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Chapter 22
Chapter 22
Chapter 22
Chapter 22
Chapter 22
Chapter 22
Chapter 22
Chapter 22
Chapter 22
Chapter 22
Chapter 22
Chapter 22
Chapter 22
Chapter 22
Chapter 22
Chapter 22
Chapter 22
Chapter 22
Chapter 22
Chapter 22
Chapter 22
Chapter 22
Chapter 22
Chapter 22
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Chapter 22
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Chapter 22
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Chapter 22

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  • 1. Chapter 22: Asian Transitions in an era of Global Change AP World History II
  • 2. European Arrival <ul><li>Vasco de Gama and his Portuguese crew arrive in India in 1498 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found a sea route around Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portugal, not Spain! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial trading in Calicut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asians weren’t interested in European-made goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asians were, however, ready to trade for silver bullion! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Europeans realize that the Muslims arrived in Southern Asia well before they did! </li></ul>
  • 3. Asian Sea Trade Network <ul><li>3 Main Zones </li></ul><ul><li>West: Arab Zone-glass, carpet, and tapestry making. </li></ul><ul><li>Center: Indian Zone-superb cotton textiles. </li></ul><ul><li>East: Chinese Zone-paper, porcelain, and silk textiles. </li></ul><ul><li>Places like Japan, East Africa, and South East Asia were known to contribute raw materials. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Come from places like Ceylon (known for Spices). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indonesian Archipelago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spices, ivory from Africa </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. &nbsp;
  • 5. European Arrival <ul><li>There were two characteristics of the trading system that needed to be understood by the Europeans </li></ul><ul><li>First…NO CENTRAL CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>Second…Military force was absent from commercial exchanges </li></ul>
  • 6. European Arrival <ul><li>Mercantilist: one who taught that a state’s power depended heavily on the amount of precious metals a monarch had. </li></ul><ul><li>Trading along the Asian network was therefore going to be unprofitable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It would enrich and strengthen merchants and rulers from rival kingdoms (Muslims) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>De Gama turns to force instead of peaceful trading. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates tribute payments along the coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portuguese were united in their drive for wealth and religious converts. </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. European Arrival <ul><li>Portuguese trading empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish control over key Asian products, particularly spices, such as cinnamon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resistance, poor discipline, corruption, and shipping losses take a heavy toll on the empire by the end of the 16 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>English and Dutch compete to win control over the trading system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Dutch are the victors (short-term), and the English fall-back to India </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. Dutch Trading Empire <ul><li>Fortified towns and factories (supply) </li></ul><ul><li>Warships on patrol </li></ul><ul><li>Monopoly control over limited products </li></ul><ul><li>More efficient than the Portuguese </li></ul>
  • 9. Inland… <ul><li>Asians were able to defend territory much better on the interior, on the mainland and on islands. </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans found themselves to be not as effective on land-warfare for trading empires. </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish conquest of LUZON in 1560s (Philippines) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim rulers resist on the southern island of Mindanao </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Spreadin’ the faith… <ul><li>Spread of Roman Catholicism was a major force in the Europeans thrust into the Indian trade network. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial indifference and open hostility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>India appeared to be one of the more promising fields for conversion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some learn different languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted vegetarian diets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aimed at converting upper-caste Hindus, who would then set the example for lower-class (untouchables, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Conversion <ul><li>Conversion only occurred in isolated areas </li></ul><ul><li>Somewhat successful on the Northern islands of the Philippines. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Friars built new settlements with town squares where the church was located. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Represents a mix of Christian and Filipino ways </li></ul>
  • 12. China and the Ming Dynasty <ul><li>Restoration of ethnic Chinese rule under the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest population of any civilization of the time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewed agricultural/commercial growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europeans use New World bullion to pay for goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High degree of technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large numbers of skilled engineers and artisans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralized bureaucracy </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. &nbsp;
  • 14. China and the Ming Dynasty-Hongwu <ul><li>Zhu Yuanzhang declares himself the Hongwu Emperor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Ming Emperor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hongwu=“Vast Military” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wants to rid China of all traces of the “barbarian” Mongols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mongol dress was discarded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mongol names were dropped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mongol palaces were destroyed </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. China and the Ming Dynasty-Hongwu <ul><li>Return of the Scholar-Gentry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Somewhat suspicious of this class because of his Peasant upbringings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scholars versed in Confucian classics were appointed to high positions in government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Service Examination system was reinstated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abolished the position of chief minister </li></ul><ul><li>Instituted Public beatings for bureaucrats found guilty of corruption and incompetence </li></ul>
  • 16. China and the Ming Dynasty-Hongwu <ul><li>Hongwu tries to cut down on factionalism and conspiracies that eroded power from earlier Dynasties </li></ul><ul><li>Exiled all potential rivals to the throne to estates in the provinces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forbade them to be involved in political affairs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thought control-deleted sections of Mencius’ writings </li></ul>
  • 17. China and the Ming Dynasty-Hongwu <ul><li>Introduced measures to improve lives of peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Public works projects </li></ul><ul><li>Unoccupied land would become the tax-exempt property of those who cleared and cultivated it </li></ul>
  • 18. China and the Ming Dynasty <ul><li>Women: subordinate to men as per Confucianism. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Played role in Hongwu’s court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hundreds/Thousands of women would wait at the palace to be seen by the emperor as one of his concubines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status was defined as to their ability to bear male children </li></ul></ul>
