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The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
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The Protestant Reformation

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  • 1. The Protestant ReformationThe Protestant Reformation
  • 2. The Church before the ReformationThe Church before the Reformation  Heavily criticized by Northern HumanistsHeavily criticized by Northern Humanists and Mystics for its worldliness, wealth, andand Mystics for its worldliness, wealth, and political powerpolitical power  See ErasmusSee Erasmus
  • 3. Early LutherEarly Luther  As a law student, Luther wasAs a law student, Luther was once caught outside in aonce caught outside in a horrible storm. He prayedhorrible storm. He prayed that if he would only survive,that if he would only survive, he’d dedicate the rest of hishe’d dedicate the rest of his life to the service of God.life to the service of God.
  • 4. Early LutherEarly Luther  Luther struggled with the sacraments,Luther struggled with the sacraments, especially penance and confession.especially penance and confession.  He was constantly worried that he wasn’tHe was constantly worried that he wasn’t confessing all of his sinsconfessing all of his sins  ““The more I tried to remedy the anThe more I tried to remedy the an uncertain, weak and troubled conscienceuncertain, weak and troubled conscience with human traditions, the more daily Iwith human traditions, the more daily I found it more uncertain, weak and morefound it more uncertain, weak and more troubled.”troubled.”
  • 5. Early LutherEarly Luther  Luther studied the Bible to find a solutionLuther studied the Bible to find a solution to his problemsto his problems  He decided the Bible, which makes noHe decided the Bible, which makes no mention of confession was the ultimatemention of confession was the ultimate authority in all religious mattersauthority in all religious matters  All that is needed for salvation is faithAll that is needed for salvation is faith
  • 6. IndulgencesIndulgences  In 1517 Pope Leo X sent Johann Tetzel toIn 1517 Pope Leo X sent Johann Tetzel to Bavaria to sell indulgencesBavaria to sell indulgences “As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs.” ~Tetzel’s sales pitch
  • 7. IndulgencesIndulgences  Luther becomes veryLuther becomes very distraught that peopledistraught that people believed a piece of paperbelieved a piece of paper could guarantee salvationcould guarantee salvation  Luther writes 95 ThesesLuther writes 95 Theses (1517)(1517)  Pope Leo X isn’t worriedPope Leo X isn’t worried
  • 8. IndulgencesIndulgences  July, 1519: Johann Eck challenges LutherJuly, 1519: Johann Eck challenges Luther to a debateto a debate  Gets Luther to publicly deny the power ofGets Luther to publicly deny the power of the pope and church councilsthe pope and church councils
  • 9. Luther’s Other publicationsLuther’s Other publications  1520:1520: Address to the nobility of the German NationAddress to the nobility of the German Nation Calls on German princes to overthrow theCalls on German princes to overthrow the papacy in Germanypapacy in Germany  The Babylonian Captivity of the ChurchThe Babylonian Captivity of the Church Attacked the sacramental system that theAttacked the sacramental system that the pope used to hold Catholics prisonerpope used to hold Catholics prisoner  On The Freedom of Christian ManOn The Freedom of Christian Man Faith is more important than good worksFaith is more important than good works
  • 10. ““Good works do not make aGood works do not make a good man, but a good mangood man, but a good man does good works.”does good works.”
  • 11. Trouble for LutherTrouble for Luther  Charles V calls Luther before the Diet ofCharles V calls Luther before the Diet of WormsWorms
  • 12. Luther says,Luther says, “ Unless I am convicted by“ Unless I am convicted by Scripture and plain reason – I do not acceptScripture and plain reason – I do not accept the authority of popes or councils, for theythe authority of popes or councils, for they have contradicted each other- my conscience ishave contradicted each other- my conscience is captive to the will of God. I cannot and Icaptive to the will of God. I cannot and I will not recant anything, for to go againstwill not recant anything, for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. Here Iconscience is neither right nor safe. Here I stand, I cannot do otherwise. God help me.stand, I cannot do otherwise. God help me. Amen.”Amen.”
  • 13.  Charles V retorts, “…aCharles V retorts, “…a single friar who goessingle friar who goes counter to all Christianitycounter to all Christianity for a thousand years mustfor a thousand years must be wrong.”be wrong.”  Charles V has Luther’sCharles V has Luther’s books burned, exiles himbooks burned, exiles him and declares him anand declares him an outlawoutlaw
  • 14. The Spread of LutheranismThe Spread of Lutheranism  Luther returns to Electoral Saxony in 1522Luther returns to Electoral Saxony in 1522 and begins creating a reformed churchand begins creating a reformed church  Preached evangelical sermons based onPreached evangelical sermons based on a return to the original ideas of the Biblea return to the original ideas of the Bible  Spread pamphlets that portrayed the popeSpread pamphlets that portrayed the pope as a hideous Antichristas a hideous Antichrist  One was titled, “I wonder why there is noOne was titled, “I wonder why there is no money in the Land.”money in the Land.”
