Predicated on the proposition that step-changes are possible.
If it was this easy, we wouldn’t face the types of Food security and livelihoods challenges that we have (and we wouldn’t need projects like CSISA)
The importance of messaging…..
Travelling road show and equipment demo in Bangladesh
But recommendations need to be timely, actionable, and relevant. Emphasizing function as well as form….
Jeevika, state department, dealers, etc.
Jeevika, state department, dealers, etc.
Jeevika, state department, dealers, etc.
Jeevika, state department, dealers, etc. Looking for linkage points with other initiative (like STRASA), and not re-inventing the wheel. Embracing innovation from many source… CSISA-supported technologies, not CSISA technologies.
End, don’t start, with a logical set of technological interventions. Prioritize areas with biggest scope for payoff…. Learn with time and experience. What is ‘participatory’ work anyway – beyond working in FF - listening and engaging with farmers – demand driven and opportunistic - no ‘one size’ solutions
CSISA Objective 1:Orientation and Planning MeetingKathmandu, NepalJanuary 23, 24, and 25th, 2013
Meeting Objectives1. Familiarize team with CSISA philosophy, thematic focus, and each other.2. Bring forward new thinking and partnership opportunities3. Refine key objectives and activities for Bihar / EUP + Odisha4. Coordinate activities around integrated ‘impact pathways’ and set priorities accordingly (weighted now towards kharif)5. Translate impact pathway logic to achievable work plans with clearly defined activities, milestones, and responsibilities6. Review strategy for M&E, data mng., and
Cereal Systems Initiative for South AsiaProject Goal: To increase food, nutrition, and income security atscale in South Asia through sustainable intensification of cereal-based systemsFour countries: Bangladesh, India, Nepal, PakistanDuration: Phase I: 2009-12; Phase II: 2012-15•Donor-driven shift in priorities in Phase II to Bihar / EUP,Odisha, and Bangladesh•Transition support for Phase I hubs in Punjab, Haryana, and TN.
The I PA c ha lle ng e : c a ta ly z ing d ura ble M CTc ha ng e with m illio ns o f s m a ll a nd m e d ium -s c a le fa rm e rsCSISA’s 10-year vision of success aims to increase the incomesof 6 million farm families by $350 pa by 2018 through widespreadadoption of efficient and productive agronomic practices, markedincreases in the cultivation of high-yielding and stress-tolerantcereal cultivars, better access to information, and progressivepolicies and strengthened markets that stimulate the same withresults-oriented public and private investments. In Phase II,CSISA remains committed to its original 10-year target ofassisting millions of farmers to achieve a substantial increase inyield and profitability. …the project endeavors to reach 2million farm families by the end of Phase II.
CSISA: A ‘big tent’ initiativeI g ra ting d is c ip line s a nd o rg a niz a tio nsnte• Participatory development of sustainable, productive, and profitable agricultural technologies + support services and knowledge systems (Objective 1)• Future-oriented process-based research (Objective 2)• Breeding for high-yielding and stress-tolerant cereal varieties (Objective 3 and 4)• Policy analysis and evidence-based ‘road maps’ (Objective 5)• Strategic partnerships (public + private sectors) to increase the scale and longevity of interventions• Strengthen markets and business development, especially SMEs.• Capacity development through training and mentorship
What distinguishes CSISA:o c c up y ing the ‘m e s s y m id d le ’, s c ie nc e -le d + o utc o m e so rie nte d Top-down focus on research + technologies (little impact) CSISA works to bridge the best of both approaches Bottom-up focus on community engagement (don’t scale + inappropriate tech)
Ag transformation can be accelerated… Agronomic Revolution The rice revolution in South America (management gain 2 t / ha, ) Variety revolution (semi-dwarfs – 2 t / ha) 350 new varieties releasedYield ton/ha Peter Jennings, FLAR, 2005 Creation of FLAR .......................1968 1995 2002......................
Wide-spread resource degradationFragmented land-holdingsErratic climate systemsPoor market linkagesLabor shortages Diverse set of production challenges and drivers of change.
NOVATION + DURABLE PRODUCTS + SUPPORT TO CHANGE AGEN OPERATIONAL MODEL FOR GOING TO SCALE IN CSISA PHASE II
Axioms for success in Objective 1•There is no universal template foragricultural development•Blending scientific rigor with participatory,demand-lead approaches to technologydevelopment is a must.•Technologies alone are typically insufficient (markets, capital, risk, communications…).
