Decolonization in the Post-WWI Era AP World History II
Where to focus… <ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Palestine </li></ul><ul><...
India <ul><li>Colonization occurs long before Africa, therefore decolonization begins earlier </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Nat...
India <ul><li>¾ Hindu, ¼ Muslim </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early nationalist leaders built strong Hindu base…alienating Muslims...
India <ul><li>B.G. Tilak </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalism should be built upon Hindu religiosity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
India <ul><li>Reaction to Tilak was mixed… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased Hindu rhetoric resulted in Tilak’s exile in Bur...
India <ul><li>After World War I… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brits refuse to honor wartime promises (surprise?) </li></ul></ul><...
India <ul><li>Mohandas Gandhi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appealed to Western-educated and the masses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Egypt <ul><li>Nationalism emerges before European conquest and domination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uprisings which led to the...
Egypt <ul><li>Starting in 1883 Lord Cromer (Sir Evelyn Baring) became High Commissioner of Egypt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pus...
Egypt <ul><li>The Khedival Regime and the Ayan were closely allied to the British overlords. </li></ul><ul><li>The cause o...
Egypt <ul><li>Dinshawai Incident (1906) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British officials punish peasants harshly for minor uprising...
Egypt <ul><li>Defense of the Suez Canal was a priority for  </li></ul><ul><li>the British during WWI.  </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Egypt <ul><li>Delegation ( wafd in Arabic)  of Egyptian leaders was denied permission to travel to Versailles bring their ...
Egypt <ul><li>British withdrawal from Egypt begins in 1922, and ends in 1936 with the withdrawal from the Suez Canal Zone....
Turkey <ul><li>After WWI, the Ottoman Empire disappears from history. </li></ul><ul><li>The Allies were intent to carve up...
Turkey <ul><li>Ataturk founded Turkey based on these six principles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>republicanism (based on the pre...
Turkey <ul><li>Ataturk pushed through a series of important reforms aimed at modernizing and westernizing Turkey. </li></u...
The Middle East <ul><li>The Sherif of Mecca ( governor of Mecca:  the governor or chief magistrate of Mecca during the yea...
Palestine/Israel <ul><li>Pogroms (violent attacks) on Jews throughout the 19 th  century convinced Leon Pinsker and other ...
Palestine/Israel <ul><li>Motivated by the Dreyfus Affair, Theodore Herzl organized western and eastern Jews to form the Wo...
Palestine/Israel <ul><li>In 1917, after WWI, Lord Balfour of Britain announced that his government would promote the estab...
Palestine/Israel <ul><li>Rising Arab opposition to the emigration of Jews to Palestine caused the British to severely curt...
Africa <ul><li>In response to war-time promises made to Africans in exchange for their military service, which never mater...
Africa <ul><li>Most of African Independence would be achieved well after WWII, but the movements themselves began during t...
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Decolonization in the post wwi era (part 2 of chapter 21)

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Decolonization in the post wwi era (part 2 of chapter 21)

  1. 1. Decolonization in the Post-WWI Era AP World History II
  2. 2. Where to focus… <ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Palestine </li></ul><ul><li>Africa </li></ul>
  3. 3. India <ul><li>Colonization occurs long before Africa, therefore decolonization begins earlier </li></ul><ul><li>Indian National Congress Party </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed in 1885 with British blessing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forum through which views of educated Indians could be made aware to the British government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members become alarmed at growing racism of Brits to Indians…realization of shared grievances, and growth of common Indian identity </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. India <ul><li>¾ Hindu, ¼ Muslim </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early nationalist leaders built strong Hindu base…alienating Muslims. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B.G. Tilak was unconcerned as to the religious split </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. India <ul><li>B.G. Tilak </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalism should be built upon Hindu religiosity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restoration and revival of ancient Hindu traditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposed Women’s education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turned Hindu festivals into mass political demonstrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broke with Congress-party leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demanded boycott of British-manufactured goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Called for Indians to refuse service in colonial administration and military </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DEMANDED FULL INDEPENDENCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Threatened violent rebellion if not achieved immediately </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. India <ul><li>Reaction to Tilak was mixed… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased Hindu rhetoric resulted in Tilak’s exile in Burma for 6 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslims, Sikhs, and other religions became increasingly wary of his tactics fearing a radical Hindu state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In an effort to moderate the nationalist demands, Britain passes the Morley-Minto Reforms of 1909 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Allowed educated Indians the opportunity to vote and serve on political councils </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. India <ul><li>After World War I… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brits refuse to honor wartime promises (surprise?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms (1919): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase the power of Indian legislators at the all-India level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rowlatt Act (1919): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Places severed restrictions on Indian civil rights (ex. freedom of press) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. India <ul><li>Mohandas Gandhi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appealed to Western-educated and the masses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-violent resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peaceful boycotts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strikes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-cooperation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mass demonstrations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Satyagraha, or truth force (soul force) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Egypt <ul><li>Nationalism emerges before European conquest and domination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uprisings which led to the British occupation in 1882 were aimed to overthrow the Turkish Khedives who controlled Egypt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British occupation meant DOUBLE-COLONIZATION! </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Egypt <ul><li>Starting in 1883 Lord Cromer (Sir Evelyn Baring) became High Commissioner of Egypt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pushed for economic reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bureaucratic reform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation systems, and other public works projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beneficiaries: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Middle and elite classes, foreign merchants, Turco-Egyptian political elite, Egyptian bourgeoisie in Cairo, and the ayan (rural landlords) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Egypt <ul><li>The Khedival Regime and the Ayan were closely allied to the British overlords. </li></ul><ul><li>The cause of Egyptian independence would therefore lie in the hands of the business and professional families that made up the middle class…the EFFENDI (specifically, the Sons of the Effendi) </li></ul><ul><li>In India, lawyers dominate the nationalism scene, whereas in Egypt, it is middle class journalists, etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike in India, Egyptian nationalist political parties never built a mass base. