Chapter 23: The Rise of Europe An Age of Revolution, Industry, and Empire 1750-1914 Part II
The Making of Industrial Society Foundations of Industrial Society The Factory System Early Spread of Industrialism Industrial Capitalism Effects of Industrialization Urbanization and Migration Industry and Society Socialist Challenge Industrialization Continues to Spread The International Division of Labor
Foundations of Industrial Society Introduction of New World crops and new farming techniques Population Revolution
Three major dynamic economic centers in the world by 1750 Britain Yangzi Delta- China Japan All had: High agricultural activity and population growth Increasing occupational specialization Navigable rivers and canals Sophisticated banking and financial institutions Issues of soil depletion, deforestation and growing levels of consumption
Britain leads the way in industrialization because in 1750 they had: Huge coal deposits that could replace the use of wood as a source of fuel Iron deposits for building steam engines and factories Colonies in America and India good source of cheap raw materials and cash crops like sugar and cotton
Demand for cotton goods growth of a mechanized cotton industry Steam power speeds up production and makes it easy to use trains to move goods and people 19th century = The Age of Steel the rise of railroads
New Products, New NationsIndustrialization: 1860-1910 The Second Industrial Revolution Steel and Chemical Industries grow in Britain Construction of Suez and Panama Canals New drugs, insecticides, chemical fertilizers Electricity!
Factory Production Dominated by big impersonal companies/ cartels New mass-production, mass-consumption culture emerges Standardization and interchangeable parts
Warfare and Industrialization Close link! Civil War in US spurs industrial growth and building railroads Maxim gun which could shoot 11 rounds/second and reach distances of 1 ½ miles indispensible in conquering Africa Krupp manufacturing in Germany focused on armaments that helped Germany defeat France in Franco-Prussian war leading to creation of Germany
Worldwide effects of Industrialization Industrial nations sought oversees colonies for markets and resources British investors aid in construction of American rails Financiers seek profit from new business enterprises around the world Neo-colonialism wins out: foreign economic control w/o foreign political control
Examples of Neo-Colonialism China: Foreign investors establish spheres of influence to control trade in China. Both support and undermine Qing government Canada: Enjoyed self-rule beginning in 1840, encouraged immigration and investment. Built rails, mines and large wheat farms. Investments came close to half a billion dollars between 1900 and 1916 Ottoman Empire: In 1914 Western European powers invested 1.2 billion to keep the “Sick Man of Europe” from collapsing
Population of Europe doubled between 1750 and 1850 due to introduction of New World crops = more food Better diets Increasing urban planning and sanitation Improvements in health care Smaller families proves “iron law of wages” false Demographic Causes and Effects
Heaps of garbage and ashes lie in all directions, and the foul liquids emptied before the doors gather in stinking pools. Here live the poorest of the poor, the worst paid workers with thieves and victims of prostitution indiscriminately huddled together… They who have some kind of shelter are fortunate in comparison with the utterly homeless. In London fifty thousand human beings get up every morning, not knowing where they are to lay their heads at night.
Important Documents Sadler Commission Hearings (1832) Charter of the Working People (1838) Sir Edwin Chadwick Inquiry into the Condition for the Poor (1842) Friedrich Engels Condition of the Working Class in England (1845) Marx and Engels Communist Manifesto (1848)
Eventually… Improvements New economic philosophies such as Socialism and Communism lead to changing ideologies Let the ruling classes tremble at a communist revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have the world to win. Workingmen of all countries, unite! (Marx) Governments begin to see that their role as protecting peoples’ well being; help the poor rather than punish them Labor Unions form to protect workers’ rights
“The theory of the communists may be summed up in the single sentence: Abolition of private property” (Marx). Marx believed communist revolution would begin violently with the proletariat overthrowing the bourgeoisie Labor unions, and laws to protect workers prevented communist revolution from breaking out in Europe Eventually, standards of living improved for even urban workers
Germany (1870-1914) 1867: Otto von Bismarck extends male suffrage across the North German Confederation 1871: Bismarck unifies Germany under Prussian king Wilhelm I 1875: Europe’s 1st political party Social Democratic Party forms in opposition to Kaiser Wilhelm’s reign. Made up entirely of workers to represent working class issues 1880s: Conservative leader Bismarck creates 1st social security system in Europe 1871-1914: Bismarck directs growth of industry with focus on military armament to gain more colonies
United States: (1861-1914) 1861-65: American Civil War 1866: Organization of labor begins when the National Labor Union formed 1890s: Strikes led to violence Radical unionism + influx of immigrants with socialist ideas leads to growing fear of communist revolution and limitations placed on labor unions Over time workers conditions do improve
France: 1848-1914 Revolutions erupt in France in 1830 and 1848. Liberal movements fail, but eventually gov’t makes some liberal changes 1870: Uprising of the Paris Commune: meeting place for socialists and labor unions 20,000 killed, 10,000 exiled 1880: Exiles begin to return, labor organizations begin again
1890: May fist became “Labor Day” French politics continued to be dominated by wealthy business owners Liberal reforms made by government which fears future uprisings
The Industrial West by 1900 Consolidated nation-states Parliamentary democracies Bureaucratic institutions Freedom of the press and religion Habeas corpus rights Increased literacy and more public education High levels of trade and international exchange Thriving artistic life High levels of entrepreneurship Protection of private property Humanitarian perspectives High levels of industrial productivity New science and technology High levels of health and medical care Integration in the world economy Powerful weapons
Change Over Time Agricultural change and population growth large unskilled urban population who become proletariat. How? At first their lives are miserable. Describe! Over time new philosophies effect the way poverty and the economy are viewed. Explain examples. Unions and liberal reforms improvements in standards of living across the industrializing world. Discuss how.