What’s CSISA isn’t• An asset transfer scheme• A competitor with the national research programs• A substitute for the formal extension systemCSISA works to complement partners and to unite them towards common goals… a ‘catalyst’ for change.
Constituents of changeto catalzye the adoption of innovative technologies
How do technologies move? sResearcher developed ’ technologies e ry e liv ‘d Farmer adoptionThe status quo isn’t good enough….
1. Non-technological barriersLaser land leveling and needs-based irrigation can reduceirrigation water use for rice….. or = BUT…Current market signals and business models are often notaligned with conservation and constrain adoption of
2. Supporting innovation with commercially- available toolsOut-migration, difficult Seeder for mobileterrain in Nepal hills ‘garden-type’ roto-tiller Public-private partnershipsExcess rice residue and ‘Turbo happy seeder’ forair pollution in Punjab heavy residues
3. Getting the message rightIncrease net profitability of $100 - $250 ha -1 for wheat. Courtesy Dr. Kamboj, HaryanaSustainability’ doesn’t sell (fortunately, it doesn’t have to)
4. Taking cues from the private sector: raisingawareness with social marketing and mediacampaigns
5. Utilizing modern ICTsfo r e ffic ie nt kno wle d g e d is s e m ina tio n a nd s ite -s p e c ificm a na g e m e nt1. Acquire field-specific information from Web Smartphon farmers e2. Compute field- Model hosted specific guideline on the cloud3. Provide customized field-specific Multi- guidelines in local format language output Courtesy of Roland Buresh, IRR
6. Making polices ‘smart’ to spur investment Rice-wheat yield (t ha-1) 12.0 Laser Tradition al 11.8 11.6 11.4 Source: H. Sidhu, CSISA/Ludhiana 11.2 11.0 10.8 10.6 10.4 10.2 10.0 Yr - 1 Yr - 2Yield gains with significant savings of water (~20%) and diesel for pumping($25 ha-1) under gravity-controlled irrigation managementMarket segmentation / willingness to pay studies toimprove the design and efficacy of policies programs….
7. Understanding how farmers innovateWhat information and services are valued, actionable, and profitable?Literacy / numeracy: how must information be conveyed?When must it be provided?Opportunity costs?Uncertainty?Risk?…..
8. Value chain interventions for strengtheninginput and output markets (when needed) Great crop, but where does he sell it?
9. Strengthening the capacity of change agents that already reach large numbers of farmers ti’ ak ‘Sh ler Deamiting the role of project-based social mobilization, and increasing the icacy of government investments through PPPs (and public-public to
10. Democratizing technology accessthrough custom services and newentrepreneurs Service providers are the primary training target for many CSISA- supported technologies, not famers directly. Simplifies training burden (reaching thousands to affect millions) Reduces $ barriers to innovation
11. Aligning with other initiatives We can’t ‘go it alone’ But, one strong partnership is worth 100 mediocre ones And, dysfunctional partnerships are negative equity…. aking advantage of the investments, community presence, and sociamobilization of other programs. Including our own (e.g. STRASA)
Theory of change (aka ‘impact pathways’)After establishing goals, how do we achieve them?Steps to Create a Theory of Change (adapted from www.theoryofchange.org)1. Identify a long-term goal.2. Conduct ‘backwards mapping’ to identify the preconditions necessary to achieve that goal.3. Identify the interventions required to create these preconditions.4. Develop indicators for each precondition that will be used to assess the performance of the interventions.5. Write a narrative that integrates the various moving parts in your theory.**If a plausible theory of change for specific goals cannot be identified andexecuted within the timeframe of the project, those goals should be dropped orgiven low priority.
Innovative and adaptedtechnologies as starting, not endpoints… Release of elite seeds ? Wide-spread cultivation of elite seeds
IMPACT PATHWAY EXERCISE:1.Choose a primary outcome that supports CSISA’s goals2.Identify three or four intermediate outcomes that contribute tothe primary outcome1.Define project-supported activities that support theintermediate outcomeExample primary outcomes:•Rice-fallows are brought into winter cultivation in flood-proneareas•Smallholders gain access and employ laser land leveling•Farmers transition to ZT wheat or directly-sown rice
Thank YouMANY ROADBLOCKS…. BUT PLENTY OF INGENUITY