Africa and Africans in the Age of the Atlantic Slave Trade Chapter 20
Part I: The Atlantic Slave Trade
The Portuguese in Africa <ul><li>Established Factories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>El Mina- gold trade- most important </li></ul...
<ul><li>Portuguese traded for: ivory, pepper, animal skins and gold </li></ul><ul><li>Trade= basis for contact between Afr...
How they saw each other <ul><li>Africans viewed Portuguese as strange but incorporated them into their world </li></ul><ul...
European Colonies in Africa <ul><li>Colonies very small, but with lots of missionary work </li></ul><ul><li>By 17 th  cent...
Statistics <ul><li>Between 1450 and 1750, 12 million Africans transported across Atlantic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10-20% mor...
<ul><li>Rates of trade reflect changing economic and political situation in the New World </li></ul><ul><li>Slave trade wi...
Demographics <ul><li>Trade with Muslim world tended to focus on women </li></ul><ul><li>Atlantic slave trade tended to foc...
Organization <ul><li>Portuguese controlled up until 1630 </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch seized control of El Mina in 1637, became...
<ul><li>Both Africans and Europeans involved in slave trade </li></ul><ul><li>Not any more profitable than any other trade...
Part II: African Societies, Slavery, and the Slave Trade <ul><li>Slavery had existed in Africa prior to the Atlantic Slave...
Slaving and African Politics <ul><li>Most states in western and central Africa were small and unstable </li></ul><ul><li>I...
Asante <ul><li>Gained access to firearms in 1650 and began expanding </li></ul><ul><li>Became the dominant power on the go...
Dahomey <ul><li>Emerged as a power in the 1720 </li></ul><ul><li>Used access to firearms to form an autocratic state </li>...
East Africa and Sudan <ul><li>Swahili towns continue commerce in gold, ivory, and slaves with Middle Eastern markets </li>...
<ul><li>By the 1840, new political units were created </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts were made to stamp out paganism and illit...
Part III: White Settlers and Africans in South Africa
South Africa <ul><li>By 16 th  Century, Bantu-speakers occupy southern East Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chiefdoms varied ...
<ul><li>1652- Dutch East India Company establishes the Cape Colony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dutch enslave local Africans </li...
Mfecane and Zulu Rise to Power <ul><li>1818 rule of Nguni people passes to Shaka </li></ul><ul><li>Shaka builds new milita...
Part IV: African Diaspora
<ul><li>Slave trade links Africa to World Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery is grueling and deadly </li></ul><ul><li>Middl...
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Africa And Africans In The Age Of The

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This PPT is intended to supliment Chpater 20 of Stearns AP World History textbook

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Africa And Africans In The Age Of The

