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Europe 1750-1914

Europe 1750-1914

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  • 1. Chapter 23: The Rise of Europe
    An Age of Revolution, Industry, and Empire
    1750-1914
  • 2. Part I: Revolution and Nation States
    Enlightenment and revolutionary ideas
    The American Revolution
    The French Revolution
    The reign of Napoleon Bonaparte
    New ideologies: conservatism, liberalism, and radicalism
    Nations and nationalism
    The unification of Italy and Germany
  • 3. Enlightenment and Revolutionary Ideas
    Before the Enlightenment, rulers:
    Were autocrats
    Claimed divine right
    Were often closely linked to religious institutions
  • 4. Enlightenment philosophies (17th and 18th centuries) questioned the arbitrary rule of monarchs
    Locke argued governments function is to protect peoples rights and to remove divine agents from government
    Individual rights examined
    Voltaire questioned religious intolerance and government censorship
  • 5. Political and legal equality sought
    Rousseau argues the aristocracy do not contribute more to society and therefore shouldn’t have more rights
    Discussions about ending slavery and treating indigenous people as equals emerge
    Enlightenment ideas have a global impact
    Increasing literacy rates and cheap books  rapid spread of ideas
    Social reformers and revolutionaries demand enlightened change on behalf of people
  • 6. The American Revolution
    By 1760, American colonists chafe under British rule
    Economic impact of Seven Years War  increasing taxes in colonies
    Colonists argue they should govern their own affairs
    No taxation w/o representation (Locke) Boston Tea Party 1773
    1774- Constitutional Convention formed to organize resistance to British policies
  • 7. Declaration of Independence showcases Enlightenment ideas
    Equality- Rousseau, Voltaire
    Life, liberty, property- Locke
    Government derives power from the consent of the governed- Locke, Rousseau, Montesquieu
    1787- Constitutional Convention creates government based on Montesquieu’s three branch system and popular sovereignty
    Bill of Rights- first 10 amendments: protects peoples’ rights against government tyranny
  • 8. The French Revolution
    French revolutionaries grow to hate “ancien regime” and want to replace with new social and political order based on Enlightenment thought
    Overspending, government debt, and poor weather all contribute to serious economic trouble
    Louis XVI calls the Estates General to fix the economic disaster
  • 9. The Estates General
    Council made up of three estates that had the power to raise taxes
    Broken up into three groups based on social class called Estates
    The Estates General had not met in over 100 years since the reign of Louis XIV
  • 10. Each Estate got one vote when the Estates General met
  • 11. The Third Estate demands reform to give the majority greater economic and political equality  Creation of the National Assembly
    June 17, 1789- National Assembly writes The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
    June 20, 1789- Tennis Court Oath
    July 14, 1789- Peasants storm the Bastille, from the beginning this revolution is more violent and radical than the American
  • 12.
  • 13. 1789-1791 The Moderate Phase…
    Main ideas: “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”
    Abolished serfdom and social rank
    Created a constitutional monarchy
    Made the Catholic Church subordinate to the state, and all members of the clergy civil employees, confiscated Church lands
    Most people continue to live in poverty despite changes
  • 14. Rumors begin to fly…
    The king is corresponding with nobles who fled France
    Austria and Prussia are planning an invasion to restore Louis XVI to full power
     creation of more radical government, the National Convention
    Begins policy of universal military conscription
    Declares war on Austria and Prussia
    Put members of nobility and aristocracy on trial  executions, even Louis XVI!
  • 15. 1793-1794 The Reign of Terror: radical terror controls France
    Maximilien Robespierre and radical Jacobins gain control of the National Convention
    Use terror to try to establish a “republic of virtue”
    Try to replace Christianity with a “Cult of Reason”
    Terror ends with Robespierre’s execution
    New government, the Directory created = horrible failure!
