load slipNs= 120f/p S= Ns-N/NsPr= Rated power/(1-S) WattsNs--=120*50/4 = 1500 RPMS= (1500-1440)/1500S=0.04Rotor Power Pr= 7500/(1-0.04) =7812.5WPower Input Pi=Pr+pst.Cu(FL)+(Pi+fW)+Pstray= 7500+427.67+1156.25+0.018= 9.531 KW 18
  19. 19.  Motor Efficiency:% ɳ=Rated output/Power Input *100 = 7.5/9.531 *100 =78.69% Power FactorPF=Pi/√3* Rated Voltage*Rated currentPF= 9.531*1000/√3*415*13.5 =0.968 lag 19
  20. 20. Payback and ProposalsProposals Installation of ʎ-∆ convertor Installation of VSD Drive Installation of reduced rating Motors Installation of DE Controllers Installation of Capacitors Payback for Installing VSD Drive : Motor Energy Costs Payback Period saved/Year Saved/Year kWh ` Months Vibrator 4 16386 1,06,509 10.7 Belt conveyor 20184 1,31,196 4.1 Bucket Elevator 18600 1,20,900 4.8 Crusher 104682 6,80,433 2.6 Belt Conveyor 3 60240 3,91,560 6 Total 220092 kWh 14,30,598 `
  21. 21. Compressor Auditing Report The Compressor is an Least efficient device the compressor is major electrical consumption device on the plant. The compressor air is used in an plant for the Instrumentation air , service air ,an heatless dryer compressor ,and LPC for Gas turbine, Plant AC. The compressor audited to find out the leakage, Actual FAD and the volumetric efficiency is calculated and the efficient enviornment is proposed in this auditing 21
  22. 22. Data Collection Name Plate data Design CFM Rated Power W Storage tank Capacity m3 Cut in Pressure kg/cm2 Cut off Pressure kg/cm2 Measured data Time taken by compressor to reach cutoff pressure sec Loading and unloading time sec Calculated Data % Leakage Volumetric ɳ ; Isothermal Efficiency Actual FAD CFM Specific energy consumption Watts/CFM 22
  23. 23. Formula usedCorrection factor = [(273+ambient air temperature)/ (273+temperature ofdischarge air)]Actual FAD (m3/s) = [(P2-P1)/P0 x (total vol of receiver / time taken) xcorrection factor]FAD (m3/hr) = FAD (m3/s) x 3600FAD (Nm3/hr) = FAD (m3/hr) x (atm pressure / 1.013) x (273 / (273 +ambient air T))FAD (cfm) = FAD (Nm3/hr) x 0.588Volumetric efficiency = (Actual FAD / Design value) x 100Sp.energy consumption= (actual power consumption /actual FAD in cfm) 23
  24. 24. Compressor Auditing Instrument AirRated power : 37 kWDesign CFM : 162.5087Actual CFM : 103.596Specific Energy Consumption : 0.24 kW/CFM% Volumetric ɳ : 63.75 %% Leakage : 34.49% Service AirRated power : 90 kWDesign CFM : 528.1536 CFMActual CFM : 319.22 CFMSpecific Energy Consumption : 0.235 kW/CFM% Volumetric ɳ : 60.47%% Leakage : 31.70% 24
  25. 25. Compressor Auditing LPCRated power : 1.07 MWDesign CFM : 36034.56 CFMActual CFM : 29337 CFMSpecific Energy Consumption : 0.41 kW/CFM% Volumetric ɳ : 67.54 %% Leakage : 35.06% Plant AC Compressor 2 No’sRated power : 20 kW ; 20kWDesign CFM : 70 CFM ; 60 CFMActual CFM : 54 CFM ; 42 CFMSpecific Energy Consumption : 0.21 kW/CFM ; 0.21kW/CFM% Volumetric ɳ : 64% ; 64.7% 25