  • 15. Lutheranism SpreadsLutheranism Spreads Germanic princes champion Luther’sGermanic princes champion Luther’s cause.cause. Luther believes the church should beLuther believes the church should be under state controlunder state control Princes are happy to break away fromPrinces are happy to break away from the Papacy and the controlling grasp ofthe Papacy and the controlling grasp of the Holy Roman Empirethe Holy Roman Empire
  • 16. Challenges to LutheranismChallenges to Lutheranism At first many reformers support LutherAt first many reformers support Luther When it becomes evident that hisWhen it becomes evident that his reforms may split the Christian world,reforms may split the Christian world, even Erasmus break with himeven Erasmus break with him
  • 17. Challenges to LutheranismChallenges to Lutheranism The Peasants WarThe Peasants War Peasants figures that if LutheranismPeasants figures that if Lutheranism supported princes breaking free fromsupported princes breaking free from papal control, it would also support theirpapal control, it would also support their efforts to free themselves from theefforts to free themselves from the princes.princes. Revolt erupts in 1524 and quicklyRevolt erupts in 1524 and quickly spreads through Germanyspreads through Germany
  • 18. Challenges to LutheranismChallenges to Lutheranism  Luther loses “street cred”Luther loses “street cred” He writes,He writes, Against the Robbing and Murdering Hordes of PeaAgainst the Robbing and Murdering Hordes of Pea Urges princes to “smite, slay, and stab” theUrges princes to “smite, slay, and stab” the revolting peasantsrevolting peasants Believes princes get the power to rule fromBelieves princes get the power to rule from God, and therefore had to put down rebellionsGod, and therefore had to put down rebellions Luther finds himself dependent on protectionLuther finds himself dependent on protection from Protestant princesfrom Protestant princes
  • 19. Luther’s main ideasLuther’s main ideas  Faith, not good works is key to salvationFaith, not good works is key to salvation  Only sacraments listed in the Bible areOnly sacraments listed in the Bible are legit (Baptism and communion)legit (Baptism and communion)  Argues against transubstantiation in favorArgues against transubstantiation in favor of consubstantiationof consubstantiation  Bible is ultimate religious authority, ergoBible is ultimate religious authority, ergo should be printed in vernacularshould be printed in vernacular
  • 20. If Christians could read the BibleIf Christians could read the Bible themselves, they could be their ownthemselves, they could be their own priests. (priesthood of all believers)priests. (priesthood of all believers) Looked to political leaders to organizeLooked to political leaders to organize worship in their statesworship in their states Worship servicesWorship services Lutheran churches in Germany andLutheran churches in Germany and Scandinavia quickly became territorialScandinavia quickly became territorial or state churches in which the stateor state churches in which the state disciplined church membersdisciplined church members
  • 21.  Masses were replaced by worshipMasses were replaced by worship services focusing on Bible readings in theservices focusing on Bible readings in the vernacularvernacular  Priests were allowed to marry, and LutherPriests were allowed to marry, and Luther married a former nun, Katherina von Boramarried a former nun, Katherina von Bora in 1525in 1525 His marriage became a model forHis marriage became a model for Protestant ministersProtestant ministers
  • 22. Religion and PoliticsReligion and Politics  Charles V struggles to maintain control overCharles V struggles to maintain control over his empire and preserve the unity of thehis empire and preserve the unity of the Catholic faithCatholic faith  Problems (We’ll come back to this later!)Problems (We’ll come back to this later!) The French (hope to gain territory andThe French (hope to gain territory and power)power) The papacy (weak and corrupt)The papacy (weak and corrupt) The Turks (growing in power to his south)The Turks (growing in power to his south) Lutheranism (fragmenting his empire)Lutheranism (fragmenting his empire)
  • 23. Other forms of ProtestantismOther forms of Protestantism  The Zwinglian ReformationThe Zwinglian Reformation  The AnabaptistsThe Anabaptists  Reformation in EnglandReformation in England  CalvinismCalvinism
  • 24. Ulrich ZwingliUlrich Zwingli  Also looked to the state to supervise theAlso looked to the state to supervise the church, “A church without a magistrate ischurch, “A church without a magistrate is mutilated and incomplete.”mutilated and incomplete.”  Relics and images were abolishedRelics and images were abolished  All paintings and decorations removedAll paintings and decorations removed from the church, walls painted whitefrom the church, walls painted white  Monasticism, pilgrimages, veneration ofMonasticism, pilgrimages, veneration of saints and clerical celibacy all bannedsaints and clerical celibacy all banned
  • 25.  Looked at the scripture depicting the LastLooked at the scripture depicting the Last Supper, “This is my body. This is mySupper, “This is my body. This is my blood” as being purely symbolicblood” as being purely symbolic  Communion taken as a meal ofCommunion taken as a meal of remembrance onlyremembrance only
  • 26. The end of ZwingliThe end of Zwingli  War erupts in Zurich in 1531, a prelude toWar erupts in Zurich in 1531, a prelude to the religious wars of the late 16the religious wars of the late 16thth centurycentury  Zwingli found dead on the battle fieldZwingli found dead on the battle field  Luther angry about earlier confrontationsLuther angry about earlier confrontations about faith remarked that he, “got what heabout faith remarked that he, “got what he deserved.”deserved.”
