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The high middle ages

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  • 1. The High Middle Ages Europe is coming out of the Dark: An Era of Turning Points
  • 2. Turning Points of the High Middle Ages • The Crusades • King John I signs the Magna Carta • The Hundred Years’ War • The Babylonian Captivity • The Bubonic Plague
  • 3. The Crusades • Holy wars between Christians from Western Europe and Muslims from the Middle East • Cause: Muslims were moving in the Byzantine Empire, so the Patriarch reached out to the Pope for help
  • 4. • During: Many people left Europe to travel to the Holy Land to fight because they hoped to – Gain wealth and power – Be forgiven for their sins – Escape from the bonds of serfdom – Have an adventure – Go to Heaven if they died in battle • There were many Crusades, in the end the Christians did NOT win lasting control over the Holy Land
  • 5. • Effects – Western European isolation ends – Trade with the East begins again – Peasants who went to fight do not want to become serfs again  feudalism ends – Trade  end of self sufficiency – Trade  the Commercial Revolution – Trade  the Black Death
  • 6. Crusades • What were the major causes of the Crusades? • Who were some important people? What did they do? • How did the Crusades impact the relationship between Christians and Muslims? • List at least three results of the Crusades – 1 – 2 – 3
  • 7. King John Signs the Magna Carta • Background: – John I was king of England in the early 1200s – The Pope wanted to make one of his friends the Arch Bishop of Canterbury – John I refused and put one of his friends in the position – The Pope excommunicated John I and placed England under interdict
  • 8. • Causes: – Nobles from England appealed to the Pope to remove his punishment – The Pope agreed as long as the nobles promised to keep John I under control – The nobles formed a parliament and wrote the Magna Carta – John I signed the Magna Carta in 1215
  • 9. • Magna Carta main ideas – The king is not above the laws – Only Parliament can raise taxes – All people have the right of Habeas Corpus – All people have freedom of travel and trade – The king cannot sieve anyone’s property – The Church is not controlled by the king (this idea doesn’t last long!) – Eventually this will lead to a limited monarchy in England – This is the 1st step towards a written constitution in Europe!
  • 10. Magna Carta • What was England like under John I? • What was the purpose of the Magna Carta? • What limitations were placed on English kings by the Magna Carta? • What were the effects of the Magna Carta?
  • 11. The Hundred Years War • A war between England and France over control of territory in northern France (1337-1453) • Causes: – England gained some land in France when Henry II married Eleanor of Aquitaine in the 1100s – France wanted to reclaim that territory
  • 12. • During – Many battles with wins and losses on both sides – Joan of Arc – New technology like longbows, crossbows, and cannons! – Eventually France wins and England is forced out of France – These two countries won’t really forgive and forget until the 20th century!
  • 13. • Effects – Kings of France and England both gain more power – Many nobles (vassals) die  even more power for kings! – Church courts called “Inquisitions” gain more power – Civil war in England will follow (The War of the Roses) putting the Tudor family in control
  • 14. Hundred Years’ War • Why did the Hundred Years War begin? • What new technology emerged during the Hundred Years’ War? • What were some of the long term effects of the hundred years war on – England? – France? – Both?
  • 15. The Babylonian Captivity & Great Schism • Background and causes – After the fall of Rome, the Catholic Church was the only institution left in Western Europe – The Pope became the most powerful and influential person – The Hundred Years’ War increased the power of the kings of England and France – Philip IV of France attempted to gain control of the Church by forcing the Pope to move to Avignon
  • 16. • During – For 76 years, nine different popes lived in Avignon France – France gained huge influence over the Church – Christians became increasingly worried about the growing worldliness of the Church
  • 17. • Effects: It’s a huge mess! – In 1376, Pope Gregory IX was returning to Rome when he died – Cardinals in France and in Rome each chose a new Pope. Two Popes? This is called the Great Schism OMG! – It took a long time to get sorted out, and by the time it did, many people had lost faith in the Church or thought it was too worldly and corrupt – Eventually the Protestant Reformation will begin as people protest the Church and demand reforms
  • 18. The Bubonic Plague • Background and Causes – Black Death is also known as the Bubonic Plague – Spread by fleas on rats – Spread along trade routes like the Silk Roads – The Mongols inadvertently spread the plague by increasing trade! – The Mongols purposely spread the plague by shooting infected dead bodies over the walls of cities they were trying to defeat!
  • 19. • Symptoms of the Bubonic Plague – Red rash around the neck (ring around the rosey) – Extremely high fever – Black puss filled blisters called buboes around the neck, armpits, and other places where there are lots of sweat and salivary glands – Death! (90% of people died within 3 days of showing symptoms)
  • 20. • Short term effects – 1/3 of the population of Western Europe dies between 1347 and 1352 – Increasing superstition – Rise of weird religious cults – People lose faith in a Church that is unable to protect them – Anti-Semitism
  • 21. • Long term effects – Trade increases – no longer self-sufficient – Beginning of wage labor – End of feudalism – Church loses power – Kings gain more power
  • 22. Bubonic Plague • Where did the plague come from? • How did it spread? • Where did people think it came from? • What was a major short term effect of the plague? • What was a major long term effect of the plague?
  • 23. TURNING POINTS • What makes each of these things a turning point? – The Crusades – King John I signs the Magna Carta – The Hundred Years’ War – The Babylonian Captivity – The Bubonic Plague