  26. 26. Proposals and PaybackObservation : Instrument ,service air compressors are installed in the air 1985 and LPC installed in 1990 and Plant AC compressors installed in 1994.Its been found that the Volumetric efficiency is around 60% in all compressors represents the age doesn’t the performance of compressors. Problem exists in the leakage between the compressor and the receiver tank.Found out Leakage areas : Damaged Valve seperating the drier unit and service air compressor. Leakage in pipe joints of pipes at the room corner ends leaving the compressor room to the outside storage tank. Bypass Valve present near the tank were the pipe connceted to the storage tankFor precision leak detection ultrasonic leak detectors are 26
  27. 27. Savings Analysis (With Leakage arresting of20%)Compressor Leakage Energy Waste Energy Cost saved SavingsInstrumentation 34.39 % 84840 60000 3,90,000Service Air 31.70 % 294600 247465 16,08,526Total 3.07,465 19,98,522.5` Units/year 27
  28. 28. Lighting Auditing Report The CCDP Plant utilize Mercury vapor lamps (125 W & 400W),FTL 40W and rare Sodium vapour (250W) is used. The data has to be gathered is the length ,breadth and width of the room and lux at different corners of room and average lux is taken. With the gathered data ILER has been calculated and propose whether the room is at underlight or overlight conditions. 28
  29. 29. Formula Used Total Watts utilized: With the help of power analyzer the total watts utilized bythe room is measured. Room Index: Floor area (height-0.83)*(Length + Width) Watts/Square metre : Total Watts/Floor area Actual Lux : Average lux / W/m2 ILER(installed load efficacy ratio) = Actual Lux /Target Lux 29
  30. 30. Lighting Auditing Report Lighting consumption data at different sectionsGasifier Section - 105.36units/dayGas Cleaning System - 71.16units/dayCoal yard - 84.42units/dayEngineering Building - 46.72units/day 30
  31. 31. Lighting calculations Turbine & Crane Hall: Length : 70 m Width : 30 m Height : 6m Average Lux : 92 Target Lux : 50 Number of workers : 32 Total Watts Utilized : (400*21) = 8.4 kW Floor area : Length * Width 110*45 = 4950 m2 Room index : floor area / (height-0.83)*(length + Width) 4950 / (6-0.83) * (110 + 45) = 3.48 31
  32. 32. Contd.. Watts / Sq.m : Total Watts / Floor area 8.4*103 / 4950 = 1.7 W/m2 Actual lux / (W/m2) : Average lux / W/m2 92 / 1.7 = 54.214 Installed load efficacy ratio: Actual lux / Target lux 54.214 / 50 = 1.08 32
  33. 33. Light AuditingPlace Area TotalWatts ILERGasifier Section 375m2 1.155kW 0.74(Ground Floor)Power house 2100m2 3.2kW 1.05Turbine Hall 4950m2 8.4 kW 1.08Control Room 600m2 2.24 kW 0.51Pump House 1000m2 1.32 kW 1.004Compressor 875m2 1.28kW 0.892HouseStores and 2800m2 3.295 kW 0.93InstrumentationroomReference room 600m2 920W 0.93Gas Cleaning 400m2 2.12 kW 0.297Ground floor 33
  34. 34. Proposals and Savings Turbine and Crane Operating Hall : This room consist of an two turbines(gas and steam turbine ) were gas turbine operating in an steel guarded closed room and an condenser with vacuum pumps and pumps from condenser to cooling tower and the boost compressors of LPC and HPC in steel guarded closed room .32 workers are always present in the hall so the proper lighting is necessary for this room Proposals : The 21 No’s of 400 W high pressure mercury vapour lamps can be replaced with 180W Induction lamp Energy savings = Total watts utilized per hour previously* (operating hours) – Total Watts utilized in present*(operatinghours) Energy Savings / year = ( 8.4*4380 ) – (3.78*4380) = 20236 kWh Cost saved / year = 20236* 6.5 = 131,534 ` 34