  • 19. Ming China <ul><li>Territory controlled was not as expansive as in the T’ang Dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial and Population boom began in the Song Dynasty was continued </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish and Portuguese mercantile contacts imports crops from the New World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From the Andes highlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maize, sweet potatoes, peanuts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grown on inferior soil with little irrigation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultivation spread quickly through marginal areas </li></ul></ul>
  • 20. &nbsp;
  • 21. Ming China <ul><li>Food crop importation is key to hedging famine amongst HUGE population growth </li></ul>
  • 22. Ming China <ul><li>Commercial growth: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced handicraft industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silk textiles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fine ceramics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance of trade was VERY MUCH in China’s favor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arab, Asian, and now European traders arrive at Macao and Canton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are the only two places where Europeans were allowed to do business in Ming China </li></ul></ul>
  • 23. Ming China <ul><li>Merchants make lots of money in this trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes paid to scholar-gentry (bribes, too) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merchants invested more in land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ming prosperity was reflected in the fine arts </li></ul><ul><li>Development of Chinese literature (the Novel) </li></ul>
  • 24. Ming China <ul><li>Between 1405 and 1423 China launched a series of impressive expeditions at Sea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During Yunglo’s reign </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Went to Southeast Asian kingdoms, Persia, southern Arabia, East Africa </li></ul>
  • 25. Ming China <ul><li>Zhenghe’s expeditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>62 ships (4 for De Gama, 3 for Columbus) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>28,000 sailors, merchants, soldiers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>400 foot long ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China had the capacity to expand at least a century before the Europeans rounded the Cape of Good Hope. </li></ul></ul>
  • 26. Ming China <ul><li>After 1400, China aims to LIMIT China’s overseas commerce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ming war fleet dramatically declines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As the Chinese shut themselves in, the Europeans were irresistibly drawn to the Middle Kingdom for converts. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some scholars show interest in Christianity, but never took a real hold on the court, or the people. </li></ul></ul>
  • 27. Ming China-Decline <ul><li>Highly centralized, absolutist structure developed by Hongwu and continued by Yunglo could not be continued. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Official corruption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolation of weak rulers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public works projects fall into disrepair. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floods, droughts, famine afflict the land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased foreign threats, mostly by the Manchu </li></ul><ul><li>The last emperor of the Ming, Chongzhen, commits suicide as the walls of the Forbidden City are scaled by rebels…the Dynasty ends in 1644. </li></ul>
  • 28. Japan <ul><li>Kamakura Shogunate: 1185-1333, establishment of the Shogunate under Minamoto no Yoritomo </li></ul><ul><li>Ashikaga Shogunate: 1336-1573, weaker with most of the power lying in the hands of regional Daimyo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1500’s, continual civil war amongst the Daimyo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three able-military leaders were needed to restore unity and order </li></ul></ul>
  • 29. Japan <ul><li>Oda Nobunaga used firearms that Japan had gained from the Portuguese in the 1540s. </li></ul><ul><li>Deposed the last of the Ashikaga Shoguns in 1573 </li></ul><ul><li>By 1580 he puts most of Honshu island under his command </li></ul><ul><li>Killed in 1582 </li></ul>
  • 30. Japan <ul><li>Toyotomi Hideyoshi (one of Nobunaga’s Generals) moved to punish those who betrayed Nobunaga and renewed the drive to break the power from the Daimyo. </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled most of Japan by 1590 </li></ul><ul><li>Launched two attacks on Korea in 1592 and 1597 with almost 150,000 soldiers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No real success… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dies in 1598 </li></ul>
  • 31. Japan <ul><li>Tokugawa Ieyasu concentrates on consolidating power at home. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1603 he was granted power as Shogun by the Emperor </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning of the TOKUGAWA SHOGUNATE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ends civil wars, brought the semblance of political unity to the islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules from Edo (later to be, Tokyo) </li></ul></ul>
  • 32. The Tokugawa Shogunate
  • 33. The Tokugawa Shogunate <ul><li>Europeans had increasing contact with the Japanese throughout the warring period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brought goods traded in India, China, and SE Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchanged for Silver, copper, pottery, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traders and missionaries brought firearms, printing presses, and other western devices, like clocks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contacts with Europeans changed warfare (guns), and led to increased commercial contacts with China, Korea, Philippines, and Siam </li></ul>
  • 34. Conversion (before Tokugawa) <ul><li>Jesuits employ the top-down model of impressing the leader (in this case, Nobunaga in the 1570s) </li></ul><ul><li>Convert many of the Daimyo’s </li></ul><ul><li>Nobunaga himself was said to be at the verge of conversion. </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of thousands of converts by the early 1580s </li></ul><ul><li>Hideyoshi though, was distrustful of the Europeans, and saw the writing on the wall… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial and Military ventures first…then conquer the islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion is cut short in the 1580s </li></ul></ul>
  • 35. Tokugawa Isolationism <ul><li>Beginning in the 1580’s, amid skepticism about the intentions of the Europeans official measures are taken to restrict foreign activities in Japan. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christian Missionaries are ordered off the islands by Hideyoshi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ieyasu continues the persecution and bans Christianity by 1614. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Missionaries are hunted, killed, or expelled. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese were required to renounce their faith, or face imprisonment, torture and execution. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 36. Tokugawa Isolationism <ul><li>1630: All Japanese ships were forbidden to trade, or even sail overseas </li></ul><ul><li>1640s: Only a limited number of Dutch and Chinese chips were allowed to trade on the island of Deshima, in Nagasaki Bay. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper export was restricted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western books banned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreigners were permitted to live and travel only to VERY restricted areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By the 1650s total isolationism was almost complete. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on Japan’s unique historical experience </li></ul></ul>

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