Glass manufacture


Published on

lecture ppt for students

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Glass manufacture

  1. 1. GLASSINPACKAGINGC.S.Purushothaman CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 1
  3. 3. BASICS
  5. 5. What is glass made of?Sand – 70%Soda Ash – 15%Limestone – 10% CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 5
  6. 6. Three of most common rock forming minerals onearth. Chemically named: quartz sand / rockcrystalProperties: Extremely heat durable Chemical stack resistance
  7. 7. Naturally:Mechanical & chemical weathering of quartz-bearingigneous & metamorphic rocksChemically weathering:Less stable minerals • break down to become silica sand
  8. 8. Anhydrous sodium carbonateTexture: softColor: grayish & whiteAppearance: lump / powder in nature
  9. 9. Naturally: Erosion of igneous rock form sodium deposits Transport by waters as runoffs & collect in basins When sodium comes in contact with CO2, precipitates out sodium carbonate
  10. 10. Includes hydrated lime Ca (OH)2 & quicklime CaOOnly quicklime can use to make glass
  12. 12. Cullet – Recycled glass(from plant and postconsumer) used at levelsas high as 80% whenavailable. It is neededand added to enhancethe melting rate and itsignificantly reducesenergy required for glassproduction. CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 16
  13. 13. Glass Container Recycling 100% recyclable – Can be recycled again and again with no loss in quality or purity – In 2005, 25.3% of glass container recycled Good for the environment – recycling glass reduces consumption of raw materials, extends the life of plant equipment, and saves energy Lighter weight – More than 40% lighter than 20 years ago. CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 17
  14. 14. Benefits of Using Quality Cullet  Over a ton of natural resources are saved for every ton of glass recycled.  Energy costs drop about 2-3% for every 10% cullet used in the manufacturing process.  For every six tons of recycled container glass used, one ton of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, is reduced.  Glass has an unlimited life, it can be recycled over and over again. Lesser sodium oxide stronger the glass Aluminium oxide increases the hardness & durability. Use of Na2SO4 & Arsenic reduces blisters CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 18
  15. 15. METALS USED TO IMPART COLOR TO GLASS Cadmium Sulfide Yellow Gold Chloride Red Cobalt Oxide Blue-Violet Manganese Dioxide Purple Nickel Oxide Violet Sulfur Yellow-Amber Chromic Oxide Emerald Green Uranium Oxide Fluorescent Yellow, Green Iron Oxide Greens and Browns Selenium Oxide Reds Carbon Oxides Amber Brown Antimony Oxides White Copper Compounds Blue, Green, Red Tin Compounds White Lead Compounds Yellow Manganese Dioxide A "decoloring" agent Sodium Nitrate A "decoloring" agent Three standard furnace colours are Flint, Amber and Emerald Blue coloured bottle make product look whiteOPAL: MINUTE CRYSTALS OF FLUORINE COMPOUNDS ARE ADDED (CALCIUM FLUORIDE) CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 19
  17. 17. Cullet + SAND + OTHER RM MELTED in furnace (1500 0 C) (100 to 500 MT) Colour agents added in melt or forehearth Glass has no distinct melting or solidifying temperature Decolorizers are added to remove the colour by mineral impurities CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 21
  18. 18. GOB FORMATION Gob is one individual mass of molten Gobs ---to form blank mold glass which makes one container Molten glass flows depending on the bottle size. Mechanical shears snip off "gobs" of molten glass. Each makes one container. Falling gob is caught by spout and directed to blank molds. Mass-production is made up of several individual sections, each is an independent unit holding a set of bottle-Furnace draw-off orifice and gob making molds. shears Large bottles consists of a blank mold and a blow mold. Orifice 12 mm to 50mm Higher production using double or triple gobs on one machine. two or three blank molds and similar blow molds. CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 22
  19. 19. GLASS MOULDINGBLOWING (Bottle or Jar)TWO STAGE MOULDINGBLANK MOULD – blank mold forms neck and initial shape – parison mould where gob falls and neck is formed – has number of sections – finish section – cavity section (made in two halves to allow parison removal) – a guide or funnel for inserting gob – a seal for gob opening once gob is settled in mold – blowing tubes through the gob and neck openingsBLOW MOULD - blow mold produce the final shape TWO TYPES OF PROCESSES CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 23
