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Chapter 23 Part II
 

Chapter 23 Part II

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Europe 1750-1914 Part 2

Europe 1750-1914 Part 2

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    Chapter 23 Part II Chapter 23 Part II Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 23: The Rise of Europe
      An Age of Revolution, Industry, and Empire
      1750-1914
      Part II
    • The Making of Industrial Society
      Foundations of Industrial Society
      The Factory System
      Early Spread of Industrialism
      Industrial Capitalism
      Effects of Industrialization
      Urbanization and Migration
      Industry and Society
      Socialist Challenge
      Industrialization Continues to Spread
      The International Division of Labor
    • Foundations of Industrial Society
      Introduction of New World crops and new farming techniques  Population Revolution
    • Three major dynamic economic centers in the world by 1750
      Britain
      Yangzi Delta- China
      Japan
      All had:
      High agricultural activity and population growth
      Increasing occupational specialization
      Navigable rivers and canals
      Sophisticated banking and financial institutions
      Issues of soil depletion, deforestation and growing levels of consumption
    • Britain leads the way in industrialization because in 1750 they had:
      Huge coal deposits that could replace the use of wood as a source of fuel
      Iron deposits for building steam engines and factories
      Colonies in America and India good source of cheap raw materials and cash crops like sugar and cotton
    • Demand for cotton goods  growth of a mechanized cotton industry
      Steam power speeds up production and makes it easy to use trains to move goods and people
      19th century = The Age of Steel  the rise of railroads
    • New Products, New NationsIndustrialization: 1860-1910
      The Second Industrial Revolution
      Steel and Chemical Industries grow in Britain
      Construction of Suez and Panama Canals
      New drugs, insecticides, chemical fertilizers
      Electricity!
    • Factory Production
      Dominated by big impersonal companies/ cartels
      New mass-production, mass-consumption culture emerges
      Standardization and interchangeable parts
    • Warfare and Industrialization
      Close link!
      Civil War in US spurs industrial growth and building railroads
      Maxim gun which could shoot 11 rounds/second and reach distances of 1 ½ miles indispensible in conquering Africa
      Krupp manufacturing in Germany focused on armaments that helped Germany defeat France in Franco-Prussian war leading to creation of Germany
    • Worldwide effects of Industrialization
      Industrial nations sought oversees colonies for markets and resources
      British investors aid in construction of American rails
      Financiers seek profit from new business enterprises around the world
      Neo-colonialism wins out: foreign economic control w/o foreign political control
    • Examples of Neo-Colonialism
      China: Foreign investors establish spheres of influence to control trade in China. Both support and undermine Qing government
      Canada: Enjoyed self-rule beginning in 1840, encouraged immigration and investment. Built rails, mines and large wheat farms. Investments came close to half a billion dollars between 1900 and 1916
      Ottoman Empire: In 1914 Western European powers invested 1.2 billion to keep the “Sick Man of Europe” from collapsing
    • Population of Europe doubled between 1750 and 1850 due to
      introduction of New World crops = more food
      Better diets
      Increasing urban planning and sanitation
      Improvements in health care
      Smaller families proves “iron law of wages” false
      Demographic Causes and Effects
    • Heaps of garbage and ashes lie in all directions, and the foul liquids emptied before the doors gather in stinking pools. Here live the poorest of the poor, the worst paid workers with thieves and victims of prostitution indiscriminately huddled together… They who have some kind of shelter are fortunate in comparison with the utterly homeless. In London fifty thousand human beings get up every morning, not knowing where they are to lay their heads at night.
    • Important Documents
      Sadler Commission Hearings (1832)
      Charter of the Working People (1838)
      Sir Edwin Chadwick Inquiry into the Condition for the Poor (1842)
      Friedrich Engels Condition of the Working Class in England (1845)
      Marx and Engels Communist Manifesto (1848)
    • Eventually… Improvements
      New economic philosophies such as Socialism and Communism lead to changing ideologies
      Let the ruling classes tremble at a communist revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have the world to win. Workingmen of all countries, unite! (Marx)
      Governments begin to see that their role as protecting peoples’ well being; help the poor rather than punish them
      Labor Unions form to protect workers’ rights
    • “The theory of the communists may be summed up in the single sentence: Abolition of private property” (Marx).
      Marx believed communist revolution would begin violently with the proletariat overthrowing the bourgeoisie
      Labor unions, and laws to protect workers prevented communist revolution from breaking out in Europe
      Eventually, standards of living improved for even urban workers
    • Germany (1870-1914)
      1867: Otto von Bismarck extends male suffrage across the North German Confederation
      1871: Bismarck unifies Germany under Prussian king Wilhelm I
      1875: Europe’s 1st political party Social Democratic Party forms in opposition to Kaiser Wilhelm’s reign. Made up entirely of workers to represent working class issues
      1880s: Conservative leader Bismarck creates 1st social security system in Europe
      1871-1914: Bismarck directs growth of industry with focus on military armament to gain more colonies
    • United States: (1861-1914)
      1861-65: American Civil War
      1866: Organization of labor begins when the National Labor Union formed
      1890s: Strikes led to violence
      Radical unionism + influx of immigrants with socialist ideas leads to growing fear of communist revolution and limitations placed on labor unions
      Over time workers conditions do improve
    • France: 1848-1914
      Revolutions erupt in France in 1830 and 1848. Liberal movements fail, but eventually gov’t makes some liberal changes
      1870: Uprising of the Paris Commune: meeting place for socialists and labor unions 20,000 killed, 10,000 exiled
      1880: Exiles begin to return, labor organizations begin again
    • 1890: May fist became “Labor Day”
      French politics continued to be dominated by wealthy business owners
      Liberal reforms made by government which fears future uprisings
    • The Industrial West by 1900
      Consolidated nation-states
      Parliamentary democracies
      Bureaucratic institutions
      Freedom of the press and religion
      Habeas corpus rights
      Increased literacy and more public education
      High levels of trade and international exchange
      Thriving artistic life
      High levels of entrepreneurship
      Protection of private property
      Humanitarian perspectives
      High levels of industrial productivity
      New science and technology
      High levels of health and medical care
      Integration in the world economy
      Powerful weapons
    • Change Over Time
      Agricultural change and population growth  large unskilled urban population who become proletariat. How?
      At first their lives are miserable. Describe!
      Over time new philosophies effect the way poverty and the economy are viewed. Explain examples.
      Unions and liberal reforms  improvements in standards of living across the industrializing world. Discuss how.