Phonics Instructional Strategies (Part 1)


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  • In this Power Point we will be thinking about some of the instructional strategies that may be used for direct instruction in phonics. Some of the slides have audio, represented by the megaphone at the bottom of the slide. After the audio portion of each slide, pause the power point and give yourself time to read the slide.
  • You see a picture, or symbol, on this page. To a beginning reader it could be almost anything; train tracks, saw horses. . .
  • A beginning reader needs to know that these symbols represent certain letters, and the letters have a sound associated with them. Then the reader needs to be able to use the letter knowledge, in combination with the other letters to gain word meaning. It is only when the symbols are seen in the context of other letters, then decoded, that there is conceptual meaning. The task of learning to read is truly quite complex!
  • To help students master the task of phonics, we have to explicitly teach a few rules of our language. In the case of the consonants, children need to know the usual sounds that they make, with only the exceptions of the “C” rule and the “G” rule.
  • Vowel sounds need to be taught, with the usual ones first, …both long and short. Only a few rules need to be taught, again with lots of teacher modeling and practice using books, games, and such.
  • Once students have mastered the consonants and vowels, word patterns such as the ones in this slide can be taught.
  • Phonics Instructional Strategies (Part 1)

    1. 1. Reading from A to Z <ul><li>Reading – theory </li></ul><ul><li>Reading best practices </li></ul><ul><li>Phonemic awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Phonics </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    2. 2. One definition of phonics:
    3. 3. <ul><li>The understanding that there is a predictable relationship between phonemes, the sounds of spoken language, the graphemes, the letters and spelling that represent those sounds in written language. </li></ul>
    4. 4. COMPREHENSION Fluency Vocabulary Phonics Phonemic Awareness Key Components of Reading
    5. 6. Phonics Key Findings <ul><li>Systematic and explicit phonics instruction: </li></ul><ul><li>Is more effective than non-systematic or no phonics instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Significantly improves kindergarten and first-grade children’s word recognition and spelling. </li></ul><ul><li>Significantly improves children’s reading comprehension. </li></ul><ul><li>Is effective for children from various social and economic levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Is particularly beneficial for children who are having reading difficulties and who are at risk for developing future reading problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Is most effective when introduced early. </li></ul><ul><li>Phonics instruction is not an entire reading program for beginning readers! </li></ul><ul><li>excerpt from Reading First Guidance.doc 2/10/04 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    6. 7. <ul><li>Cueing Systems </li></ul><ul><li>phonics involves the Graphophonic, or visual, cueing system. </li></ul><ul><li>It has to do with sounds and symbols, and the print on the page that we see. </li></ul><ul><li>Letter and word recognition, or recall, needs to be automatic in order to free up the reader to concentrate on meaning. </li></ul>
    7. 8. Sources of Information Used in Reading (cueing systems) Meaning Graphophonic (Visual) Semantic Syntactic Sound/Symbols <ul><li>Print Conventions: </li></ul><ul><li>Directionality </li></ul><ul><li>Words/spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Letters </li></ul><ul><li>Punctuation </li></ul>Phonics
    8. 9.
    9. 10.  T e C t
    10. 11. More confusion for beginning readers:
    11. 12. b d p q W M
    12. 13. <ul><li>Consonants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter/sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>usual ones as in alphabet chart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C rule hard/soft sounds (cat/city) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>G rule hard/soft sounds (game/giant) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 14. <ul><li>Vowels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long sounds (usual ones as in vowel charts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short sounds (usual ones as in vowel charts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Magic e (can/cane) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two vowels walking (seen, rain) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CV pattern (she/he) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bossy r (far, bird, sore) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crazy y (day, baby, fly) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 15. <ul><li>Frequently occurring word patterns that are not easily decoded: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ound (round, sound, pound) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ould (could, would, should) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ight (light, sight, fight) (or /igh/ = long i) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ing (going, ring) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(see Essential Phonics Rule in printable form in Resources section of Blackboard) </li></ul></ul>
    15. 16. <ul><li>Consonants—letters/sounds (Usual ones as in alphabet chart) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language experience stories, message board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alphabet books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities using student’s names </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Games (I spy, Find the letter, alphabet puzzles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tactile letter activities (sand trays, magnetic letters, raised letters) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labels—objects in classroom or home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Picture/object sorts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alphabet Key Words (charts) </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. <ul><li>Explicit teaching of </li></ul><ul><li>essential phonics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>teacher modeling, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>guided practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>independent practice with feedback </li></ul></ul>
    17. 18. <ul><li>Explicit teaching of essential phonics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>key words, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>alphabet books, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>games and puzzles, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>anything else that can help students become automatic in their recognition of letters and their sounds. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 19. <ul><li>Just a note, word walls are a great activity and can help students learn the bigger chunks of our language. So much attention has already been given to the use of word walls, that we’re not going to deal with them here. </li></ul>