  21. 21. BLOW & BLOWBlow-and-blow process--- for narrow-necked bottlesThe two processes differ according to the parison producing.Blow-and-blow process:1. Gob dropped into the blank mold through a funnel-shaped guide (985°C)2. parison bottomer replaced guide ;air blown into settle mold toforce the finish section. At this point the bottle finish is complete.3. Solid bottom plate replaced parison bottomer ; air is forced toexpand the glass upward and form the parison.4. Parison removed from the blank mold, rotated to a right-side-uporientation for placement into the blow mold.5. Air forces the glass to conform to the shape of the blow mold.The bottle is cooled to stand without becoming distorted and is thenplaced on conveyors to the annealing oven. CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 25
  22. 22. BLOW & BLOW CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 26
  23. 23. PRESS & BLOW press-and-blow process--- for wide-mouthed jars Gob delivery and settle-blow steps are similar to blow-and-blow forming. Parison is pressed into shape with a metal plunger rather than blown into shape The final blowing step is identical to the blow-and-blow process. Used for smaller necked containers. Better control of glass distribution Press and blow formsthe parison by mechanical action CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 27
  24. 24. Bottle ManufactureDifference of the two processes Blow-and-blow used for narrow-necked bottles. Press-and-blow used to make wide-mouthed jars and for increasingly smaller necked containers. Better control of glass distribution. Typical production rates range from 60 to 300 bottles per minute, depending on the number of sections in a machine, the number of gobs being extruded, and the size of the container. The blown bottle is removed from the blow mold with takeout tongs and placed on a deadplate to air cool for a few moments before transfer to a conveyor that transports it to the annealing oven. CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 28
  25. 25. DIFFERENCE IN PROCESSESDifference of the two processes Blow-and-blow used for narrow-necked bottles. Press-and-blow used to make wide-mouthed jars and for increasingly smaller necked containers. Better control of glass distribution. Typical production rates range from 60 to 300 bottles per minute, depending on the number of sections in a machine, the number of gobs being extruded, and the size of the container. The blown bottle is removed from the blow mold with takeout tongs and placed on a deadplate to air cool for a few moments before transfer to a conveyor that transports it to the annealing oven. CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 29
  26. 26. ANNEALINGANNEALINGto reduce internal stresses; in annealing oven- Walls are comparatively thick and cooling will not be even.- The inner and outer skins of a glass become rigid- The still-contracting inner portion build up internal stresses- Uneven cooling develop substantial stresses in the glass.- Bottle passes through an lehr after removal from the blow mold.- LEHR is a belt passing through the controlled temperature oven at a rateof about 200mm to 300mm per minute. Glass temp is raised to 5650 C and thengradually cooled to room temperature with all internal stresses reduced to safelevels in about an hour as they exitImproperly annealed bottles are fragile and high breakageHot-filling also produce unacceptable breakage levels. CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 30
  27. 27. SURFACE COATINGSSURFACE COATINGS Purpose--- to reduce the coefficient of friction Reasons---The inner and outer surfaces have different characteristics The outer surface comes in contact with the mold and takes the grain of the mold surface Both surfaces are PRISTINE, MONOLITHIC, STERILE, CHEMICALLY INERT. Pristine glass has high COF, surface scratchinhg and brusing can occur when surface rub. Surface scratching has lower breakage resistance Methods--- hot-end coating ; cold-end coatings The hot-end coating applied at the entrance to the annealing lehr to strength the glass surface Cold-end coatings depending on the filling process and end use. Typical cold-end coatings---oleic acid, monostearates, waxes, silicones, polyethylenes The label adhesive as one cold-end coating. CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 31
  28. 28. INSPECTION & PACKAGINGINSPECTION AND PACKING Use mechanical and electronic means. 1) Squeeze testers subject the container walls to a compressive force ( between two rollers) 2) Plug gauges check height, perpendicularity, inside and outside finish diameters. 3) Optical devices inspect for stones, blisters, checks, bird swings, and other blemishes and irregularities by rotating the container past a bank of photocells (Figure 6.4). Faulty containers crushing into cullet. Transported in reusable corrugated shippers; Shipped on pallets Automatic equipment used to clear tiers off the pallet and feed into the filling machine. CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 32
  29. 29. DECORATIONFrosting – Etching by Hydrofluric Acid (HF) / sand blasting – expensivePrinting Screen Printing – inks are fired. – APPLIED CERAMIC LABELCeramic Frosting spray with ceramic paint ( ground glass + oil mixture) – fire – oil evaporates and ground glass fuses on surface.
