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Year 7 Biology Topic Variation and Classification

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  • Note that this activity may raise some discussion, as some of the features are of course affected by both genetics and environment. The answers for this activity have been worked out on the most simple scenario. See the following two slides for a discussion of the more real but a bit more complicated situation.
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    • 1. KS3 Biology 7D Variation and Classification1 of 20 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 2. Contents 7D Variation and Classification Spotting variation What causes variation? The classification system Summary activities1 of 202 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 3. Spot the differences What are the differences between these organisms?1 of 203 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 4. Spot the differences There are lots of differences between these organisms. For example:  some have leaves;  some lay eggs;  some eat plants. These organisms are different because they are all from different species.1 of 204 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 5. Spot the differences – same species There are also differences between organisms of the same species. For example, these people are all from the same species but how many differences between them can you spot?1 of 205 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 6. What is variation? Even though people are all from the same species, there are many ways in which they are different from each other. Some of them are male, some are female, some are tall, some are short. The differences that occur both between different species and within the same species are called variation.1 of 206 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 7. Contents 7D Variation and Classification Spotting variation What causes variation? The classification system Summary activities1 of 207 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 8. What causes variation? Variation is caused by two factors: • Some features are cause by inherited factors. These are features that are passed on from parents. For example, natural hair colour is an inherited feature. 2. Some features are caused by environmental factors. These are features that are affected by the surroundings. For example, someone can be born with brown hair which then gets lighter in the Sun or might be dyed a different colour.1 of 208 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 9. Environmental or inherited?1 of 209 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 10. Environmental or inherited? Sometimes it is not easy to determine whether a feature is inherited or environmental. Scientists have now decided that only four characteristics are truly inherited and not affected by the environment at all. Can you guess what they are? 1. natural eye colour 2. natural hair colour 3. blood group 4. some inherited diseases1 of 2010 of 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 11. What about other features? Some features are caused by a mixture of inheritance and the environment, for example, nose shape. Someone might have a nose that looks just like their mum’s. But if they were in an accident, they might break their nose and put a kink in it. So their initial nose shape was probably inherited but over time it is likely to have been affected by the environment. How can the environment affect skin colour?1 of 2011 of 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 12. Contents 7D Variation and Classification Spotting variation What causes variation? The classification system Summary activities1 of 2012 of 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 13. Common features There is a lot of variation between organisms, but some organisms also have many features in common. Compare a cow and a dolphin, you might think they do not have many things in common but you will be surprised. How many features common to both cows and dolphins can you think of?1 of 2013 of 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 14. Common features1 of 2014 of 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 15. What is classification? Cows and dolphins have several features in common. Many other organisms also share common features. Scientists use common features to put organisms into groups. Grouping organisms based on their common features is called classification.1 of 2015 of 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 16. Classification – grouping organisms Sort these organisms into four groups based on their similarities.1 of 2016 of 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 17. Classification – grouping organisms One way that a scientist might have grouped these organisms is to put them into the following four groups: 1. Plants • Birds • Mammals • Reptiles These groups come from the scientific system for classifying organisms.1 of 2017 of 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 18. The classification system The classification system begins with very big groups that include a lot of organisms and then moves down to smaller groups made up of fewer organisms. The biggest groups are called the kingdoms. All living things are classified into five different kingdoms. living things plants animals fungi monera protoctista1 of 2018 of 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 19. The five kingdoms1 of 2019 of 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 20. Which kingdom?1 of 2020 of 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 21. Classifying animals How can different types of animals be classified?1 of 2021 of 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 22. Animal classification The animal kingdom is divided into two groups: animals vertebrates invertebrates Vertebrates are animals Invertebrates are animals that have a backbone. that do not have a backbone. They have a firm body They have soft inner bodies because of the muscles which are held in shape by a that connect to their flexible covering of outer cells skeleton. or by a hard covering called an exoskeleton.1 of 2022 of 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 23. Animal classification1 of 2023 of 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 24. Animal classification – activity1 of 2024 of 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 25. Features of vertebrates1 of 2025 of 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 26. Which type of vertebrate?1 of 2026 of 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 27. Which classification group?1 of 2027 of 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 28. The odd one out In terms of classification, which of these organisms is the odd one out and why? tuna sprat seahorse whale shark trout salmon perch flounder sturgeon The whale is the odd one out. All of the rest are fish, a whale is a mammal.1 of 2028 of 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 29. The odd one out In terms of classification which of these organisms is the odd one out and why? penguin kiwi raven owl duck robin swan platypus pigeon eagle The platypus is the odd one out. All of the rest are birds, a platypus is a mammal.1 of 2029 of 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 30. The odd one out In terms of classification which of these organisms is the odd one out and why? caterpillar lice ant horse fly moth scorpion cicada ladybird silverfish cockroach The scorpion is the odd one out. All of the rest are insects, a scorpion is an arachnid.1 of 2030 of 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 31. Contents 7D Variation and Classification Spotting variation What causes variation? The classification system Summary activities1 of 2031 of 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 32. Glossary  classification – Sorting living things into groups.  environmental variation – Differences between organisms that are due to the environment.  inherited variation – Differences between organisms that are due to their parents.  invertebrate – An animal without a backbone.  kingdom – The largest groups that living things are sorted into.  species – A group of organisms that can reproduce with each other to produce viable offspring.  variation – The differences between living things.  vertebrate – An animal with a backbone.1 of 2032 of 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 33. Anagrams1 of 2033 of 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005
    • 34. Multiple-choice quiz1 of 2034 of 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2005

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