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Nov 05 2010 CSISA IRRI SSD Thelma Paris

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  • 1. CEREAL SYSTEMS INITIATIVE IN SOUTH ASIA (CSISA) Presented by Thelma Paris (IRRI)
  • 2. Goal of CSISAOverall objective of CSISA To help reduce poverty and improve the well-being of rural and urban men and women by increasing the annual income of up to 7 million poor rural households (farming about 1 ha/hhld) by at least $289/hh/yr- IRRI, CIMMYT, ILRI
  • 3. Cereal Systems Initiative For South Asia (CSISA)Year 1-3:8-12 hubs+$300/yr for 60,000farm households in1500 villagesYear 4-10:Upscaling throughproject-relatedinvestments to +400hubs+$350/yr for 6 millionfarm households in90,000 villages
  • 4. Objectives of CSISA1. Widespread delivery and adaptation of production and postharvest technologies to increase cereal production and raise incomes2. Crop and resource management practices for sustainable future cereal- based systems3. High-yielding, abiotic stress-tolerant, disease-resistant rice varieties for current and future cereal and mixed crop-livestock systems4. High-yielding, stress -tolerant and disease-resistant wheat inbred lines and hybrids for current and future cereal and mixed crop- livestock systems.5. High-yielding, heat-tolerant and disease-resistant maize inbred lines and hybrids for current and future cereal and mixed crop-livestock systems.6. Technology targeting and improved policies for inclusive agricultural growth (IPR, constraints to adoption; policies) - IFPRI7. Creating a new generation of scientists and professional agronomists for cereal systems research and management.8. Project management, communication and impact assessment
  • 5. Hubs• Focus on 9 hubs representing key intensive cereal production systems in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Nepal• The hubs provide a basis for active learning about mechanisms for rapid adoption and intensification of improved cereal seed and crop management practices, for understanding critical components of public-private sector partnerships, and for developing business plans and supporting policies to stimulate private-sector investments.• Improved cultivars and hybrids of maize, rice, and wheat selected under conservation agriculture practices will be developed and management concepts for future cereal systems will be designed and evaluated, alongside policy analysis and advocacy, and capacity building at all levels
  • 6. Location of the hubs• Punjab, Pakistan - CIMMYT• Punjab, India - CIMMYT• Haryana - CIMMYT• Eastern UP - IRRI• Bihar – IRRI and ILRI• Tamil Nadu - IRRI• Nepal – CIMMYT and ILRI• Dinajpur, Bangladesh – CIMMYT and ILRI• Gazipur, Bangladesh - IRRI
  • 7. Research questions (Obj 6.2)• What factors limit rapid productivity growth in farmers fields in intensive rice based systems?• What constrains farmer adoption of improved germplasm & RCT?• Are there gender/equity concerns?• Where are the equitable growth opportunities located?• How attractive are the proposed interventions & how can they best be adapted and enhanced?