  31. 31. BOTTLE PARTS Finish is that part which receives the closure Smooth round shapes---easily formed Suitable on filling lines Labeled at relatively high speeds Accurately positioned in spot-labeler Greater strength-to-weight ratios Better material utilizationCSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 35
  32. 32. BOTTLE DEFECTS Flat shapes inherent problems. “bird swing” and “spike” defects. Spikes --- glass projections inside the bottle Bird swing--- glass thread joining the two walls Careful design to avoid stress points. shapes---difficult to form angular CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 36
  33. 33. FINISH & CLOSURESFINISH AND CLOSURES Finishes are broadly classified according to diameter ,sealing method, and special features. Continuous-thread (CT), lug, crown, threaded-crown, and roll- on are common finish designs.Closures are based on the cost, utility, and decoration thread profile has a curved or partially semicircular profileCOLOURINGFlint – Clear & TranspareentGreen – Chrome oxide for emerald green upto 5%Brown – Iron and sulphur for amberBlue – Cobalt oxide for BlueOpal – Opaque white CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 37
  34. 34. NECK & SHOULDER AREASNeck and Shoulder Areas The impact on filling, air displacement, and dispensing. Fill level in long narrow necks Headspace for thermal expansion and facilitate filling. Manufacturing defect ---choke neck Ridge on the sealing surface---overpress Upper shoulder --- below the neck. Shoulder and neck blending ---important design and production. lower shoulder--- the integration point between the upper shoulder and the body. Contact area CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 38
  35. 35. SIDESSides The most generalized areas of the bottle. Labeling styles and preventing scuffing must be considered. Bottles designed with label panels to prevent scuffing. The panel may have prominent base and shoulder ridges. In angular bottles, rounded corners are preferable for wraparound or three-side labeling. Spot labeling is normally a one- or two-sided application. Labeling of non-round shapes is slower than for round shapes. CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 39
  36. 36. HEEL & BASEHeel and Base High-abuse area--- start high from the base curving into the base to a suitable base diameter. Body-to-base curve should combine 3 radii. The largest blends body to heel, the smallest blends heel to base. Diameter as large as possible as a good design. Center of the base ensure a flat, stable bottom . Stippled or knurled on the circular bearing surface to protect the scratches not to weaken the body during handling and usage. Ketchup bottles and other sauce bottles require: heel and base be heavier and contoured when expelling the contents. Wide-mouthed jar bases have designed-in stacking features. ·Container base fits into recessed cap. · Indented container base fits over cap. Heel tap --- excess glass distributed to the heel. CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 40
  37. 37. STABILITY & MACHINABILITYStability and Machinability bottles stability the center of gravity ; the base surface area problem in manufacturing ---tall and narrow bottles handling and labeling in packaging line --- high center Short round oval bodies --- efficient for machine handling and labeling problems. baby food ; cold cream jars. As much as possible, bottles should be designed to be all-around trouble free to manufacture, fill, close, and ship. Some designs are inherently weaker or more prone to cause trouble in their filling and the distribution cycle than others. CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 41
  38. 38. VIALS & AMPOULESVials and ampoules Vials and ampoules--- mainly for pharmaceuticals and sera Preformed tubing stock Sealed glass containers Constriction--- easy fracture stress concentration coated with a ceramic paint Standard sizes ---1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 ml. Serum vials a rubber septum ; an aluminum neck ring. a needle cannula to withdraw serum can be accessed several times. standard sizes--- 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, and 20 ml. Tumblers --- wide-mouthed containers Carboys ---bulk containment for acids or chemicals. CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 42
