New 19 Ppt Based On Bently
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New 19 Ppt Based On Bently



Notes based on Bently's AP World History textbook

Notes based on Bently's AP World History textbook



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New 19 Ppt Based On Bently New 19 Ppt Based On Bently Presentation Transcript

  • Early Latin America
    Chapter 19
  • Major Changes
    How did the Iberians conquer Latin America?
    Describe the empires that emerged in the New World
    In what ways were the new empires multicultural societies?
    What was the relationship between race and social class?
    How was labor divided in Latin America?
    What was the relationship between race labor?
  • The Establishment of Empire: Spain
    The Caribbean
    1492 Columbus lands on Hispaniola
    1st interaction between Spaniards and Tainos
    Hispaniola becomes center of colonial administration in the New World
    Spanish must find source of income when it becomes clear that there is no source of silk or spice in the Caribbean
  • Early Labor in New Spain
    The enconmienda, a system of using indigenous people for forced labor develops
    The crown grants conquistadors encomenderos, the right to compel Tainos to work in fields and mines
    Treatment of Tainos was harsh and conditions were brutal
    By 1515 the Tainos people had nearly disappeared
    Little gold was found so the Spanish looked elsewhere
  • Spanish Conquests
    1519-1521 Cortez leads conquestof Aztec
    1532-1533 Pizarro leads conquest of the Inca
    In both instances Conquistadors found large well organized empires
    In both instances, guns, germs, and steel helped the Spanish succeed
    By 1540 the Spanish controlled large parts of Central and South America
  • Iberian Empires in the Americas
    Conquest grew out of individual efforts by freelance adventurers, NOT royal policy
    Conquistadors were awarded with control of their own encomiendas
    By 1570, large parts of Central and South America were controlled as semiprivate regimes of conquistadors!
    The king worried about control
    Bartolomeo de lasCasas worried about the inhumain treatment of the encomiendas
  • Bartolomeo de lasCasas
    The reader may ask himself if this is not cruelty and injustice of a kind so terrible that it beggars the imagination, and whether these poor people would not fare far better if they were entrusted to the devils in Hell than they do at the hands of the devils of the New World who masquerade as Christians.
    I [write] ... in order to help ensure that the teeming millions in the New World, for whose sins Christ gave His life, do not continue to die in ignorance, but rather are brought to knowledge of God and thereby saved.
  • Controlling the New Spanish Empire
    Spanish kings established two viceroyalties (areas under the control of viceroys)
    Mexico aka New Spain
    Capital city Tenochtitlan became Mexico City
    Peru aka New Castille
    Brand new capital city Lima, located on the coast for convenience
  • Viceroys were reviewed by courts called audiencias to keep them from becoming too powerful
    Viceroys ruled in the name of the king
    Audienciasensured the Vicroy remained loyal to the king
    Transportation and communication were difficult and so governing usually fell to local audiencias
    All over Spanish America big cities and large estates grew
  • Brazil: Portugal’s Colony in the New World
    The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 portected Portuguese claims to Brazil
    After 1500, the Portuguese king sent a governor to consolidate his claims and protect the land from the French and Dutch
    Brazil grew quickly after 1550 as a major center of sugar production
  • Life in Iberian America
    European styles and architecture were common in Iberian cities in the New World
    Churches and Cathedrals, universities, etc. became the center of cities
    Outside of cities indigenous cultures remained stronger
    Between 1500 and 1800over 600,000 Iberians moved to the New World
    Spaniards and the Portuguese saw the New World as a place to be exploited
  • Colonial Society in Latin America
    Emergence of multicultural societies
    Power Players: The top of the pyramid
    Peninsulares: people from the Iberian Peninsula, mostly men (85% from Spain!), made up the smallest and most powerful group
    Creoles: people of full European descent born in the New World also had wealth and power
  • Beneath the Europeans…
    Mestizos: people of mixed European and Indigenous descent ( a product of miscegenation)
    Mulattos: people of mixed European and African descent (don’t forget, slaves were imported as labor when native populations became low)
    Free Native American Indians and Africans
  • Women in Latin America
    Most European migrants to Latin America were male
    European women tended to be found in large cities like Lima and Mexico city
    Native women were often taken as wives by European men, especially those from once powerful indigenous families
  • Mining and Agriculture in the Spanish Empire
    Though gold was rare, it soon became evident that silver was not
    Zactecas in Mexico
    Potosi in Peru
    A mita, system which forced each town to contribute laborers to the mines. People most often drafted by the mita were Native American Indians
  • Silver and the Spanish Economy
    Silver flowed from the New World to Spain
    The Spanish gov’t kept 1/5 if all silver in taxes
    This money was used to build a large army and navy to fight wars in Europe to try to stop the spread of Protestantism
    This money also funded Spanish trade in silks, spices and other exotic Asian goods stimulating global trade
    On the down side, inflation was often harmful to small businesses and local artisans in Spain who could not compete with cheaper Asian goods
  • Farming in the Spanish Colonies
    When the encomiendasystem was ended, Spanish land owners set up haciendas (estates that focused on growing crops or producing crafted goods)
    Landowners made loans to poor and native people for things like seeds, tools, and supplies.
    When the loans could not be repaid with money, they were forced to repay it with labor
  • Wages were so low, most people never repaid their debt
    A huge division between wealthy people of European descent and everyone else emerged
    This division between wealthy and poor continues to be a problem in Latin America today!
  • Sugar, Slavery and Brazil
    Portugal focused on the production and exporting of sugar from Brazil
    Nobles and entrepreneurs established large plantations
    The extreme decline of native populations  the importation of huge numbersw of Africans as slaves
  • Colonial Brazil revolved around the engenho (engine) or sugar mill and the complex infrastructure that grew up around it
    Life was harsh for slaves on sugar plantations
    Hard conditions, tropical heat, disease, malnutrition and poor housing = problems for slaves
    5-10% perished annually
    Death rates tended to exceed birth rates  constant demand for slave importations
    The Portuguese dominated world sugar markets until other nations established plantations in the colonies in the 17th century