  • 8. Technologies• Improving cereal productivity; nutrient quality of crop residues for animal feed; improving cropping systems• Evaluation of rice genotypes for DSR in rice-wheat systems• Crop establishment methods, Water management, weed management, nutrient management, post harvest• Resource –conserving technologies (RCTs) eg zero tillage on rice and wheat
  • 9. Current Technology Interventions in Gazipur Intervention Season Area Locations Collaborator (Hac.) (No of sub-dist) Delivery of AWD in Boro Rice Boro/Rabi 160 10 DAE/BRRI 2009-10 Seeding of Wheat by PTOMS Rabi - 4 BARI/DAE 2009-10 Seeding of Hybrid Maize by Rabi 1.3 1 BARI/DAE PTOMS 2009-10 Relaying of hybrid Maize with Rabi 10 3 BARI/DAE existing Potato 2009-10 Inclusion of short duration Rabi 24 3 DAE/BARI mustard in Boro-T.aman 2009-10 cropping pattern Mixed cropping of DSR Boro Rabi 5 4 DAE/BARI Rice with Mustard 2009-10 Bed planting of different crops Rabi 3.1 2 BARIunder Wheat/Maize-mungbean- 2009-10 T.aman cropping patternBARI – Bangladesh Agriculture Research InstituteBRRI – Bangladesh Rice Research Institute 10
  • 10. Objective 6.2 Baseline Surveys Purpose & Design• Collect data to analyze project influence on – Technology adoption – Success of various delivery models – Incomes and livelihoods• Provide results to inform – Decisions on improving technology delivery – Improve participation of the poor in new technologies
  • 11. Data collected• Focus group discussions (different social groups)• Village Survey – e.g. infrastructure, institutions, prices within village• Village Census (all hh in selected villages) – as sampling frame for hh survey for classification• Baseline Household Survey (IRRI, CIMMYT,ILRI)- common structured questionnaire• Cost and returns of farmers’ practice vs with technology (IRRI)
  • 12. Sampling Procedure• 3 districts per hub – selected by cropping pattern with hub manager• 3 sub-districts per district – randomly amongst those with CSISA activity• 2 villages per sub-district – 1 each randomly amongst those with/without CSISA activity
  • 13. Household survey• 18 farmers randomly selected – per village – 18 villages per hub• Structured questionnaire – Survey is on-going…. – delay in Tamil Nadu• Expected completion: February, 2011.
  • 14. Gender and equity concerns• Women in eastern India, Bangladesh and Nepal play crucial roles as unpaid family workers, farm managers, income earners in cereal intensive production systems and livestock management• Women are primarily caretakers of food security, children’s health and nutrition• With increasing migration of men, women’s roles are beginning to shift from unpaid family workers to de facto farm managers• Despite their crucial roles they have less access to assets and resources compared to men in the same system• Any technology will have different effects on men and women due to gender specific roles and responsibilities• International and national agricultural research institutions should ensure that the poor and socially excluded groups benefit from technologies• Poor women farmers should be given opportunities to technologies (seeds of improved rice and non-rice crop varieties), improved knowledge on traits of new varieties, new cropping practices, and inputs while landless women should be given access to land they can rent
  • 15. Research questions on gender• What are the gender roles and gender- differentiated constraints in farm (cereal production, postharvest and livestock management?• What are the social and economic consequences of labor saving technologies on the welfare of men and women? (farming and landless)• In what ways will the project benefit the poor men and women farmers?
  • 16. Social, economic and cultural circumstances Physical and biological conditions Social norms -Climate -Pests Kinship Farming -Rainfall Social class -Diseases Caste system Practices and- Abiotic stresses -Topography -Weeds Farm wages Technologies Male labor outmigration Gender roles and relations (labor, income generation, decision-making) ASSETS Land, Livestock Farm labor Knowledge New CNRM practices Access to assets and resources Seeds, Machinery Performance of Livelihoods systems Rice Non-rice Livestock Fisheries Off-farm Non-farm Increase productivity, Reduce poverty and hunger GOALS Promote gender equality, Improve health and nutrition Fig 1. Framework for understanding gender roles in agriculture
  • 17. Typology of rice production systems and gender rolesRainfed Production environmentsIrrigated Poor Access to market Good
  • 18. Strategies for addressing gender issues• Site characterization and initial problem diagnosis – gender analysis• Understanding constraints – collect information on livelihood activities, and coping mechanisms – roles (labor, income, decision- making) of men and women in crop production, post harvest, livestock and other livelihood activities ( off-farm, non-farm)• Identify opportunities and access to resources eg seeds• Planning and evaluation – involve men and women in evaluation of technologies eg new lines/varieties, and new farming practices• Training – enhance women’s technical knowledge and skills in all aspects of crop production and post harvest, production of seeds (including storage)• Training - enhance women’s roles as leaders* and as key agents of change eg dissemination of technologies through networking*Leadership training for women (professionals and women farmers and provide support• Encourage young women to engage their careers in agriculture eg women interns and provide support eg. female interns
  • 19. Village Level Surveys- Gender disaggregated information• Number of male and female headed households• Educational attainment of boys and girls, adult men and adult women• Wage rates of male and female workers during normal and peak periods• Who does what crop and livestock major operations?