  39. 39. BONATED BEVERAGESCarbonated Beverages The pressure factors: gas dissolved in the product. Beverage producers express this as the number of volumes of gas dissolved in a unit volume of the product. For example, if a 48 oz. volume of carbon dioxide at standard conditions is dissolved in 12 oz. of beverage, then the beverage is said to yield 4 gas volumes. Carbonated beverage and beer bottles internal gas pressure : soft drink 0.34 millipascal (50 psi), beer 0.83 millipascal (120 psi). capped well The loss of bottle strength Bottle designs ---round in cross section gently curving radii to maximize strength. CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 43
  41. 41. Benefits of Glass Packaging Inert Regal Ensures freshness and taste Nontoxic FDA-approved 2.5 g/cc CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 45
  42. 42. Glass Types and General Propertiesinorganic substance fused at high temperatures andcooled quicklyprinciple component ---silica (quartz),Ingredients of components makes different formulations.Mineral compounds used to achieve improvedproperties: decolorizeration, Clarity, Colouring…Other glass types used for special packaging purposes.lead compounds, boron compounds, borosilicateglasses… CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 46
  43. 43. Glass Types and General PropertiesAdvantages as a packaging material: inert perfect food container. impermeability clarity regal image rigidity stable at high temperaturesDisadvantages : fragility high weight high energy costs CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 47
  44. 44. TYPES OF GLASSAlthough INERT Sodium and other ions can leach out onceratin solution.USP Type-I Borosilicate Flint (clear), Amber (brown) glassvials,USP Type-II De Alkalized Soda Lime Glass(type3) that hasbeen treated in the lehr with sulphur to reduce alkalisolubility. The treatment produces a disccolouredappearance.USP Type-III conventional soda glass CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 48
  45. 45. USP TYPE I BOROSILICATE (neutral) GLASSTYPE 1ADDITION OF 6% BORON REDUCES LEACHING ACTIONLeast reactive glass available for containers.It can be used for all applications and is most commonlyused to packaged water for injection, UN-buffered products,chemicals, sensitive lab samples, and samples requiringsterilization. All lab glass apparatus is generally Type Iborosilicate glass. Type I glass is used to package productswhich are alkaline or will become alkaline prior to theirexpiration date CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 49
  46. 46. USP TYPE II DE ALKALIZED SODA LIME GLASSHas higher levels of sodium hydroxide andIt is less resistant to leaching than Type I butGOOD ALKALI RESISTANCEIt can be used for products that remain below CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 50
  47. 47. USP TYPE III SODA LIME GLASSAcceptable in packaging some dry powders which aresubsequently dissolved to make solutions or buffers.It is also suitable for packaging liquid formulations thatprove to be insensitive to alkali.Type III glass should not be used for products that are tobe autoclaved, but can be used in dry heat sterilization CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 51
  48. 48. USP TYPE NP SODA LIME GLASSIs a general purpose glass and is used for non-parenteral applications where chemical durabilityand heat shock are not factors.These containers are frequently used for capsules,tablets and topical products. CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 52
  50. 50. PERFORMANCE & TESTING It is important that containers comply withspecification and general industry guidelinesin order to withstand the normal stresses and mechanical abuse right through until the end user has finished using it. CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 54
  51. 51. VERTICAL LOADForces of this nature might be producedduring capping or throughstacking products on top of each other. Tohelp ensure glass containershave adequate vertical load strength, wetest to BS EN ISO 8113-2004using a Universal Testing Machine. CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 55
  52. 52. IMPACT TESTINGTo help ensure glass containers have anadequate impact resistance,we can test to standard manufacturingcodes of practice using anindustry standard Pendulum ImpactTester. CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 56
