Chapter 19 Summary Notes


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Chapter 19 Summary Notes

  1. 1. The Muslim Empires Chapter 21: Summary and Review
  2. 2. Foundation and Overview <ul><li>Mongol conquests of the 13 th and 14 th centuries destroyed remaining Muslim unity in southern Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Three new empires emerged: Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal </li></ul><ul><li>All had strong militaries and gunpowder technology </li></ul><ul><li>All had absolute monarchies and agrarian economies </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ottoman Empire: Beginning <ul><li>Nomadic Turks who came to power following the Mongol defeat of the Seljuks </li></ul><ul><li>1453- Defeat Constantinople </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually spread throughout Anatolia, Balkans, Eastern Europe (up to Vienna), Arabia, and Northern Africa </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ottoman Military Might <ul><li>Society was heavily geared for warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Turkic horsemen became the warrior aristocracy ruling the empire controlling land and peasants they conquered </li></ul><ul><li>Janissaries- elite gunpowder troops made up of boys conscripted from conquered Christian peoples come to dominate the military by the mid 16 th century </li></ul>
  5. 5. Ottoman Government <ul><li>Absolute monarchy, loses touch with people over time </li></ul><ul><li>Lacked clear rules for succession  political turmoil and eventual decline of empire </li></ul><ul><li>Sultans advised by viziers, rule huge bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>Kept factions fighting against each other </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ottoman Culture <ul><li>Religiously tolerant: Christians and Jews considered “People of the Book” </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants came to hold great power </li></ul><ul><li>Istanbul become important international center of trade </li></ul><ul><li>Sultans beginning with Suleyman the Magnificent, build mosques and other public works to beautify city and leave their mark </li></ul>
  7. 7. Ottoman Problems  Decline <ul><li>Empire grows to big to be maintained </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with succession weaken government, made worse by series of poor rulers </li></ul><ul><li>Siege of Vienna weakens military and drains treasury </li></ul><ul><li>Oppressed peasants begin to revolt or flee empire </li></ul><ul><li>Janissaries, hoping to maintain power block attempts at reform </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ottoman Military Defeats <ul><li>1571- Battle of Lepanto, lose control of Indian Ocean trade to joint Spanish-Portuguese fleet </li></ul><ul><li>1688- Siege of Vienna, Ottoman repelled, beginning of the end </li></ul>
  9. 9. Safavid Empire Formed <ul><li>1501- Isma’il as Sufi mysitic and descendant of Sail al-Din established capital at Tabriz and names himself Shah </li></ul><ul><li>Begin expanding </li></ul><ul><li>1514- Battle of Chaldiran- defeated by Ottoman, stops westward expansion of shi’ism </li></ul>
  10. 10. Safavid Politics and War <ul><li>Absolute monarchy, restored by Tasmaph I in 1534 </li></ul><ul><li>Abbas the Great- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rules during golden Age (1589-1627) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>brought some Turkic warriors under control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>recruited Persians into bureaucracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>created elite gunpowder troops made up of conquered Russian peoples (similar to Janissaries) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Safavid Culture <ul><li>Originally wrote in Turkish, but changed to Persian following the Battle of Chaldiran </li></ul><ul><li>Create elaborate court based on Persian traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Religious leaders and teachers grow in power and importance as Shi’ism spreads through empire </li></ul><ul><li>Produced beautiful silk textiles </li></ul><ul><li>New capital built in Isfahan </li></ul>
  12. 12. Decline of the Safavid <ul><li>Abbas I kills his successors  series of weak leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Internal power struggles  more weakness </li></ul><ul><li>1722- Isfahan falls to Afghan raiders </li></ul><ul><li>1736- Even Nadir Shah Afshar unable to rally the empire </li></ul>
  13. 13. Ottoman and Safavid Compared <ul><li>Similarities </li></ul><ul><li>Initially dominated by warrior aristocracy </li></ul><ul><li>Oppression and turmoil caused peasants to flee and rebel </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged trade and domestic production </li></ul><ul><li>Women subordinate to men, lose power over time </li></ul><ul><li>Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Ottoman more market driven </li></ul><ul><li>Safavid land locked, limits trade </li></ul>
  14. 14. Mughals Establish an Empire in India <ul><li>Babur descendant of Tamerlain invades India in 1526 seeking wealth, get stuck and decide to stay </li></ul><ul><li>by 1528 control most of the Indus and Ganges region </li></ul>
  15. 15. Akbar the Great <ul><li>Worked to reconcile problems with Hindu majority, religious toleration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraged intermarriage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended special tax on Hindus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respected most Hindu traditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Granted land to Hindu and Muslim warriors in return for loyalty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Din-i-ilahi- Universal faith, encourages respect of all peoples’ beliefs </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Encourages social reforms like limiting alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages widow remarriage while discouraging child marriage, tries to ban Sati, even tries to create special market day for women </li></ul><ul><li>Most reforms not lasting, peasants continue to live in poverty, later rulers reverse religious toleration, women lose rights (daughters unlucky, child marriage resumes) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Mughal Achievements <ul><li>Many rulers were patrons of the arts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Painting workshops for miniatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Textile and rug production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great architectural works (Taj Mahal) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Mughal Decline <ul><li>1707- Aurangzeb reverses religious toleration, drains treasury and weakens military and government bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li> Marattas and Sikh rebellions </li></ul><ul><li>Regional lords gain power as central government declines </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign powers step in to gain land as Mughal empire declines </li></ul>
  19. 19. Gunpowder Empires <ul><li>All three empires gain power with help of nomadic warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Firearms became decisive in battle, ie) Chaldiran </li></ul><ul><li>Governments used military technology to change the organization of their empires, warrior aristocray lose power as governments build professional armies </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>All three empires ignored the growing threat of European expansion and military might </li></ul><ul><li>Ignored or blocked European innovations </li></ul><ul><li>Lost international trade routes to Europeans </li></ul><ul><li>European gold  inflation </li></ul>