  • 27. Anabaptists: Radical ReformersAnabaptists: Radical Reformers  IdeasIdeas Christian Church = voluntary association ofChristian Church = voluntary association of believers who have been reborn throughbelievers who have been reborn through baptismbaptism Baptism is for adults, not infantsBaptism is for adults, not infants Elected ministersElected ministers Communion = remembrance, held in privateCommunion = remembrance, held in private homeshomes Complete separation of Church and stateComplete separation of Church and state Refused to hold political office or bear armsRefused to hold political office or bear arms
  • 28. Anabaptists: Radical ReformersAnabaptists: Radical Reformers  Different BranchesDifferent Branches Swiss Brethren: Zurich SwitzerlandSwiss Brethren: Zurich Switzerland Expelled for religious practicesExpelled for religious practices Process of rebaptizing adults broke RomanProcess of rebaptizing adults broke Roman LawLaw Severe persecution in Germany, Austria,Severe persecution in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Poland, especially afterSwitzerland, and Poland, especially after the Peasants War of 1524the Peasants War of 1524
  • 29. Anabaptists: Radical ReformersAnabaptists: Radical Reformers  Munster: became a safe havenMunster: became a safe haven  Melochiorites practicedMelochiorites practiced millenarianismmillenarianism Gained control of Munster by 1534Gained control of Munster by 1534 under John Leidenunder John Leiden Began to prepare for the second comingBegan to prepare for the second coming Drove out godless and unbelieversDrove out godless and unbelievers Burned all books except the BibleBurned all books except the Bible proclaimed all property communalproclaimed all property communal
  • 30. Anabaptists: Radical ReformersAnabaptists: Radical Reformers City recapturedCity recaptured by Catholics andby Catholics and Lutherans inLutherans in 1535, executed1535, executed AnabaptistAnabaptist leadersleaders
  • 31. Anabaptists: Radical ReformersAnabaptists: Radical Reformers  Mennonites: FollowersMennonites: Followers of Menno Simonsof Menno Simons Strict pacifismStrict pacifism Strict literal adherence toStrict literal adherence to the Biblethe Bible Relocated to NorthRelocated to North America where manyAmerica where many Mennonite societies,Mennonite societies, including the Amish liveincluding the Amish live todaytoday
  • 32. England: Political ReformEngland: Political Reform  Henry VIIIHenry VIII Wants to divorce Catherine of Aragon to wedWants to divorce Catherine of Aragon to wed Anne BoleynAnne Boleyn Asks Cardinal Wolsey to obtain annulmentAsks Cardinal Wolsey to obtain annulment from Pope Clement IIfrom Pope Clement II Pope, beholden to Charles V, Catherine'sPope, beholden to Charles V, Catherine's cousin, refusescousin, refuses Henry dismisses WolseyHenry dismisses Wolsey
  • 33. England: Political ReformEngland: Political Reform Thomas Cramner advised Henry VIII to seekThomas Cramner advised Henry VIII to seek annulment in England’s ecclesiastical courtsannulment in England’s ecclesiastical courts 1534: passes1534: passes Act of SupremacyAct of Supremacy king head ofking head of ChurchChurch Treason ActTreason Act made it treason to question themade it treason to question the king’s role as head of Churchking’s role as head of Church New Church= Catholic LightNew Church= Catholic Light
  • 34. England: Political ReformEngland: Political Reform  The New Order: The Anglican ChurchThe New Order: The Anglican Church Dissolved monasteries, Crown sold land = $Dissolved monasteries, Crown sold land = $ Church services and structure very RomanChurch services and structure very Roman Some priests married in secretSome priests married in secret
  • 35. The many wives…The many wives… Catherine of Aragon: Divorced Anne Boelyn: Beheaded Jane Seymour: Died in childbirth Anne of Cleves: Divorced Catherine Howard: Beheaded Catherine Parr: Mother of Edward VI, outlives Henry VIII
  • 36. England: Political ReformEngland: Political Reform  Edward VI (1547-1553)Edward VI (1547-1553) Inherits throne at 9Inherits throne at 9 Heavily influenced byHeavily influenced by ProtestantsProtestants Clergy gain right to marryClergy gain right to marry Icons removed fromIcons removed from churchchurch New prayer bookNew prayer book Book ofBook of Common PrayerCommon Prayer