  53. 53. THERMAL SHOCKHot-fill or heat-treated glassware can be tested for thermal shockresistance to ensure theproduct is fit for the intended purpose. Testing can be carried out toASTM C149 and BS EN ISO 7459 either as pass/fail test typically at42OC downshock or progressive testing to complete sample failure. EFFECT OF SUDDEN TEMPERATURE CHANGE EFFECT IS MINIMAL IF BOTH SIDES ARE HEATED OR COOLED SIMULTANEOUSLY EFFECTI IS PROMINENT WHEN ONE SURFACE IS HOT AND THE OTHER SURFACE IS CHILLED CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 57
  54. 54. COATING PERFORMANCEAssessment of surface protection can becarried out by use of sliptables and hot end coating technology.The longevity of thecoating performance can be assessedusing line simulator, whereby bottle tobottle abrasion damage which maybe expected to occur on a filling line can bereplicated and thesubsequent damage of the containertested. This is of particularuse for returnable glassware. CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 58
  55. 55. INTERNAL PRESSURE RESISTANCECarbonated beverage bottles need to beable to withstand without failure thepressure produced by their contents overlong periods. CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 59
  56. 56. RESIDUAL STRAINMeasurement of annealingstresses/residual strain to ASTM C148; CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 60
  57. 57. ON-LINE INSPECTION OF GLASS BOTTLES1.Bottle Spacer. This machine is pre-set to create a spacebetween the bottles on the conveyer to avoid bottle to bottlecontract.2.Squeeze Tester. Each bottle is passed between discs that exerta force to the body of the container. Any obvious weakness orcrack in the bottle will cause it to fail completely with the resultingcullet being collected by a return conveyor running underneath.3.Bore Gauger. The internal and external diameter at the neckfinish entrance to the bottle and the bottle height are measured.Bottles outside specification are automatically rejected by meansof a pusher positioned downstream from the gauger. CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 61
  58. 58. 4.Check Detector. Focuses a beam of light onto areas of thecontainer where defects are known to occur from previous visualexaminations, any crack will reflect the light to a detector, whichwill trigger a mechanism to reject the bottle.5.Wall Thickness Detector. This test uses dielectric properties ofthe glass, the wall thickness can be determined by means of asensitive head which traverses the body section of the container.A trace of the wall thickness is then obtained and bottles fallingbelow a specified minimum will be automatically rejected.6.Hydraulic Pressure Tester. A test carried out on bottles whichwill be filled with carbonated beverages and gauges the internalpressure of every bottle before it is packed. CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 62
  59. 59. 7.Visual Check. Bottles are passed in front of a viewing screen as afinal inspection.Glass failure is usually as a result of thermal shock or impact stresses.Each glass container has a maximum thermal expansion thresholdand a maximum vertical load stress, which it can withstand withoutcracking. These values should be known before it is used for aparticular application.The shape of the container will influence its strength, smooth edgesresult in the formation of a stronger container than one withrectangular or sharp edges CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 63
  60. 60. There are 6 broad classifications of glass defects1.Checks2.Seams3.Non-glass inclusions4.Dirt, dope, adhering particles or oil parks5.Freaks and malformations, and6.Marks CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 64
  61. 61. Defects are classified as•Critical, those that are hazardous to theuser and those that make the containercompletely unusable.•Major, those that materially reduce theusability of the container or its contents•Minor, those that do not affect the usabilityof the container, but detract from itsappearance or acceptability to the customer. CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 65