  35. 35. Proposals and Savings Gasifier section and gas cleaning section mostly uses an Mercury vapour lamp in most of the places this light can be replaced with induction lamps Street lamp is mainly an 125 W Mercury vapour lamp which and 250 w sodium vapour lamps these lamps can be replace with the CFL Lamps 40W FTL lamps equals 18 W CFL so FTL lamps are replaced with CFL Lamps Motivating green energy with Solar Street 35
  36. 36. SavingsPlace Energy Waste Energy saved Costs saved units with new ` settings unitsGasifier Section 8079 5885 38,255Street lighting 58035 37120 2,41,312Power House 14016 13889 90,279Turbine Hall 36792 16556.4 1,31,534Control Room 3205 2809.3 18,260Gas Cleaning 35838 31130 2,02,345Reference room 282 257 1671Total 111331.69 723656 ` 36
  37. 37. Cooling Tower Cooling towers are heat removal devices used to transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere. Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat or, rely solely on air to cool the working fluid to near the dry-bulb air temperature.Auditing the cooling tower: While auditing the cooling towerData Gathered: Hot water inlet Cold Water outlet circulation rate Dry bulb and Wet bulb Temperature electrical equipments data associated with cooling towerCalculated Effectiveness of cooling tower Make up Water Requirement Pump working efficiency 37
  38. 38. Formula used Range (°C)= [CW inlet temp ( C) – CW outlet temp ( C)] Approach (°C)= [CW outlet temp ( C) – Wet bulb temp ( C)] Effectiveness= Range / (Range + Approach)• Blow down= Evaporation loss / (C.O.C. – 1) m3/hr• Make up water requirement= Evaporation loss + Blow down loss m3/hr 38
  39. 39. Cooling Tower in CCDP The plant uses 2 cooling towers .The cooling tower type used is the Induced draft counter flowcooling tower. Cooling Tower 1 The water used to cool the external surface of condenser Cooling Tower 2 The water used to cool the gasifier Annual power utilized for cooling tower is 72 lakhs ` Pumps 80% Fans 20% 39
  40. 40. CCDP Cooling Tower(1) 4.88 ϕ m 4.88 ϕ m 4.88 ϕ m Calculated Values: No of Fans: 4 No of blades: 3 Fan Motor: 15 KW Range : 11oC Fan Blades 3.6 ϕ m Approach : 5oC 44oC Effectiveness : 68.75% Evaporation : 31.64m3.hr Rate of Flow 1880 m3/hr Loss Tower Frame: Treated timber Blow down :10.54 m3/hr Loss8.39 ϕ m Connected : Wet Bulb Temp: 28oC Dry Bulb Temp: 30.5oC Pumps ACW1,2(45kW), CW 1,2 (150 103.7 ϕ m 33o kW) C HP Aux pump(30 125 ϕ m kW) Fan : CT fans 40
  41. 41. CCDP Cooling Tower (2) 4.88 ϕ m 4.88 ϕ m 4.88 ϕ m Calculated Values: No of Fans: 4 Fan Motor: 20 KW No of blades: 3 Range : 9oC Fan Blades 3.8 ϕ m Approach : 8oC 45oC Effectiveness : 52.95% Evaporation : 33.6m3.hr Rate of Flow2440 m3/hr Tower Frame: Treated timber Loss Blow down :11.196 m3/hr8.50 ϕ m Loss Wet Bulb Temp: 28oC Dry Bulb Temp: 30.5oC Connected : Pumps PFBG 1&2 (75kW) 130 ϕ m 36oC MHD 1,2 (40 kW) HP Aux pump(30 160 ϕ m kW) Fan : CT fans 3*15kW 41
  42. 42. Cooling tower pump analysis Cooling Tower -1ACW Pump 1 & II These pumps are working under interval basis if one pump operated otherbeen at stand by.Flow 220 m3/hrMeasured flow 208 m3/hrHead 40 mPower consumed 55.47 kWHydraulic power 22.67 kWShaft Power 45 KWɳPump 50.38%Power consumption /year 22180 units/year 42
