Chap 23


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Europe 1750-1914

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Chap 23

  1. 1. Chapter 23: The Rise of Europe<br />An Age of Revolution, Industry, and Empire<br />1750-1914<br />
  2. 2. Part I: Revolution and Nation States<br />Enlightenment and revolutionary ideas<br />The American Revolution<br />The French Revolution<br />The reign of Napoleon Bonaparte<br />New ideologies: conservatism, liberalism, and radicalism<br />Nations and nationalism<br />The unification of Italy and Germany<br />
  3. 3. Enlightenment and Revolutionary Ideas<br />Before the Enlightenment, rulers:<br />Were autocrats<br />Claimed divine right<br />Were often closely linked to religious institutions<br />
  4. 4. Enlightenment philosophies (17th and 18th centuries) questioned the arbitrary rule of monarchs<br />Locke argued governments function is to protect peoples rights and to remove divine agents from government<br />Individual rights examined<br />Voltaire questioned religious intolerance and government censorship<br />
  5. 5. Political and legal equality sought<br />Rousseau argues the aristocracy do not contribute more to society and therefore shouldn’t have more rights<br />Discussions about ending slavery and treating indigenous people as equals emerge<br />Enlightenment ideas have a global impact<br />Increasing literacy rates and cheap books  rapid spread of ideas<br />Social reformers and revolutionaries demand enlightened change on behalf of people<br />
  6. 6. The American Revolution<br />By 1760, American colonists chafe under British rule<br />Economic impact of Seven Years War  increasing taxes in colonies<br />Colonists argue they should govern their own affairs<br />No taxation w/o representation (Locke) Boston Tea Party 1773<br />1774- Constitutional Convention formed to organize resistance to British policies<br />
  7. 7. Declaration of Independence showcases Enlightenment ideas<br />Equality- Rousseau, Voltaire<br />Life, liberty, property- Locke<br />Government derives power from the consent of the governed- Locke, Rousseau, Montesquieu<br />1787- Constitutional Convention creates government based on Montesquieu’s three branch system and popular sovereignty<br />Bill of Rights- first 10 amendments: protects peoples’ rights against government tyranny<br />
  8. 8. The French Revolution<br />French revolutionaries grow to hate “ancien regime” and want to replace with new social and political order based on Enlightenment thought<br />Overspending, government debt, and poor weather all contribute to serious economic trouble<br />Louis XVI calls the Estates General to fix the economic disaster<br />
  9. 9. The Estates General<br />Council made up of three estates that had the power to raise taxes<br />Broken up into three groups based on social class called Estates<br />The Estates General had not met in over 100 years since the reign of Louis XIV<br />
  10. 10. Each Estate got one vote when the Estates General met<br />
  11. 11. The Third Estate demands reform to give the majority greater economic and political equality  Creation of the National Assembly<br />June 17, 1789- National Assembly writes The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen<br />June 20, 1789- Tennis Court Oath<br />July 14, 1789- Peasants storm the Bastille, from the beginning this revolution is more violent and radical than the American<br />
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  13. 13. 1789-1791 The Moderate Phase…<br />Main ideas: “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”<br />Abolished serfdom and social rank<br />Created a constitutional monarchy<br />Made the Catholic Church subordinate to the state, and all members of the clergy civil employees, confiscated Church lands<br />Most people continue to live in poverty despite changes<br />
  14. 14. Rumors begin to fly…<br />The king is corresponding with nobles who fled France<br />Austria and Prussia are planning an invasion to restore Louis XVI to full power<br /> creation of more radical government, the National Convention<br />Begins policy of universal military conscription<br />Declares war on Austria and Prussia<br />Put members of nobility and aristocracy on trial  executions, even Louis XVI!<br />
  15. 15. 1793-1794 The Reign of Terror: radical terror controls France<br />Maximilien Robespierre and radical Jacobins gain control of the National Convention<br />Use terror to try to establish a “republic of virtue” <br />Try to replace Christianity with a “Cult of Reason”<br />Terror ends with Robespierre’s execution<br />New government, the Directory created = horrible failure!<br />