  • 16. The Reign of Napoleon Bonaparte
    During the revolution, Napoleon makes a name for himself as a successful general
    1799- Napoleon joins the Directory
    Overthrows the Directory after Austria, Britain, and Russia form an alliance against France
    1802- Imposes a constitution and names himself emperor
  • 17. Napoleon brought peace and prosperity to France
    Made peace with the Catholic Church but insisted on religious tolerance
    Wrote the Civil Code (Code Napoleon)
    Affirmed political and legal equality between all men
    Established a merit-based society
    Encouraged freedom of occupation
    Protected private property
    But…
    Kept women subservient to men
    Did not create a representative government
    Limited free speech and censored the press
  • 18. Napoleon uses his “Grand Army” to try to conquer Europe
    Conquered Iberia, Italy, and the Netherlands
    Forced Austria, Prussia, and Russia to ally with him and accept a French hegemony
    Finally defeated in 1812 and again in 1815 by a joint British, Austrian, Prussian, and Russian confederation that forced Napoleon to abdicate and go into exile (two times!)
    Napoleon’s armies spread Enlightenment ideas and nationalism as they conquered and inspired revolutions around the Atlantic world
  • 19. New Political Ideologies
    The American and French Revolutions help crystallize political ideologies
    Conservatism: See society as an organism that will change slowly over the course of many generations
    English philosopher Edmund Burke condemned radical revolutionary change and denounced the violence and chaos of the French Revolution
  • 20. Liberalism: Embraced and welcomed change as an agent of progress
    Saw conservatism as a tool of the aristocracy to maintain power
    Wanted to manage change to bring about Enlightenment freedom and equality
    Favored representative monarchy, but feared full democracy
    Preferred to work within the political system to achieve change peacefully over the use of violence
  • 21. Radicalism- The idea that rapid extreme change was needed to grant all people full rights
    Favored full democracy
    Favored full equality for all races and genders
    Willing to use violence to make change happen
  • 22. The Congress of Vienna
    Meeting of European leaders following Napoleon’s defeat
    Represents a conservative response to Napoleon and the French Revolution
    Exiled Napoleon to St. Helena
    Reestablished pre-revolution monarchies, including France
    Created a balance of power by weakening France and strengthening its neighbors
  • 23. Nations and Nationalism
    Revolutionary change  emergence of modern nations
    What is a nation (nation-state?)
    Nationalists argued that it is gov’ts job to promote the interests of their group, sometimes using violence as needed
  • 24. Nationalist leaders often viewed outsiders and minorities with suspicion  anti-Semitism
    Anti-Semitism  Zionist movement: goal = create a homeland for the Jews in Palestine
  • 25. Emergence of National Communities
    Resistance to Napoleon’s growing empire helps define new nations in Europe
    Napoleon’s defeat  conservative control over European nations
    Conservative control  revolutions
    1820- Greeks successfully revolt against Ottoman rule (also nationalism)
    1830 and 1848- Liberals in France, Austria and Prussia revolt against conservative monarchies but do not succeed in making major changes
    Conservatives see that some compromise is necessary to prevent revolutions in the future
  • 26.
  • 27. Italy Unifies
    1859- Count Camillodi Cavour of Sardinia allies with France to drive out Austria and Prussia
    1860- Giuseppe Garibaldi brings southern Italy into alliance with Sardinia
    1870- King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia becomes king of united Italy
    Italy does not gain control of “Italia Irridente” (Italy unredeemed) land in the north east remaining under Austrian control
  • 28.
  • 29. Germany Unifies
    1815- Congress of Vienna denies Prussia request to form a Germanic kingdom; Metternich fears upsetting the Balance of Power
    1830- Liberals revolt against Prussian monarch Wilhelm I, but are stopped by conservative forces
    1848- Liberal revolt and attempt to create a limited monarchy fail
  • 30.
  • 31. 1862- Wilhelm I of Prussia appoints anti-parliamentarian Otto von Bismarck Prime Minister to use “Blood and Iron” to unify the German people under Prussian rule
    1864-1870- Bismarck provokes war and wins against Austria, France, Denmark  increased territory and nationalism
    1871- Wilhelm I crowns himself Kaiser of the second German reich