  43. 43.  Cooling Tower -1CW Pump 1 & II These pumps are working under interval basis if onepump operated other been at stand by.Flow 800 m3/hrMeasured flow 235 m3/hrHead 235 mPower consumed 100 kWHydraulic power 49.6 kWShaft Power 76.65 KWɳPump 65%Power consumption/year 400000 units/year 43
  44. 44.  Cooling Tower -2 PFBG pump I & II Both pumps are running.Flow 450 m3/hrMeasured flow 420 m3/hrHead 40.7 mPower consumed 91.9 kWHydraulic power 46.58 kWShaft Power 74.9 KWɳPump 62.11% pump consumption/year- 367600 units 44
  45. 45.  Cooling Tower -2 MHD I & II These pumps are working under intervalbasis if one pump operated other been at stand by.Flow 75 m3/hrMeasured flow 66 m3/hrHead 100 mPower consumed 48.316 kWHydraulic power 17.985 kWShaft Power 40 KWɳPump 44%pump consumption/year- 193264 units 45
  46. 46.  Cooling Tower -2 HP Aux Pump These pumps are working under intervalbasis if one pump operated other been at stand by.Flow 25 m3/hrMeasured flow 20 m3/hrHead 250 mPower consumed 36.8 kWHydraulic power 13.625 kWShaft Power 29.91 KWɳPump 57.5%pump consumption/year- 147200 units 46
  47. 47. Proposals Water used is found to be contaminated ,will cause slates on the surface condenser. maintainance of water solid levels is necessary Tower frame in cooling tower 1 is damaged its recommended to works on damage or install an new cooling tower frame Cooling tower pumps all pumps except ACW and PFBG pumps are operated just above 50 % its recommended to install high efficient pumps around 60-70% 47
  48. 48. Payback analysis Reduction of make up water by changing the tower frame Power consumption on Hp Aux is greatly variesOld Energy consumption : 73,688kWhNew Energy Expected : 40,256 kWhAnnual Energy Saved : 200592 kWhAnnual Cost Saved : 13,03,848Payback period : 8 months 48
  49. 49. Installing an efficient pump By installing efficient pumps 2% of current energy consumption is reduced. Old consumption 362644 units New consumption 362644*0.8 =290115.2 Cost saved=(362644-290115.2)*6.5 = 4,71,438 ` Investment = 7,50,800 Payback = 19.11 MonthsEnergy and cost savedBy Repairing Tower Frame : 13,03,848Installation of efficient pumps : 7,50,800Cost Saved /year in 2054648 `Cooling tower 49
  50. 50. Transformer Auditing report: Transformer :  BHEL CCDP Uses 2 transformer which has been installed as per the norms of TNEB,as CCDP is sanctioned with 2000KVA demand  Transformer 1 - 500 KVA  Transformer 2 – 1500 KVATransformer is an static device hence the losses are low.While performing performance analysis of an transformer these data to be find out,Losses(Both No load , Load Losses)Best LoadingPower factor management 50
  51. 51. Transformer Audit 1500 kVA TransformerNo load loss - 1.32 KWFull Load Loss - 8.5 kWTotal loss - (NL Loss +FL Loss*(Act KVA/Rated KVA) 3.21 KVAOperating hours - 9hrsCurrently loaded -42.13%Calculating Annual Loss during Working Days:Loss-(3.21*9)*300*1.85 =10833 kWh/AnnumCalculating annual loss during Non-Working daysLoss-(3.21*12)*365*1.32=10128.75 kWh/AnnumTotal 12 month Transformer loss-10833 + 10128=20961 KVA/AnnumPresent Energy utilization from TNEB – 964,952 kVA/Annum29% lossed in transformer 51
