Classical Civilizations
China
India
The Mediterranean
Classical China
Zhou, Qin, and Han Dynasties
Zhou Dynasty  Confucianism
– Family, filial piety, harmony, 5 relationships
...
China: Political Institutions
China had the longest running continuous
government in the world
Political institutions (Con...
China: Religion and Culture
Emphasis on education
Three major philosophies
– Confucianism: ethical system based on
relatio...
China: Economy and Society
Classical economy focused on agriculture
Sharp class division (merchants at bottom)
Extensive i...
Classical Indian Civilization
Maurya
Gupta
Framework for Indian History and
Geography
Geography- protects and fosters growth
Aryan culture dominated India after the ...
Patterns in Classical India
Two major periods
– Maurya (Chadragupta Maurya/ Hinduism)
– Gupta (Ashoka/ Buddhism)
Greek con...
Political Institutions in India
Central authority weak due to regionalism
and political diversity
Increasingly complex cas...
Religion and Culture in India
Hinduism: Both religious and social role in
society
Stress on reincarnation, dharma, karma,
...
Indian Economy and Society
By 100 BCE India had
– Written language
– Large cities
– Art and literature
– Two great world r...
Indian Influences
India played an important role in cultural
diffusion, linking Asia to the Mediterranean
world
China and India
Different political, social, and philosophical
traditions
Both have stable structure over long
period of t...
Classical Civilizations in the
Mediterranean World
Greece
Rome
Patterns of Greek and Roman
History
Based on tradition of tolerance to local
customs, organized military, and advanced
art...
Greek History:
– Rise of dynamic city-states
– Golden Age of Athens and Pericles
– Peloponnesian Wars  decline of Athens ...
Rome emerges as a new power as the
Hellenistic world declines
– Defeats Carthage in Punic Wars
– Republican government
– E...
Greek and Roman Institutions
The greatest legacy of Greece and Rome
are in the areas of Law and Government
Both emphasized...
Greek and Roman Religion and
Culture
Limited lasting religious impact
Christianity emerged in territory under
Roman contro...
Greek and Roman Economy and
Society
Mirrored many social features found in
traditional agricultural society
– Large peasan...
Effects of the Fall of Rome
Trade declines
East= Byzantium
West= collapse, dark ages that lead to
Medieval times
Expansion and Integration
Common theme= territorial expansion and
efforts to integrate new territory into
existing empires...
Beyond Classical Civilizations
The Americas and Africa also develop
classical civilization, though due to global
interacti...
The World Around 500 BC
Development of three major themes for
world history
– Societies across Eurasia had figure out how
...
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Clasical civilizaions

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A brief overview of the classical civilizations on China, India, and the Mediterranean.

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Clasical civilizaions

  1. 1. Classical Civilizations China India The Mediterranean
  2. 2. Classical China Zhou, Qin, and Han Dynasties Zhou Dynasty  Confucianism – Family, filial piety, harmony, 5 relationships Qin Dynasty  Shi Huangdi – Centralized power, standardized writing, Great Wall Han Dynasty  Wu Ti (Wudi) – Created government based on Confucianism
  3. 3. China: Political Institutions China had the longest running continuous government in the world Political institutions (Confucian) were made up of the emperor, and educated professional bureaucracy
  4. 4. China: Religion and Culture Emphasis on education Three major philosophies – Confucianism: ethical system based on relationships and personal virtue – Legalism: favored an authoritarian state and harsh rule – Taoism: harmony with nature and simple living Art was mostly decorative, included calligraphy
  5. 5. China: Economy and Society Classical economy focused on agriculture Sharp class division (merchants at bottom) Extensive internal trade Technological advances like ox-drawn plows, water powered mills, and paper Patriarchal with strong emphasis placed on family Limited outside contact
  6. 6. Classical Indian Civilization Maurya Gupta
  7. 7. Framework for Indian History and Geography Geography- protects and fosters growth Aryan culture dominated India after the fall of the Indus Valley, introducing the basics of the caste system Vedas, Mahabharata, Ramayana, and Upanishads formed basis of Aryan literary tradition
  8. 8. Patterns in Classical India Two major periods – Maurya (Chadragupta Maurya/ Hinduism) – Gupta (Ashoka/ Buddhism) Greek conquest (Alexander the Great  cultural diffusion Gupta = Golden Age of the Hindu
  9. 9. Political Institutions in India Central authority weak due to regionalism and political diversity Increasingly complex caste system promoted public
  10. 10. Religion and Culture in India Hinduism: Both religious and social role in society Stress on reincarnation, dharma, karma, and shallowness of material world Buddhism founded by Siddhartha Gautama – Important in Gupta Empire – Has greater impact in East Asia than in India
  11. 11. Indian Economy and Society By 100 BCE India had – Written language – Large cities – Art and literature – Two great world religions – Significant advances in Math and Science Society dominated by the caste system Society both patriarchal and patrilocal
  12. 12. Indian Influences India played an important role in cultural diffusion, linking Asia to the Mediterranean world
  13. 13. China and India Different political, social, and philosophical traditions Both have stable structure over long period of time
  14. 14. Classical Civilizations in the Mediterranean World Greece Rome
  15. 15. Patterns of Greek and Roman History Based on tradition of tolerance to local customs, organized military, and advanced artistry found in the Persian Empire under Cyrus the Great
  16. 16. Greek History: – Rise of dynamic city-states – Golden Age of Athens and Pericles – Peloponnesian Wars  decline of Athens and Sparta – Conquest and expansion under Alexander the Great – Rise of Hellenistic Civilization Blends Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and INdian
  17. 17. Rome emerges as a new power as the Hellenistic world declines – Defeats Carthage in Punic Wars – Republican government – Expands into an empire under Julius Caesar – 250 years of slow decline after the Pax Romana
  18. 18. Greek and Roman Institutions The greatest legacy of Greece and Rome are in the areas of Law and Government Both emphasized rule by an aristocracy with significant democratic elements – Athens: direct democracy – Rome: Senate – Rome adds the Twelve Tables, basis for most modern law systems
  19. 19. Greek and Roman Religion and Culture Limited lasting religious impact Christianity emerged in territory under Roman control Philosophy: rationalism, humanism
  20. 20. Greek and Roman Economy and Society Mirrored many social features found in traditional agricultural society – Large peasantry – Land-owning aristocracy Patriarchal Slavery
  21. 21. Effects of the Fall of Rome Trade declines East= Byzantium West= collapse, dark ages that lead to Medieval times
  22. 22. Expansion and Integration Common theme= territorial expansion and efforts to integrate new territory into existing empires China unites through political centralization India unites through religion Mediterranean World united through cultural achievements
  23. 23. Beyond Classical Civilizations The Americas and Africa also develop classical civilization, though due to global interactions they have less of an impact on later regional developments Nomadic societies continued to challenge the borders of classical civs and often led to periods of trouble or collapse
  24. 24. The World Around 500 BC Development of three major themes for world history – Societies across Eurasia had figure out how to revive and rework themselves following nomadic invasions – Establishment of almost all major world religions – Trade and war lead to the rise of new civilization
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