The Enlightenment
A switch has been flipped and
Europe has entered an Age of
Reason!
By the end of this presentation you
will be able to…






Explain the major currents in Enlightenment
thought
Discus...
What is the Enlightenment?






A period of thought, reason and logic
Scientific Revolution ideas: observation,
exper...
What is the Enlightenment? (II)




Voltaire: People should move away from
inherited misconceptions and learn for
themse...
What is the Enlightenment? (III)


Political thought also changes:







All people are born with natural rights
Gov...
Enlightenment though attacks the
Church






Enlightenment thought urges movement
away from tradition
The Church is th...
Enlightenment though attacks the
Church


Voltaire attacks the church and calls it
“L’infâme” the infamous, or detestable...
Enlightenment though attacks the
Church


Enlightenment
thinkers also criticize
the Church for failing
to embrace the ide...
Alternatives to Christianity during the
Enlightenment


Deism: Thinkers like Thomas Jefferson
prefer to view God as a “Wa...
Alternatives to Christianity during the
Enlightenment (II)






Other thinkers turn to Agnosticism and
Atheism
Many vi...
Assessment: Answer the following on
a separate sheet of paper






What major ideas make up Enlightenment
thought?
How...
Enlightenment philosophes and their
contributions


Many Enlightenment Philosophes looked to
Newton and Locke for their i...
Locke’s influence…


In addition to Two Treatises on Government,
Locke’s work greatly influenced
Enlightenment thought:
...
Let us suppose the mind to be , as we say, white paper void of
all characters, without any ideas. How comes it to be
furni...
The Philosophes:

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Montesquieu
Voltaire
Diderot
Rousseau
Montesquieu

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Charles de Secondat, the baron de
Montesquieu (1689-1755)
Persian Letters, 1721:




Two Persians trave...
Montesquieu (II)


The Spirit of the Laws, 1748








Comparative study of monarchies and
republics
Study of Englan...
Voltaire





Francois-Marie Arouet (1694-1778)
Used wit and sarcasm to attack problems in
French society
Philisophic L...
“…if there were just one religion in
England, despotism would threaten; if there
were two religions, they would cut each
o...
Voltaire (II)


Treatise in Toleration, 1763







Religion had posed no problems in tolerant
states such as England...
Diderot





Denis Diderot (1713-1784)
Condemned Christianity as being of all
religions “the most absurd and most
atroc...
Diderot (II)


Most famous contribution to the period
Encyclopedia, or Classified Dictionary of
the Sciences, Arts, and T...
Rousseau



Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
In Discourses on the Origins of the
Inequality of Mankind, Rousseau descri...
“The first man who, having enclosed a
piece of ground, thought of saying, This is
mine, and found people simple enough to
...
Rousseau (II)


The Social Contract, 1762






Harmonize individual liberty with governmental
authority
An agreement ...
Rousseau (III)


Emile, 1762






One of the Enlightenments most important works
on education.
Education should foste...
Assessment: Answer the following on
a separate sheet of paper


Summarize the major views of each of the
following Enligh...
Women and Enlightenment Thought






For centuries men had debated about the
nature and value of women
Men believed a ...
Women and Enlightenment Thought
(II)




Diderot and Condorcet maintained that
women were not all that different from me...
Women and Enlightenment Thought
(III)


Women thinkers began to add their
thoughts to the “woman’s question”




Mary A...
Women and Enlightenment Thought
(IV)




Wollstonecraft’s criticism of Rousseau: She
believed that it was contradictory ...
Enlightenment Salons




A major goal of Enlightenment thought was
to spread their ideas throughout society
Salons, eleg...
Enlightenment Salons (II)





Women were generally the hostesses of
these salons
As such women gained influence over r...
Enlightenment Salons (III)




Although Salons were run by women, their
reputation was based on the males who
attended
I...
Enlightenment Salons (IV)


In addition to the elite culture that sprang
up around salons, other new forums grew




...
Assessment: Answer the following on
a separate sheet of paper





How did ideas about women during this
time show hypo...
18th Century Art, Music and Literature


Baroque styles gave way to a new
movement called Rococo





Emphasis on grac...
18th Century Art, Music and Literature
(II)
Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) reflected a
world of upper class pleasure and joy....
18th Century Art, Music and Literature
(III)