  52. 52. 1500 kVA Best loadingBest loading-√(no load loss/FL loss)*Rated kVA = √ (1.32/1.85)*1500 = 766.94 kVA = 51 %500 kVA TransformerNo load loss-1.05FL Loss - 6.5Total loss - 15.507 kWh/dayCurrently Loaded – 39%Annual Loss during working days – 5815 kVAAnnual loss during Non Workin – 4704 kVATotal loss in years - 9653 kVABest Loading % - 40.91% 52
  53. 53. Proposals Currently the 1500 KVA is running under 42% loading but the best efficiency 51% its recommended to increase the loading % Install 20 KVAR cpacitor. 53
  54. 54. Power Factor ManagementApr-11-0.85May-11-0.67 NEED For PF CorrectionJun-11-0.78 AVG PF : 0.8 lagJul-11-0.77Aug-11-0.8 Converting KVA to KWSep-11-0.9 640*0.8 = 512 KWhOct-11-0.88 With 0.9 PFNov-11-0.76 640 *0.9 = 576 KWhDec-11-0.92Jan-12-0.96 64 units saved per hourFeb-12-0.78Mar-12-0.7Apr-12-0.8 54
  55. 55. PF Correction 1500 KVA Installed with 150 KVAR to maintain 0.8 PF its recommended to increase from 0.8 to 0.9 From BEE book PF correction table to maintain 0.9 Multiply with 0.266Avg 640 kVA drawn so 640*0.266-170 kVAR Required further 20 more KVAR needed 1 kVAR costs 700 rs 20 kVAR costs 20*700 Investment on Capacitor = 14,000 By installing 20 kVAR 6040 KWh is savedCost Saved = 6.5*6040 = 39260` Payback = 14000*12 / 39260 = 4.27 Months 55
  56. 56. Transformer Summary Costs SavedPF Correction - 39,260 `/yearIncrease Loading % - Increasing loading from42 % to 51% 56
  57. 57. Pump Auditing The Main data to be found out during pump auditing is Hydraulic Power Shaft Power Pump EfficiencyFor calculating these datasFlow RateHeadPower ConsumptionIs measured 57
  58. 58. Pump AuditFormula Used : Hydraulic (kW) = Q x Total Head, (hd – hs) x xg 1000• Pump shaft power= Hydraulic power X ɳ Motor Pump efficiency, ɳ Pump = Hydraulic power Pump shaft powerWereQ-Flow Rate m3/secH-Head m - Density kg/m3g- Acceleration due to gravity m2/ s 58
  59. 59. Auditing CalculationsMotor name plate details: (Liquor Pump –Quench Column) Make :Kriloskar Power : 75 kW Current : 128 A Speed : 2970 RPM Insulation Class : F Duty : S1 Voltage : 415 V %ɳ : 85 %Pump name plate details : Make : VK Pump industries Type : Triplex Plunger Capacity Q : 61 m3/hr (or) 0.016944 m3/sec Head : 238 m Speed : 2970 RPM %ɳ : 57.5 % 59
  60. 60. Datas Motor consumption details : Power input Pi : 86.34 kW Motor working ɳ: 80%Pump : Capacity : 59.8 m3/hr (or) 0.016611m3/sec Density of liquid : 1000 Kg/m3 Gravity : 9.81 m/sec2 60
  61. 61. CalculationsPump calculations (with measured values):Hydraulic power = Q*H*ρ*g / 1000 = 59.8 * 238*1000*9.81/1000 = 38.78 kW Pump Shaft power = Motor input * motor ɳ = 86.34* 0.80 = 69.08 kW % Pump ɳ = Hydraulic power*100 / Shaftpower 61
  62. 62. Pump Report Auxiliary Boiler Feed Pump:Hydraulic Power = 3.374 kWShaft Power = 9.3 kWPump ɳ = 36% Auxiliary Boiler Hot water Feed Pump:Hydraulic Power = 310.92 WShaft Power = 712.5 WPump ɳ = 43% Auxiliary Boiler FO Injection Pump :Hydraulic Power = 85.247 WShaft Power = 172.5WPump ɳ = 49% 62
