Chapter 19 Summary Notes
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Chapter 19 Summary Notes

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PPT notes summary of Chapter 21

PPT notes summary of Chapter 21

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Chapter 19 Summary Notes Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The Muslim Empires Chapter 21: Summary and Review
  • 2. Foundation and Overview
    • Mongol conquests of the 13 th and 14 th centuries destroyed remaining Muslim unity in southern Asia
    • Three new empires emerged: Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal
    • All had strong militaries and gunpowder technology
    • All had absolute monarchies and agrarian economies
  • 3. Ottoman Empire: Beginning
    • Nomadic Turks who came to power following the Mongol defeat of the Seljuks
    • 1453- Defeat Constantinople
    • Eventually spread throughout Anatolia, Balkans, Eastern Europe (up to Vienna), Arabia, and Northern Africa
  • 4. Ottoman Military Might
    • Society was heavily geared for warfare
    • Turkic horsemen became the warrior aristocracy ruling the empire controlling land and peasants they conquered
    • Janissaries- elite gunpowder troops made up of boys conscripted from conquered Christian peoples come to dominate the military by the mid 16 th century
  • 5. Ottoman Government
    • Absolute monarchy, loses touch with people over time
    • Lacked clear rules for succession  political turmoil and eventual decline of empire
    • Sultans advised by viziers, rule huge bureaucracy
    • Kept factions fighting against each other
  • 6. Ottoman Culture
    • Religiously tolerant: Christians and Jews considered “People of the Book”
    • Merchants came to hold great power
    • Istanbul become important international center of trade
    • Sultans beginning with Suleyman the Magnificent, build mosques and other public works to beautify city and leave their mark
  • 7. Ottoman Problems  Decline
    • Empire grows to big to be maintained
    • Problems with succession weaken government, made worse by series of poor rulers
    • Siege of Vienna weakens military and drains treasury
    • Oppressed peasants begin to revolt or flee empire
    • Janissaries, hoping to maintain power block attempts at reform
  • 8. Ottoman Military Defeats
    • 1571- Battle of Lepanto, lose control of Indian Ocean trade to joint Spanish-Portuguese fleet
    • 1688- Siege of Vienna, Ottoman repelled, beginning of the end
  • 9. Safavid Empire Formed
    • 1501- Isma’il as Sufi mysitic and descendant of Sail al-Din established capital at Tabriz and names himself Shah
    • Begin expanding
    • 1514- Battle of Chaldiran- defeated by Ottoman, stops westward expansion of shi’ism
  • 10. Safavid Politics and War
    • Absolute monarchy, restored by Tasmaph I in 1534
    • Abbas the Great-
      • rules during golden Age (1589-1627)
      • brought some Turkic warriors under control
      • recruited Persians into bureaucracy
      • created elite gunpowder troops made up of conquered Russian peoples (similar to Janissaries)
  • 11. Safavid Culture
    • Originally wrote in Turkish, but changed to Persian following the Battle of Chaldiran
    • Create elaborate court based on Persian traditions
    • Religious leaders and teachers grow in power and importance as Shi’ism spreads through empire
    • Produced beautiful silk textiles
    • New capital built in Isfahan
  • 12. Decline of the Safavid
    • Abbas I kills his successors  series of weak leaders
    • Internal power struggles  more weakness
    • 1722- Isfahan falls to Afghan raiders
    • 1736- Even Nadir Shah Afshar unable to rally the empire
  • 13. Ottoman and Safavid Compared
    • Similarities
    • Initially dominated by warrior aristocracy
    • Oppression and turmoil caused peasants to flee and rebel
    • Encouraged trade and domestic production
    • Women subordinate to men, lose power over time
    • Differences
    • Ottoman more market driven
    • Safavid land locked, limits trade
  • 14. Mughals Establish an Empire in India
    • Babur descendant of Tamerlain invades India in 1526 seeking wealth, get stuck and decide to stay
    • by 1528 control most of the Indus and Ganges region
  • 15. Akbar the Great
    • Worked to reconcile problems with Hindu majority, religious toleration
      • Encouraged intermarriage
      • Ended special tax on Hindus
      • Respected most Hindu traditions
      • Granted land to Hindu and Muslim warriors in return for loyalty
    • Din-i-ilahi- Universal faith, encourages respect of all peoples’ beliefs
  • 16.
    • Encourages social reforms like limiting alcohol
    • Encourages widow remarriage while discouraging child marriage, tries to ban Sati, even tries to create special market day for women
    • Most reforms not lasting, peasants continue to live in poverty, later rulers reverse religious toleration, women lose rights (daughters unlucky, child marriage resumes)
  • 17. Mughal Achievements
    • Many rulers were patrons of the arts
      • Painting workshops for miniatures
      • Textile and rug production
      • Great architectural works (Taj Mahal)
  • 18. Mughal Decline
    • 1707- Aurangzeb reverses religious toleration, drains treasury and weakens military and government bureaucracy
    •  Marattas and Sikh rebellions
    • Regional lords gain power as central government declines
    • Foreign powers step in to gain land as Mughal empire declines
  • 19. Gunpowder Empires
    • All three empires gain power with help of nomadic warriors
    • Firearms became decisive in battle, ie) Chaldiran
    • Governments used military technology to change the organization of their empires, warrior aristocray lose power as governments build professional armies
  • 20.
    • All three empires ignored the growing threat of European expansion and military might
    • Ignored or blocked European innovations
    • Lost international trade routes to Europeans
    • European gold  inflation