In Architecture,
the Palace of
Versailles
became the
standard others
tried...
Baroque vs. Rococo


Baroque





Displayed grandeur
Show the power of the
Church
 Rococo
Art, furniture and
 Grows ...
Baroque Art






Caravaggio
Rembrandt
Rubens
Carracci
Louis LeVau and Jules Mansart
The Deposition
Caravaggio
Descent from
the Cross,
Holland. 1634
Rembrandt
The
Deposition,
Antwerp
1612
Rubens
Pieta,
Carracci
Numerous Chateaus and
the Palace of Versailles
Rococo





Francois Boucher
Jean–Antoine Watteau
Giacomo Amiconi
Canaletto
Madame Boucher 1743,
Francois Boucher
Mezzetin,
Jean-Antoine Watteau
Mercury
about to
slay
Argus,
Giacomo
Amiconi
Ponte di Rialto,
Giovanni Antonio Canaletto.
18th Century Art, Music and Literature
(IV)


Neoclassicism was
also very popular.
 Focused on
recapturing the
dignity a...
18th Century Art, Music and Literature
(V)




1600-1750 are important years for the
development of classical music, and...
18th Century Art, Music and Literature
(VI)


Handel’s most famous
composition is The
Messiah
18th Century Art, Music and Literature
(VII)


Bach believed his task was to make “wellordered music in honor of God.”
18th Century Art, Music and
Literature (VIII)




From 1756-1791, European music was
dominated by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozar...
18th Century Art, Music and
Literature (IX)


The Novel!





This new literary genre grew out of medieval
romances an...
18th Century Art, Music and
Literature (X)


Pamela: or, Virtue Rewarded by Samuel
Richardson is one of the earliest nove...
Popular Culture vs. High Culture


High Culture usually refers to the literary
and artistic world of the educated elite
r...
Popular Culture vs. High Culture





There was a major increase in literacy and
reading during this era
Growth of publ...
Popular Culture vs. High Culture


One of the best known magazines was the
Spectator begun in 1711




Its major goal w...
Popular Culture vs. High Culture (III)


Over time new magazines were aimed at
women




The Female Spectator was aime...
Popular Culture vs. High Culture (IV)


Education was on the rise







Many private secondary schools, primary scho...
Crime and Punishment


The treatment of criminals also raised
questions during this period







Except England, cou...
Crime and Punishment


Cesare Beccaria wrote On Crimes and
Punishments in 1764 in which he argued





Punishments sho...
Crime and Punishment


“Is it not absurd that the laws, which detest
and punish homicide, should, in order to
prevent mur...
Medical Advances






Physicians and surgeons begin to need
licensing
Male doctors begin to replace midwives in
delive...
Popular Culture


Carnival was celebrated in the weeks
leading up to Lent





A time of great indulgence and debauche...
Popular Culture (II)


Taverns and Alcohol







Common gathering places for neighborhood men
Gin was cheap, signs a...
Assessment: Answer the following on
a separate sheet of paper





Describe the changes made in art, music,
and archit...
What are Enlightened Despots?




Monarchs who believed in Enlightenment
ideas like natural laws and natural rights
were...
Frederick II aka (the Great) of Prussia
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Developed the army and a governmental
bureaucracy
Invited Voltaire to his...
Frederick II
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Established a single code of law
Eliminated the use of torture
Granted limited freedom of press an...
Austria and the Hapsburgs


Maria Theresa (1740-1780)
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

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Forced clergy and nobles to pay
taxes
Divided land into 10...
Austria and the Hapsburgs (II)


Joseph II
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Wanted to sweep away anything that stoop in the
way of reason “I ha...
Austria and the Hapsburgs


He wrote the following epitaph
for his gravestone
“Here lies Joseph II, who was
unfortunate i...
Russia and Catherine the Great




Claimed she wished to
reform Russia according
to Enlightenment ideas
Would not pursue...
Catherine’s reforms






1767, issued new laws, Instruction as a
guide to deliberations
Questioned serfdom, torture, c...
Catherine’s Reforms
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Policies strengthened the landed nobility
Conditions grew worse for peasants
Put down peasa...
Assessment: Answer the following on
a separate sheet of paper
To what extent do Prussia, Russia, and
Austria reflect Enlig...
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Ape the enlightenment