  16. 16. The Reign of Napoleon Bonaparte<br />During the revolution, Napoleon makes a name for himself as a successful general<br />1799- Napoleon joins the Directory<br />Overthrows the Directory after Austria, Britain, and Russia form an alliance against France<br />1802- Imposes a constitution and names himself emperor<br />
  17. 17. Napoleon brought peace and prosperity to France<br />Made peace with the Catholic Church but insisted on religious tolerance<br />Wrote the Civil Code (Code Napoleon)<br />Affirmed political and legal equality between all men<br />Established a merit-based society<br />Encouraged freedom of occupation<br />Protected private property<br />But…<br />Kept women subservient to men<br />Did not create a representative government<br />Limited free speech and censored the press<br />
  18. 18. Napoleon uses his “Grand Army” to try to conquer Europe<br />Conquered Iberia, Italy, and the Netherlands<br />Forced Austria, Prussia, and Russia to ally with him and accept a French hegemony<br />Finally defeated in 1812 and again in 1815 by a joint British, Austrian, Prussian, and Russian confederation that forced Napoleon to abdicate and go into exile (two times!)<br />Napoleon’s armies spread Enlightenment ideas and nationalism as they conquered and inspired revolutions around the Atlantic world<br />
  19. 19. New Political Ideologies<br />The American and French Revolutions help crystallize political ideologies<br />Conservatism: See society as an organism that will change slowly over the course of many generations<br />English philosopher Edmund Burke condemned radical revolutionary change and denounced the violence and chaos of the French Revolution<br />
  20. 20. Liberalism: Embraced and welcomed change as an agent of progress<br />Saw conservatism as a tool of the aristocracy to maintain power<br />Wanted to manage change to bring about Enlightenment freedom and equality<br />Favored representative monarchy, but feared full democracy<br />Preferred to work within the political system to achieve change peacefully over the use of violence<br />
  21. 21. Radicalism- The idea that rapid extreme change was needed to grant all people full rights<br />Favored full democracy<br />Favored full equality for all races and genders<br />Willing to use violence to make change happen<br />
  22. 22. The Congress of Vienna<br />Meeting of European leaders following Napoleon’s defeat<br />Represents a conservative response to Napoleon and the French Revolution<br />Exiled Napoleon to St. Helena<br />Reestablished pre-revolution monarchies, including France<br />Created a balance of power by weakening France and strengthening its neighbors<br />
  23. 23. Nations and Nationalism<br />Revolutionary change  emergence of modern nations<br />What is a nation (nation-state?)<br />Nationalists argued that it is gov’ts job to promote the interests of their group, sometimes using violence as needed<br />
  24. 24. Nationalist leaders often viewed outsiders and minorities with suspicion  anti-Semitism<br />Anti-Semitism  Zionist movement: goal = create a homeland for the Jews in Palestine<br />
  25. 25. Emergence of National Communities<br />Resistance to Napoleon’s growing empire helps define new nations in Europe<br />Napoleon’s defeat  conservative control over European nations<br />Conservative control  revolutions<br />1820- Greeks successfully revolt against Ottoman rule (also nationalism)<br />1830 and 1848- Liberals in France, Austria and Prussia revolt against conservative monarchies but do not succeed in making major changes<br />Conservatives see that some compromise is necessary to prevent revolutions in the future<br />
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  27. 27. Italy Unifies<br />1859- Count Camillodi Cavour of Sardinia allies with France to drive out Austria and Prussia<br />1860- Giuseppe Garibaldi brings southern Italy into alliance with Sardinia<br />1870- King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia becomes king of united Italy <br />Italy does not gain control of “Italia Irridente” (Italy unredeemed) land in the north east remaining under Austrian control<br />
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  29. 29. Germany Unifies<br />1815- Congress of Vienna denies Prussia request to form a Germanic kingdom; Metternich fears upsetting the Balance of Power<br />1830- Liberals revolt against Prussian monarch Wilhelm I, but are stopped by conservative forces<br />1848- Liberal revolt and attempt to create a limited monarchy fail<br />
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  31. 31. 1862- Wilhelm I of Prussia appoints anti-parliamentarian Otto von Bismarck Prime Minister to use “Blood and Iron” to unify the German people under Prussian rule<br />1864-1870- Bismarck provokes war and wins against Austria, France, Denmark  increased territory and nationalism<br />1871- Wilhelm I crowns himself Kaiser of the second German reich<br />