  62. 62. Critical Defects in Glass Bottles or Containers1.Stuck Plug. A piece of glass, usually very sharp, projecting inwardsjust inside the neck bore2.Overpress. Is a defect where a small ridge of glass has been formedon the sealing surface of the finish3.Split. An open crack starting at the top of the finish and extendingdownward.4.Check. A small, shallow surface crack, usually at the bore of thecontainer5.Freaks. Odd shapes and conditions that render the containercompletely unusable. Bent or cocked necks are a common defect of thistype.6.Poor Distribution. Thin shoulder, slug neck, choke neck, heavy bottomare terms used to describe the uneven distribution of glass.7.Soft Blister. A thin blister, usually found on or near the sealing surface.It can however show up anywhere on the glass container. CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 66
  63. 63. 8.Choked Bore. Here excess of glass has been distributed to the inside of the finish or opening9.Cracks. Partial fractures, usually found in the heel area.10.Pinhole. Any opening causing leakage. It occurs most often in bottles with pointed corners.11.Filament. A hair-like string inside the bottle.12.Spike. Spikes are glass projections inside the bottle.13.Bird Swing. Is a glass thread joining the two walls of the container CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 67
  64. 64. Some Major Defects Commonly Found in Glass Containers1.Chipped Finish. Pieces broken out of the top edge in themanufacturing process.2.Stone. Small inclusion of any non-glass material3.Rocker Bottom. A sunken centre portion on in base of thecontainer4.Flanged Bottom. A rim of glass around the bottom at the partingline CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 68
  65. 65. Some Minor Defects Commonly Found in Glass Containers1.Suncker Shoulder. Not fully blown, or sagged after blowing2.Tear. Similar to a check, but opened up. A tear will not breakwhen tapped, a check will.3.Washboard. A wavy condition of horizontal lines in the body ofthe bottle.4.Hard Blister. A deeply embedded blister that is not easilybroken.5.Dirt. Scaly or granular nonglass material.6.Heel Tap. A manufacturing defect where excess glass has beendistributed into the heel7.Mark. A brush mark is composed of fine vertical laps, e.g. oilmarks from moulds.8.Wavy bottle. A wavy surface on the inside of the bottle.9.Seeds. Small bubbles in the glass10.Neck ring seam. A bulge at the parting line between the neckand the body. CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 69
  66. 66. TOLERANCE
  67. 67. TOLERANCETolerances as per GLASS PACKAGING INSTITUTECAPACITY 1% for large bottles and upto 15% for small bottlesWEIGHT generally 5%HEIGHT 0.5 to 0.8% overall HEIGHTDIAMETER 1.5% for 200mm & 3% for 25mm CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 71
  68. 68. TOLERANCEThe following are examples of some permitted tolerances:Vertical load control valuesGlass bottle Vertical loadRefillable 6000NNon-refillable 4000N CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 72
  69. 69. CAPACITY Nominal Tolerances Nominal TolerancesCapacity (ml) (ml) capacity (ml) (ml) up to and ± up to and ± including including 100 2.7 450 5.7 125 3.0 500 6.0 150 3.3 600 6.5 175 3.5 700 7.1 200 3.8 800 7.6 250 4.2 900 8.0 300 4.6 1000 8.4 350 5.0 1250 12.5 400 5.3 1500 15.0 CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 73
  70. 70. BODY AND HEIGHT DIMENSIONS Height TolerancesBody/DiameterTolerancesD (mm) up to and TD (mm) H (mm) up to and TH (mm)including ± including ±25.0 0.8 25 0.736.5 0.9 50 0.850.0 1.1 75 0.962.5 1.2 100 1.075.0 1.4 125 1.187.5 1.5 150 1.2100.0 1.7 175 1.3112.5 1.8 200 1.4125.0 2.0 225 1.5137.5 2.1 250 1.6150.0 2.3 275 1.7 300 1.8 CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 74
  71. 71. VERTICALITY CONTROL VALUES FOR VERTICALITY Height H (mm) Tv (mm) up to and ± including 120 2.2 150 2.7 175 3.1 200 3.4 225 3.9 250 4.2 CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 75
  72. 72. MINIMUM GLASS THICKNESS VALUESBody overallDiameter (mm) Minimum glass thickness (mm) Non-refillable Refillable bottles Surface protected bottles non-refillable bottlesUp to 60 1.1 1.5 0.8>61 to 71 1.4 1.8 0.9>71 to 81 1.5 1.9 1.0>81 to 96 1.7 2.0 1.1>96 to 110 1.8 2.2 1.3 CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 76
  73. 73. THINK CSP TRG AIDS - AUG 2008 77