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Egypt <ul><li>Dinshawai Incident (1906) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British officials punish peasants harshly for minor uprising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Showed the racial arrogance purported by European colonizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped to build support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in Egypt aimed at </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protesting the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>continued occupation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of Egypt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1913, Britain granted the Egyptians a constitution and representation in a parliament </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Egypt <ul><li>Defense of the Suez Canal was a priority for </li></ul><ul><li>the British during WWI. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequently, heavy numbers of Entente forces were stationed in Egypt, causing a drain on the already scarce food supply. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Martial law was declared </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced labor, and animal confiscations from the peasantry </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Egypt <ul><li>Delegation ( wafd in Arabic) of Egyptian leaders was denied permission to travel to Versailles bring their case for self-determination to the Allies at the peace conference. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders call for mass demonstrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student-led riots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women actively took part in demonstrations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Wafd party provides the unifying force needed for unified action and a mass bass </li></ul>
  15. 15. Egypt <ul><li>British withdrawal from Egypt begins in 1922, and ends in 1936 with the withdrawal from the Suez Canal Zone. </li></ul><ul><li>Wafd Party government does little to end social misery of the masses </li></ul><ul><li>Military coup by Gamal Abdul Nasser in 1952 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Turkey <ul><li>After WWI, the Ottoman Empire disappears from history. </li></ul><ul><li>The Allies were intent to carve up Turkish land, and distribute amongst themselves (particularly Greece and Italy) </li></ul><ul><li>By 1923, Mustafa Kemal, </li></ul><ul><li>or Ataturk organized the </li></ul><ul><li>push to drive the Greeks </li></ul><ul><li>from the Turkish </li></ul><ul><li>homeland. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Turkey <ul><li>Ataturk founded Turkey based on these six principles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>republicanism (based on the premise that sovereignty belongs to the people) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turkish nationalism (emphasizing the glories of the Turkish past and the need for the Turks to build their own state according to modern principles and without foreign intervention) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>populism (the idea that the people ruled through the Grand National Assembly, with all economic and social interests represented) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>secularism (dictating complete separation between the Muslim religious establishment and the state) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>statism (meaning state intervention in major sectors of the economy and its control of the rest, so as to assure rapid economic development) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>revolutionism (dictating that all these changes be instituted at once and in full so that Turkish society could develop as rapidly as possible). </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Turkey <ul><li>Ataturk pushed through a series of important reforms aimed at modernizing and westernizing Turkey. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New, Latin alphabet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s suffrage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secularization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western oriented calendar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western styles of dress </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Middle East <ul><li>The Sherif of Mecca ( governor of Mecca:  the governor or chief magistrate of Mecca during the years of Ottoman Turkish rule), Hussein encourages Arabs to fight with the Allies during WWI in opposition to Turkish forces </li></ul><ul><li>Entente powers violate promises </li></ul><ul><li>made to Arab leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>European leaders occupy Middle </li></ul><ul><li> Eastern lands in each of their </li></ul><ul><li>MANDATES in Syria, Iraq, and </li></ul><ul><li> Lebanon </li></ul>
  20. 20. Palestine/Israel <ul><li>Pogroms (violent attacks) on Jews throughout the 19 th century convinced Leon Pinsker and other Jewish intellectuals that assimilation of the Jews into Christian societies was impossible. </li></ul><ul><li>Zionism was a movement centered around Jewish intellectuals aimed at returning Jews to their native Holy Land in Palestine </li></ul>
  21. 21. Palestine/Israel <ul><li>Motivated by the Dreyfus Affair, Theodore Herzl organized western and eastern Jews to form the World Zionist Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s central aim was to promote Jewish migration to and settlement in Palestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indifference towards Arabs living in the area </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Palestine/Israel <ul><li>In 1917, after WWI, Lord Balfour of Britain announced that his government would promote the establishment of Jewish Homeland in Palestine after the war. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain received a League of Nations mandate in 1922 to control Palestine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These promises seemed as a double-betrayal by the Entente Powers to Arabs </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Palestine/Israel <ul><li>Rising Arab opposition to the emigration of Jews to Palestine caused the British to severely curtail their support of the Balfour promises. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zionist leaders begin to mistrust the British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages Zionist leaders to build up their own defenses against the rising Arab resistance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palestinian needs and desires were not voiced through strong leadership in the coming years </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Africa <ul><li>In response to war-time promises made to Africans in exchange for their military service, which never materialized, Africans began to organize pan-African organizations to support the cause of African unity again the foreign presence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marcus Garvey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>W.E.B. DuBois </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negritude Literary Movement </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Africa <ul><li>Most of African Independence would be achieved well after WWII, but the movements themselves began during the inter-war period </li></ul>
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