  63. 63. Pump Report DM Plant back Wash Pump:Hydraulic Power = 3.345 kWShaft Power = 6.885 kWPump ɳ = 49% DM Plant Drinking Water Pump :Hydraulic Power = 1.002 kWShaft Power = 2.002 kWPump ɳ = 50.08 % DM Plant Make Water Pump:Hydraulic Power = 546.075 WShaft Power = 1.258 kWPump ɳ = 45% 63
  64. 64. Condensate PumpCapacity Q : 30 m3/hr (or) 0.00833 m3/secHead : 100 mHydraulic Power =7.685kWShaft Power =15.309 kWPump ɳ = 50.02 %Proposals:These pump working at the 50% efficiency soincrease the efficiency to 65-70% Will reducethe power consumption 64
  65. 65. Savings and Payback  Liquor pump:  Rated flow : 61 m3/hr  Flow Measured : 59.8 m3/hr  Power consumption : 86.34 kW  Pump current Efficiency : 56 %  Motor current efficiency : 80 %  Annual working hours : 6000 Proposals: The pump is working under the 56 % Efficiency, Replacing the pump with the 70% Efficiency will decrease power required hydraulic power, hence reducing the power consumption Proposed Power consumption : 76 kW One time motor Implementation cost : 68000 ` 65
  66. 66. Payback:Annual Energy Savings: (Present power – Expected power) * Annual working hours (86.34-76)*6000 62040 kWhAnnual power cost savings : Annual energy savings * cost of 1unit 62040 * 6.5 403260 `Payback period : One time implementation cost*12/Annual power cost savings 68000*12 / 403260 2.4 Months 66
  67. 67. Savings in PumpsPump Energy Cost Return of Savings/year savings/year investmentAuxillary Boiler 10318 kWh 67067 ` 9.3 MonthsFeed PumpBack wash Pump 4200 kWh 27300 ` 17 monthsCondensate 11340 kWh 73710 ` 7.5 monthsPumpLiquor Pump 62040 kWh 403260 ` 2.4Total 87898 kWh 5,71,337 ` 67
  68. 68. Conclusion On auditing the electrical utilities of the plant I am concluding the project with savings summaryMotors - 220092 kWhCompressor – 307465 kWhLighting – 111331.69 kWhCooling Tower – 316099 kWhTransformer – 10000 kWhPumping – 87898 kWhTotal 736786.69 kWh saved/year 68
  69. 69. Bibiliography Bibliography Handbook on Energy Audit and Environment Managementby Abbi The Codes Guidebook for Interiorsby Sharon Koomen Harmon, Katherine E. Kennon Technical Guide of BHEL CCDP Plantby Mithoshi Ken Shu Wang,Yaspal singh and Karthikeyan. Hispanic Engineer & IT- Winter-Energy Auditing magazine. Keeping the Lights on: Nuclear, Renewables and Climate Change- Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: Environmental Audit Committee Investment Grade Energy Audit: Making Smart Energy Choices- Shirley J. Hansen, James W. Brown 69
  70. 70. Bibiligraphy Handbook of Energy Engineering-Albert Thumann, D. Paul Mehta Energy Management-Dr. Parag Diwan & Mohammed Yaqoot Turbines Compressors And Fans (4th Edition)- S. M. Yahya Reciprocating Compressors: Operation & Maintenance-Heinz P. Bloch, John J. Hoefner Lighting dimensions: Volume 20-Magazine Lighting Retrofit and Relighting: A Guide to Energy Efficient Lighting- James R. Benya, Donna J. Leban Pump Users Handbook: Life Extension-Heinz P. Bloch, Allan R. Budris Variable Speed Pumping:A Guide To Successful Applications- Magazine BHEL CCDP Electrical equipments Installation Data- Departmental Copy Cooling Tower Performance-Meera Bai,Lakshmi and Naryan Manual on coating and lining methods for cooling water systems- Dr.Chandrasekaran 70
  71. 71. 71
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