  1. 1. The Enlightenment A switch has been flipped and Europe has entered an Age of Reason!
  2. 2. By the end of this presentation you will be able to…      Explain the major currents in Enlightenment thought Discuss the philosophies of the major thinkers Explain how both high culture and popular culture changed during this era Discuss the changing role and status of women during this period Describe the characteristics of Enlightened Despots
  3. 3. What is the Enlightenment?     A period of thought, reason and logic Scientific Revolution ideas: observation, experimentation, testing hypotheses are applied to social issues Thinkers like Kant “Dare to Know” the truth Truth should be plain and simple so any man can understand it
  4. 4. What is the Enlightenment? (II)   Voltaire: People should move away from inherited misconceptions and learn for themselves the truths of the world Rousseau: People should move away from the trappings, dogma and rhetoric of education and learn by experiencing things in nature
  5. 5. What is the Enlightenment? (III)  Political thought also changes:     All people are born with natural rights Governments derive their power from the people A government’s job is to protect the natural rights of its citizens If a government isn’t protecting the rights of it people, the people have the right to overthrow that government
  6. 6. Enlightenment though attacks the Church    Enlightenment thought urges movement away from tradition The Church is the foundation of European tradition Church corruption and things like the inquisition make the Church even less desirable to Enlightenment thinkers
  7. 7. Enlightenment though attacks the Church  Voltaire attacks the church and calls it “L’infâme” the infamous, or detestable thing BLAH!
  8. 8. Enlightenment though attacks the Church  Enlightenment thinkers also criticize the Church for failing to embrace the ideas and advances of the scientific revolution
  9. 9. Alternatives to Christianity during the Enlightenment  Deism: Thinkers like Thomas Jefferson prefer to view God as a “Watchmaker” who made the universe and now watches it run according to the laws of nature  Voltaire likes this because he favors “Truth without Sect”
  10. 10. Alternatives to Christianity during the Enlightenment (II)    Other thinkers turn to Agnosticism and Atheism Many view Christianity as being irrelevant to the truth Others dislike what they see as artificial divides in society. Can’t we all just get along?
  11. 11. Assessment: Answer the following on a separate sheet of paper    What major ideas make up Enlightenment thought? How does the view of religion change during this era? Define Deism
  12. 12. Enlightenment philosophes and their contributions  Many Enlightenment Philosophes looked to Newton and Locke for their inspiration   Newton laid the foundation for creating a framework for experimentation  an understanding of reason “Nature, by Nature’s Laws lay hid in Night; God said, ‘Let Newton be,’ and all was Light.”
  13. 13. Locke’s influence…  In addition to Two Treatises on Government, Locke’s work greatly influenced Enlightenment thought:    Essay Concerning Human Behavior and Understanding, 1860 denied Descartes’s belief in innate ideas. According to Locke we are all tabula rasa, a blank mind Knowledge derived from environment, not birth
  14. 14. Let us suppose the mind to be , as we say, white paper void of all characters, without any ideas. How comes it to be furnished? Whence comes it by that vast store which the busy and boundless fancy of man has painted on it with an almost endless variety? Whence has it all the materials of reason and knowledge? To this I answer in one word, from experience…. Our observation, employed either about external sensible objects or about internal operations of our minds perceived and reflected on by ourselves, is that which supplies our understanding with all the materials of thinking.
  15. 15. The Philosophes:     Montesquieu Voltaire Diderot Rousseau
  16. 16. Montesquieu   Charles de Secondat, the baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755) Persian Letters, 1721:   Two Persians travel to France and criticize French institutions especially Catholic Church and Monarchy Contains many Enlightenment themes like attacking traditional religion, advocating tolerance, denouncing slavery, ending prejudice
  17. 17. Montesquieu (II)  The Spirit of the Laws, 1748     Comparative study of monarchies and republics Study of England’s Parliamentary system  the importance of Checks and Balances and maintaining separation of powers Ironically this is based on Montesquieu misinterpreting the English system Huge influence on American founding fathers
  18. 18. Voltaire    Francois-Marie Arouet (1694-1778) Used wit and sarcasm to attack problems in French society Philisophic Letters on the English, 1733 expressed deep admiration of English freedoms and religious tolerance