  • 20. Household surveys – Gender disaggregated variables• Sex of household head• Human capital - Gender disaggregated family, hired labor requirements in rice, wheat and maize by activity (by operation), permanent labor• Characteristics of principal male and principal female - age, years in school, years in farming, primary occupation, secondary occupation• Number of household members• Total in households• Working on farm, full time, partime• Schooling/studying• Working/employment off-farm staying out of village (some tine of year)• Male and female adults >15 years old• Male and female members between 6 to 15 years old• Male and female children (<6 years old)• Average monthly household expenditure and involvement in decisions• Decision making: MaleFemaleJointly
  • 21. Case studies1. Assessing the economic and social consequences of the widespread adoption of RCTs and other labor saving technologies on men and women agricultural workers2. Water use efficiency and water saving from DSR and laser land leveling3. Greenhouse gas emissions under reduced tillage for rice and wheat
  • 22. Gender issues in resource conserving technology (RCT)Objective: To uncover how widespreadadoption of RCTs and other labor savingtechnologies on agricultural labordisplacement: – Changes in labor inputs in cereal production have changed – Changes on livelihoods – Changes on family welfare
  • 23. Village census Purposive sampling of villages where agricultural machines are used for almost two years Census was conducted among farming and landless households with female members actively involved in farming Census was done to assess available labor supply at household level Select households and conduct household surveys (December 2010)
  • 24. Labor contribution in crop production of female and male household members Farming Landless Crop production activity Households Households Female Male Female Male Nursery preparation 16 84 - - Land preparation 19 81 - - Transplanting 68 32 94 6 Direct seeding 40 60 55 45 Weeding 52 48 83 17 Irrigation 39 61 55 45 Fertilizer application 37 63 55 45 Pesticide application 25 75 - - Harvesting 43 57 55 45 Post-harvest 41 59 52 48Female from landless households participate in farm activities more than female membersfrom farming households. Male and female landless workers are not involved in activities suchas nursery preparation, land preparation and pesticide application .More female from farming households contribute to transplanting and weeding.
  • 25. Labor contribution in crop production of female and male household members Farming Landless Crop production activity Households Households Female Male Female Male Nursery preparation 16 84 - - Land preparation 19 81 - - Transplanting 68 32 94 6 Direct seeding 40 60 55 45 Weeding 52 48 83 17 Irrigation 39 61 55 45 Fertilizer application 37 63 55 45 Pesticide application 25 75 - - Harvesting 43 57 55 45 Post-harvest 41 59 52 48Female from landless households participate in farm activities more than female membersfrom farming households. Male and female landless workers are not involved in activities suchas nursery preparation, land preparation and pesticide application .More female from farming households contribute to transplanting and weeding.
  • 26. Challenges• Lack of female social scientists in the teams * Assign one female social scientist as PI in EUP, India * Trained 3 female social scientists in the leadership course for Asian women in R,D and E * Included 3 female interns to do costs and returns analysis• How to strengthen the interaction between biophysical scientists (hub managers) and social scientists (work in progress)• Insufficient resources (funds and staff) to implement a Gender Strategy * Recently recruited a female SouthAsia woman as PDF * USAID provided funds for hiring a consultant to develop a gender assessment for the new project Expansion of CSISA in Bangladesh• For large grants to earmark funds to implement gender strategy
  • 27. Challenges• What incentives to give to respondents who participate in time taking interviews?• How to anticipate/avoid the backlash of well-intended interventions on women• How to show positive outcomes of the technological interventions on women given the limited time frame for funding
  • 28. Opportunities• Include additional key variables to assess gender disparities on key assets• Identify opportunities to strengthen, build or restore assets due to loss in livelihoods• For the methodology of this case study to be replicated in other hubs• Provide a case of good practice addressing the gender asset gap• For IARCS in CGs, NARES and NGOs to work together
  • 29. Preferential analysis-Preferential analysis through voting for the best lines/varieties