  1. 1. Africa and Africans in the Age of the Atlantic Slave Trade Chapter 20
  2. 2. Part I: The Atlantic Slave Trade
  3. 3. The Portuguese in Africa <ul><li>Established Factories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>El Mina- gold trade- most important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not powerful enough to impose will on Africans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most forts were established only after receiving consent of local leaders </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Portuguese traded for: ivory, pepper, animal skins and gold </li></ul><ul><li>Trade= basis for contact between Africans and Portuguese </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic missionaries went to Benin, Kongo, and other places </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kongo= king Nzinga Muemba converts his entire kingdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enslavement of his subjects  limits on Portuguese </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. How they saw each other <ul><li>Africans viewed Portuguese as strange but incorporated them into their world </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese saw Africans as savages who could be civilized and converted </li></ul>
  6. 6. European Colonies in Africa <ul><li>Colonies very small, but with lots of missionary work </li></ul><ul><li>By 17 th century, Dutch, French, English and others begin to get involved </li></ul><ul><li>By 1600, slave trade dominates all commerce </li></ul>
  7. 7. Statistics <ul><li>Between 1450 and 1750, 12 million Africans transported across Atlantic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10-20% mortality rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10-11 million survived </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate of transport increases over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80% transported between 1700s and 1800s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High volume necessary due to high mortality and low fertility </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Rates of trade reflect changing economic and political situation in the New World </li></ul><ul><li>Slave trade with Muslim world continues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 million transported between 1450 and 1750 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wars increase in Africa as both cause and effect of slave trade </li></ul>
  9. 9. Demographics <ul><li>Trade with Muslim world tended to focus on women </li></ul><ul><li>Atlantic slave trade tended to focus on men </li></ul><ul><li>African population reduced by half of what it would have been without slave trade by 1750 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Organization <ul><li>Portuguese controlled up until 1630 </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch seized control of El Mina in 1637, became major competitors </li></ul><ul><li>1660 English charter Royal African Company to engage in slave trade </li></ul><ul><li>18 th century, France becomes a major trader </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Both Africans and Europeans involved in slave trade </li></ul><ul><li>Not any more profitable than any other trade of its time </li></ul><ul><li>Part of Triangular trade </li></ul><ul><li>Drew African economy into world economy </li></ul><ul><li>Resulted in African economies becoming dependent on trade with Europe </li></ul>
  12. 12. Part II: African Societies, Slavery, and the Slave Trade <ul><li>Slavery had existed in Africa prior to the Atlantic Slave Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Usually focused on enslavement of women </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic forms of slavery also introduced </li></ul><ul><li>Existence of slavery helped Europeans mobilize commerce of slaves by tapping into existing routes </li></ul>
  13. 13. Slaving and African Politics <ul><li>Most states in western and central Africa were small and unstable </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing frequency of wars led to increasing need for improved weaponry </li></ul><ul><li>Power shifted due to European coastal presence </li></ul><ul><li>Inland kingdoms gained power by gaining guns and working as intermediaries to the Europeans in the slave trade </li></ul>
  14. 14. Asante <ul><li>Gained access to firearms in 1650 and began expanding </li></ul><ul><li>Became the dominant power on the gold coast up until 1820 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Dahomey <ul><li>Emerged as a power in the 1720 </li></ul><ul><li>Used access to firearms to form an autocratic state </li></ul><ul><li>Primary economic activity relied on the slave trade </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of absolute rulers paralleled the rise of absolutism in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Like in Europe, attempts were made to limit royal authority </li></ul>
  16. 16. East Africa and Sudan <ul><li>Swahili towns continue commerce in gold, ivory, and slaves with Middle Eastern markets </li></ul><ul><li>Bantu speaking people dominated the region </li></ul><ul><li>18 th century saw Islamization </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>By the 1840, new political units were created </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts were made to stamp out paganism and illiteracy </li></ul><ul><li>Large numbers of captives from the religious wars were shipped down the coast to Europeans </li></ul><ul><li>By the 19 th century slaves made up to 50% op the population of this region </li></ul>
  18. 18. Part III: White Settlers and Africans in South Africa
  19. 19. South Africa <ul><li>By 16 th Century, Bantu-speakers occupy southern East Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chiefdoms varied in size and power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion  Competition and conflict </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>1652- Dutch East India Company establishes the Cape Colony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dutch enslave local Africans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1760s Dutch cross Orange River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dutch gov’t attempts to limit settlement and slavery, but fails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boers move north, “Great Trek” to avoid gov’t regulations </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Mfecane and Zulu Rise to Power <ul><li>1818 rule of Nguni people passes to Shaka </li></ul><ul><li>Shaka builds new military and political organization (Zulu) </li></ul><ul><li>Zulu begin Mfecane in 1840s </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting between Boers and Zulu </li></ul><ul><li>1870 Britain crushes Zulu and end Zulu Wars, the assert control over South Africa </li></ul>
  22. 22. Part IV: African Diaspora
  23. 23. <ul><li>Slave trade links Africa to World Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery is grueling and deadly </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Passage: passage to Americas </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves worked in Plantations and Mines </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy created by Slave owners to prevent uprisings </li></ul><ul><li>People lose local African identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create new family units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of communities of runaway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>slaves </li></ul></ul>

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