  19. 19. “…if there were just one religion in England, despotism would threaten; if there were two religions, they would cut each other’s throats; but there are thirty religions, and they live together peacefully and happily.”
  20. 20. Voltaire (II)  Treatise in Toleration, 1763     Religion had posed no problems in tolerant states such as England and Holland “all men are brothers under God” Denounced the Church and urged people to “Crush the infamous thing!” Was a Deist
  21. 21. Diderot    Denis Diderot (1713-1784) Condemned Christianity as being of all religions “the most absurd and most atrocious in its dogma” Became increasingly materialistic and as an old man argued “This world is only a mass of molecules.”
  22. 22. Diderot (II)  Most famous contribution to the period Encyclopedia, or Classified Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trades    Purpose was to change peoples way of thinking Attacked religious issues Hoped to make society more cosmopolitan, tolerant, humane, and reasonable
  23. 23. Rousseau   Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) In Discourses on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind, Rousseau describes humans in a happy state of nature. There were no laws, judges; all are equal. But what went wrong?
  24. 24. “The first man who, having enclosed a piece of ground, thought of saying, This is mine, and found people simple enough to believe him, was the true founder of civil society. How many crimes, wars, murders; how much misery and horror would have been spared if someone had pulled up the stakes and filled in the ditch, and cried to his fellow men: ‘Beware of listening to this imposter. You are lost if you forget the fruits of the earth belong to everyone and the earth itself belongs to no one!’”
  25. 25. Rousseau (II)  The Social Contract, 1762    Harmonize individual liberty with governmental authority An agreement by the entire society to be governed by the “General Will” Liberty could be achieved if everyone followed the will of the majority
  26. 26. Rousseau (III)  Emile, 1762    One of the Enlightenments most important works on education. Education should foster rather than restrict children’s natural instincts Viewed women as being naturally different from men, and should lead sedentary lives and learn to be obedient to better care for her children
  27. 27. Assessment: Answer the following on a separate sheet of paper  Summarize the major views of each of the following Enlightenment Philosophes      Locke Voltaire Diderot Rousseau Montesquieu
  28. 28. Women and Enlightenment Thought    For centuries men had debated about the nature and value of women Men believed a woman’s nature made her inferior and thus she needed domination Ideas based on biological differences  As Rousseau said, a woman’s construction made her suited for motherhood
  29. 29. Women and Enlightenment Thought (II)   Diderot and Condorcet maintained that women were not all that different from men. Voltaire said “women are capable of all that men are.”
  30. 30. Women and Enlightenment Thought (III)  Women thinkers began to add their thoughts to the “woman’s question”   Mary Astell wrote in A Serious Proposal to the Ladies in 1697 that women should seek education because they are men’s equals In Vindication of the Rights of Woman, 1792, Mary Wollstonecraft pointed out two contradictions in Rousseau’s beliefs
  31. 31. Women and Enlightenment Thought (IV)   Wollstonecraft’s criticism of Rousseau: She believed that it was contradictory for people who believed slavery, and the arbitrary rule of monarchs were wrong to find that women should obey men. Wollstonecraft believed women should be entitled to equal rights in education, and economic and political life
  32. 32. Enlightenment Salons   A major goal of Enlightenment thought was to spread their ideas throughout society Salons, elegant drawing rooms of the wealthy where philosophers would gather and discuss their ideas, began in the late 17th century and gained popularity through the 18th
  33. 33. Enlightenment Salons (II)    Women were generally the hostesses of these salons As such women gained influence over royal decisions, political opinions, and literary and artistic taste They provided havens, and a stage for people whose views were unpopular at court
  34. 34. Enlightenment Salons (III)   Although Salons were run by women, their reputation was based on the males who attended In spite of this, many feared female influence over French thought, politics, and culture
  35. 35. Enlightenment Salons (IV)  In addition to the elite culture that sprang up around salons, other new forums grew     Coffeehouses Cafes Reading clubs Public libraries
