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Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease
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Year 8 Biology Topic Microbes and Disease

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  • 1. KS3 Biology 8C Microbes and Disease1 of 20 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 2. Contents 8C Microbes and Disease What are microbes? Uses of microbes How microbes cause disease Fighting disease Summary activities1 of 202 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 3. What are microbes? Microbes are very small living things and are sometimes called micro-organisms. Microbes are so tiny that they cannot be seen with the naked eye. They can only be seen using a microscope. How many different microbes can you name?1 of 203 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 4. Different types of microbes There are three types of microbes: microbes bacteria viruses fungi1 of 204 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 5. Bacteria fact file Bacteria e.g. Salmonella and Streptococcus size: 1/1000 mm shape: Bacteria can be spherical, rod-shaped or comma-shaped. structure: Bacteria are single- celled organisms, which do not completely have a nucleus. Some cause disease, but many are useful. reproduction: Bacteria reproduce very quickly. Two can very quickly become four, then eight and so on.1 of 205 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 6. Bacterium structure1 of 206 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 7. Viruses fact file Viruses e.g. flu virus and HIV (the AIDS virus) size: 1/1,000,000 mm shape: Viruses have regular and geometric shapes. structure: A virus is a simple organism which does not display ALL the characteristics of living things. They are made up of a protein coating and some genetic material. reproduction: Viruses can only grow and reproduce within other living things.1 of 207 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 8. Virus structure1 of 208 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 9. Fungi fact file Fungi e.g. Penicillium and yeast size: Some fungi can actually be seen with the naked eye, others are slightly bigger than bacterial cells. shape: Fungi come in many different shapes. structure: Fungi have the most complex structures of all the microbes. They feed off other living things.1 of 209 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 10. Fungi (yeast) structure1 of 2010 of 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 11. Contents 8C Microbes and Disease What are microbes? Uses of microbes How microbes cause disease Fighting disease Summary activities1 of 2011 of 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 12. Using microbes – bacteria and fungi Microbes have many uses that are based on the fact that microbes can be grown. Bacteria grow in milk to make it ‘go off’.  This type of bacterial growth is used to make milk into yoghurt.  Cheese is another product that is made from milk. Fungi can also be used to make food. The meat substitute Quorn is a protein produced using fungi.1 of 2012 of 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 13. Using microbes – yeast Yeast is a type of fungus and carries out respiration. The respiration of this microbe can be used in different ways in baking bread and in brewing. The aerobic respiration of yeast is used to make bread rise. Yeast uses the sugar in bread dough to carry out aerobic respiration: glucose carbon oxygen dioxide water energy What gas produced by the aerobic respiration of yeast causes bread to rise?1 of 2013 of 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 14. Using microbes – yeast The anaerobic respiration of yeast is used to make beer and wine. In this case, the yeast respires without oxygen and produces alcohol (ethanol). This process is known as fermentation. Yeast converts the sugar into alcohol by anaerobic respiration: glucose carbon dioxide ethanol energy How do brewers make sure that yeast respire without oxygen?1 of 2014 of 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 15. Contents 8C Microbes and Disease What are microbes? Uses of microbes How microbes cause disease Fighting disease Summary activities1 of 2015 of 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 16. Microbes can cause disease The diseases caused by microbes and their severity depend on the type of microbe. viruses bacteria fungi influenza (flu) food poisoning fungal sinusitis mumps sore throats athlete’s foot chickenpox tuberculosis Onychomycosis (TB) (causes discoloured smallpox tetanus toe nails) polio cholera rabies typhoid German measles whooping cough viral bacterial meningitis meningitis1 of 2016 of 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 17. Which type of microbe?1 of 2017 of 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 18. How do microbes enter the body? Microbes can enter the body in many different places. eyes ears mouth nose skin cuts genitals How are the diseases caused by microbes spread?1 of 2018 of 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 19. How are microbes spread? The spreading of microbes and disease is known as transmission. 1. Transmission by air A cough or a sneeze can release millions of microbes into the air which can then infect somebody else. 2. Transmission by water Dirty water can transmit many diseases, e.g. cholera, which can be transmitted by drinking.1 of 2019 of 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 20. How are microbes spread? 3. Transmission by animals An animal can carry a microbe from one place to another, e.g. a mosquito which spreads the malaria parasite. 4. Transmission by contact Many microbes can be exchanged from one person to another by direct or indirect contact:  direct contact by hand;  indirect contact, e.g. by walking on a wet floor already contaminated by someone else who has athlete’s foot;  sexual contact.1 of 2020 of 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 21. How are microbes spread? 4. Transmission by contact There are other forms of indirect contact, e.g. the transmission of microbes from mother to unborn child.  Transmission through the placenta If the mother develops the HIV/Aids infection, it can be passed on to the unborn child through the placenta.  Transmission via breastfeeding If a child is being breastfed, he or she can also pick up microbes from the mother via the mother’s milk.1 of 2021 of 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 22. How is the spread of disease stopped? The spread of disease can be prevented by making sure that good hygiene is used in key places such as bathrooms and kitchens. Chemicals called antibiotics can be used to treat bacterial infections. People can be immunized against some diseases by the injection of a vaccine.1 of 2022 of 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 23. Contents 8C Microbes and Disease What are microbes? Uses of microbes How microbes cause disease Fighting disease Summary activities1 of 2023 of 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 24. Fighting microbes How does the body fight off microbes that cause disease?1 of 2024 of 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 25. What do white blood cells do? The human body has a number of natural defences against microbes. Noses are hairy inside to trap microbes! white blood cell The body also produces white blood cells to help defend it from microbes. Some white blood cells can destroy microbes antigen by engulfing them. antibody Some white blood cells are able to produce chemicals called antibodies. These pairing with matching antigens on the surfaces of microbes and so help the white blood cells to engulf microbes.1 of 2025 of 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 26. White blood cell engulfs microbe – animation1 of 2026 of 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 27. White blood cell and antibodies – animation1 of 2027 of 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 28. Contents 8C Microbes and Disease What are microbes? Uses of microbes How microbes cause disease Fighting disease Summary activities1 of 2028 of 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 29. Glossary  antibiotics – Chemicals prescribed as medicine to kill bacteria inside the body.  antibodies – Chemicals produced by white blood cells to fight microbes that cause disease.  bacteria – The type of microbes that are single-celled organisms.  fungi – The type of microbes that feed off other living things.  immune – Resistance to infection caused by a microbe.  microbe – A very small living thing.  transmission – The spread of a disease from person to person.  viruses – The type of microbes that can only grow and reproduce within other living things.1 of 2029 of 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 30. Anagrams1 of 2030 of 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
  • 31. Multiple-choice quiz1 of 2031 of 31 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005

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