  • 37. England: Political ReformEngland: Political Reform  Bloody Mary: ReactionaryBloody Mary: Reactionary Catholicism (1553-1558)Catholicism (1553-1558) Intended to restore CatholicIntended to restore Catholic ChurchChurch Unfortunate marriage to Philip IIUnfortunate marriage to Philip II of Spainof Spain Burned 300 Protestants at theBurned 300 Protestants at the stakestake If anything, made England moreIf anything, made England more protestantprotestant
  • 38. England: Political ReformEngland: Political Reform  Elizabeth I: ModerationElizabeth I: Moderation and Compromiseand Compromise Reinstituted Act ofReinstituted Act of SupremacySupremacy Act of UniformityAct of Uniformity restored therestored the Book ofBook of Common PrayerCommon Prayer Tried to maintainTried to maintain balance betweenbalance between religious groupsreligious groups
  • 39. John Calvin and CalvinismJohn Calvin and Calvinism  Heavily influenced by LutherHeavily influenced by Luther  Most zealous of all reformersMost zealous of all reformers He has at once for all determined, both whom he would admit to salvation, and whom he would denounce for destruction.
  • 40. Calvin’s IdeasCalvin’s Ideas  Very similar to LutherVery similar to Luther  Absolute sovereignty of God ~ everAbsolute sovereignty of God ~ ever vigilant and engaged in continual ordervigilant and engaged in continual order  PredestinationPredestination  ConsubstantiationConsubstantiation  Church is a divine institutionChurch is a divine institution
  • 41. PredestinationPredestination  A person belongs to the elect if…A person belongs to the elect if… They make open proclamations of faithThey make open proclamations of faith They lead a decent and godly lifeThey lead a decent and godly life They participate in baptism and communionThey participate in baptism and communion Of course, even Calvin said there are noOf course, even Calvin said there are no guarantees!guarantees! Some have the unshakeable conviction they’reSome have the unshakeable conviction they’re always right. Hubris?always right. Hubris?
  • 42. Geneva, the model societyGeneva, the model society  Calvin governs from 1536-1564Calvin governs from 1536-1564  1541 new church constitution1541 new church constitution “Ecclesiastical Ordinances” create“Ecclesiastical Ordinances” create TheocracyTheocracy  ConsistoryConsistory moral police very strict lawsmoral police very strict laws againstagainst
  • 43. Geneva, the model societyGeneva, the model society  Becomes center of theBecomes center of the Protestant worldProtestant world  John Knox calls it “TheJohn Knox calls it “The most perfect school ofmost perfect school of Christ on Earth.”Christ on Earth.”  Trained missionaries toTrained missionaries to spread Calvinismspread Calvinism  Calvinism becomesCalvinism becomes dominant Protestantdominant Protestant religionreligion
  • 44. Social ImpactSocial Impact  Family and marriageFamily and marriage Luther argued that people should “makeLuther argued that people should “make sex in marriage to avoid sin”sex in marriage to avoid sin” Calvin said men should “abstain fromCalvin said men should “abstain from marriage only as long as he is fit tomarriage only as long as he is fit to observe celibacyobserve celibacy Greater emphasis on love in marriageGreater emphasis on love in marriage Women’s roles limited to obeyingWomen’s roles limited to obeying husband and bearing childrenhusband and bearing children
  • 45. Social ImpactSocial Impact  EducationEducation Formal schools, mostly for wealthy boysFormal schools, mostly for wealthy boys Increased literacyIncreased literacy Introduced physical and art educationIntroduced physical and art education
  • 46. Social ImpactSocial Impact  Religious practiceReligious practice Did away with saints days and carnivalDid away with saints days and carnival Banned drinking, dancing, and otherBanned drinking, dancing, and other forms of entertainmentforms of entertainment
  • 47. Thoughts…Thoughts…  How does the Reformation change life inHow does the Reformation change life in Europe?Europe?  How are the different forms ofHow are the different forms of Protestantism similar?Protestantism similar?  How do the Protestant faiths differ?How do the Protestant faiths differ?  Who do you think benefited most from theWho do you think benefited most from the Reformation?Reformation?

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