  36. 36. Assessment: Answer the following on a separate sheet of paper    How did ideas about women during this time show hypocrisy on the part of some Philosophes Identify Mary Wollstonecraft Explain the part women played socially and intellectually during the Enlightenment
  37. 37. 18th Century Art, Music and Literature  Baroque styles gave way to a new movement called Rococo    Emphasis on grace and gentle action Rejection of straight geometric patters in favor of curves Emphasized pursuit of pleasure, happiness and love
  38. 38. 18th Century Art, Music and Literature (II) Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) reflected a world of upper class pleasure and joy. His work also revealed the fragility and transitory nature of life, love, and pleasure
  39. 39. 18th Century Art, Music and Literature (III)  In Architecture, the Palace of Versailles became the standard others tried to emulate in an attempt to “keep up with the Bourbons” Chateau Sans Souci
  40. 40. Baroque vs. Rococo  Baroque    Displayed grandeur Show the power of the Church  Rococo Art, furniture and  Grows out of Baroque architecture were created to impress, not to be used  Celebration of carnal life practically!  Imbued with open eroticism  Art, furniture and architecture were meant to be unified and in harmony.
  41. 41. Baroque Art      Caravaggio Rembrandt Rubens Carracci Louis LeVau and Jules Mansart
  42. 42. The Deposition Caravaggio
  43. 43. Descent from the Cross, Holland. 1634 Rembrandt
  44. 44. The Deposition, Antwerp 1612 Rubens
  45. 45. Pieta, Carracci
  46. 46. Numerous Chateaus and the Palace of Versailles
  47. 47. Rococo     Francois Boucher Jean–Antoine Watteau Giacomo Amiconi Canaletto
  48. 48. Madame Boucher 1743, Francois Boucher
  49. 49. Mezzetin, Jean-Antoine Watteau
  50. 50. Mercury about to slay Argus, Giacomo Amiconi
  51. 51. Ponte di Rialto, Giovanni Antonio Canaletto.
  52. 52. 18th Century Art, Music and Literature (IV)  Neoclassicism was also very popular.  Focused on recapturing the dignity and simplicity of Greece and Rome David, Oath of the Horatii
  53. 53. 18th Century Art, Music and Literature (V)   1600-1750 are important years for the development of classical music, and see the rise of forms such as opera and oratotio, the sonata, the concerto, and the symphany Two most influential composers of this time were Bach and Handel
  54. 54. 18th Century Art, Music and Literature (VI)  Handel’s most famous composition is The Messiah
  55. 55. 18th Century Art, Music and Literature (VII)  Bach believed his task was to make “wellordered music in honor of God.”
  56. 56. 18th Century Art, Music and Literature (VIII)   From 1756-1791, European music was dominated by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who wrote his first opera at 12. Mozart is credited with writing some of the greatest operas ever including The Marriage of Figaro, The Magic Flute, and Don Giovanni
  57. 57. 18th Century Art, Music and Literature (IX)  The Novel!    This new literary genre grew out of medieval romances and stories from the 16th century. English are credited with this fictional form Proved equally attractive to women audiences and writers  Pamela: or, Virtue Rewarded by Samuel Richardson is one of the earliest novels  A servant girl is rewarded for repeatedly fighting off attempts of seduction
  58. 58. 18th Century Art, Music and Literature (X)  Pamela: or, Virtue Rewarded by Samuel Richardson is one of the earliest novels  A servant girl is rewarded for repeatedly fighting off attempts of seduction  The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling by Henry Fielding is a reaction to the serious morality of the time  Chronicles the many adventures of the main character, a young scoundrel
  59. 59. Popular Culture vs. High Culture  High Culture usually refers to the literary and artistic world of the educated elite ruling classes   Consists of theologians, scientists, philosophers, intellectuals, poets, dramatists Popular Culture is the unwritten lore of the masses passed down orally and appealing to the everyday person
  60. 60. Popular Culture vs. High Culture    There was a major increase in literacy and reading during this era Growth of publishing houses made it possible for authors to earn money for their work Great Britain saw the introduction of the magazine  25 published in 1700, 158 by 1780
  61. 61. Popular Culture vs. High Culture  One of the best known magazines was the Spectator begun in 1711   Its major goal was to temper wit with morality, bring philosophy into the mainstream Also praised family, marriage and courtesy
  62. 62. Popular Culture vs. High Culture (III)  Over time new magazines were aimed at women    The Female Spectator was aimed at women Was edited by Eliza Haywood Featured articles by female authors
  63. 63. Popular Culture vs. High Culture (IV)  Education was on the rise     Many private secondary schools, primary schools which tended to be elitist and for the wealthiest members of society Curriculum focused largely on Greek and Latin classics Little attention was paid to math, the sciences, or modern languages In 1747 Germany opened the first Realschule to teach modern languages, geography, bookkeeping, and prepare boys for business
  64. 64. Crime and Punishment  The treatment of criminals also raised questions during this period     Except England, courts still used torture to get information before trial Public execution was public and painful Death penalty was commonly applied to property crimes and criminal offenses Forced labor in mines, forts, and navies were also common punishments
  65. 65. Crime and Punishment  Cesare Beccaria wrote On Crimes and Punishments in 1764 in which he argued    Punishments should serve as deterrents Capital punishment was wrong and didn’t prevent others from committing crimes This led to a growing sentiment against execution and torture
  66. 66. Crime and Punishment  “Is it not absurd that the laws, which detest and punish homicide, should, in order to prevent murder, publicly commit murder themselves?” Beccaria
  67. 67. Medical Advances    Physicians and surgeons begin to need licensing Male doctors begin to replace midwives in delivering babies Traditional and faith healing continue especially in rural parts of Europe
  68. 68. Popular Culture  Carnival was celebrated in the weeks leading up to Lent    A time of great indulgence and debauchery It was a time of intense hedonistic and sexual activity Certain crimes were permitted such as openly insulting people, or throwing apples, eggs, flour, or water filled pigs bladders at others
  69. 69. Popular Culture (II)  Taverns and Alcohol     Common gathering places for neighborhood men Gin was cheap, signs advertised “Drunk for a penny, dead drunk for two pence” Consumption of gin rose from 2 to 5 million gallons between 1714 and 1733 The rich also drank but they favored wine
  70. 70. Assessment: Answer the following on a separate sheet of paper     Describe the changes made in art, music, and architecture Discuss the differences between high culture and popular culture during this time How did the medical field change during this time? How did views of crime and punishment change during this time?
  71. 71. What are Enlightened Despots?   Monarchs who believed in Enlightenment ideas like natural laws and natural rights were considered Enlightened Despots Monarchs like Frederick II of Prussia, Catherine the Great of Russia, and Joseph II of Austria were supposedly Enlightened in their rule
  72. 72. Frederick II aka (the Great) of Prussia     Developed the army and a governmental bureaucracy Invited Voltaire to his court for several years Believed the king should be “first servant of the state” Oversaw administration of the state and made it efficient and honest
  73. 73. Frederick II      Established a single code of law Eliminated the use of torture Granted limited freedom of press and speech, and total religious toleration Was to socially conservative to free the serfs Reversed his fathers law that allowed commoners to earn civil service positions
  74. 74. Austria and the Hapsburgs  Maria Theresa (1740-1780)    Forced clergy and nobles to pay taxes Divided land into 10 provinces all governed by appointed officials Made Austria more centralized and bureaucratic
  75. 75. Austria and the Hapsburgs (II)  Joseph II     Wanted to sweep away anything that stoop in the way of reason “I have made philosophy the lawmaker of my empire” Abolished serfdom and gave peasants right to hereditary land holdings Demanded complete religious toleration Alienated nobility and church with reforms
  76. 76. Austria and the Hapsburgs  He wrote the following epitaph for his gravestone “Here lies Joseph II, who was unfortunate in everything that he undertook.”
  77. 77. Russia and Catherine the Great   Claimed she wished to reform Russia according to Enlightenment ideas Would not pursue any reform that threatened her power or ability to work with the nobles
  78. 78. Catherine’s reforms    1767, issued new laws, Instruction as a guide to deliberations Questioned serfdom, torture, capital punishment, and advocated equality for all people Spent 1 ½ years discussing these issues, then made little change
  79. 79. Catherine’s Reforms      Policies strengthened the landed nobility Conditions grew worse for peasants Put down peasant revolt with force and execute leader Pugachev Strengthened military and won control of Black Sea from Ottoman Turks Negotiated partition of Poland with Austria and Prussia
  80. 80. Assessment: Answer the following on a separate sheet of paper To what extent do Prussia, Russia, and Austria reflect Enlightened Despotism in the 17th Century?  Discuss the extent of enlightenment within kingdoms ruled by Enlightened Despots 
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