Loss kehilangan Postharvest losses kehilangan pasca panen Quality loss kehilangan kualitas Quantity loss kehilangan kuantitas To Weigh menimbang The weight berat Quality mutu, kualitas Quantity kuantitas
23 25 jan 2013 csisa kathmandu ph assessment bihar al schmidley
Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia (CSISA) Coordination Meeting Postharvest Assessment: Initial Findings and Recommendations for BiharAlfred Schmidley, Business Model and Value Chain Specialist, IRRI Aanand Kumar, Postharvest & Business Models, CIMMYT Himalaya Hotel, Kathmandu, Nepal Jan 23-25, 2013
Purpose – Why Postharvest?1. Enhance household food security through reduction of postharvest losses.2. Increase incomes of farmers and other PH actors.3. Other direct and indirect social and economic benefits (e.g., reduced drudgery, improved health, time available to other activities, education, etc.)
Measuring Postharvest “Yield Gaps” 1. How much more rice can we get from a farmers’ harvest? 2. How much more money can be put in a farmer/s pocketPhysical losses 15-25% in traditional postharvest chain in SE AsiaCutting, handling Manual threshing Sun drying Open storage Village milling Small retailers 1-5% 1-5% 3-5% 5-10% 20-30% Crop Quality losses resulting in 10-30% loss in value ConsumptionMachine threshing Combine harvesting Mechanical drying Sealed storage Commercial milling Large retailers 1-5% 1-5% 1-2% 1-2% 5-30%Physical losses in mechanized postharvest chain
Initial Goals:Postharvest Assessment for Bihar and Odisha1. Map chain actors, identify entry points for improved PH technologies, and evaluate potential local partners for initial “rolling start” activities.2. Demonstrate effective use of “rapid” chain assessment techniques (to complement other social science tools & methods)3. Draft Activity Plan to be used as a “living document” and status report for implementing postharvest activities with local partners.
Key Findings: Poor & Marginal Farmers Postharvest Operations PH Systems Issues 1. Manual harvesting 1. Lack of awareness of losses 2. Field drying (2-12 days) and access to remediation options. 3. Bundling (and transport) 2. Rice grown primarily for home 4. Manual threshing (7-30 days) consumption, 50%(?) fall short 5. Sun-drying (roads, roofs, 3. Cropping intensification & labor courtyards) shortages result in increasingly 6. Little/no storage capacity severe chain bottlenecks (paddy) 4. Women are predominantly 7. Poor milling quality & head represented in household level rice recovery processing.
Manual Harvesting •High cost and insufficientlabour •Difficulty harvesting on time •Exposure to the elements •Preventable physical & quality losses
Contract Threshing for WheatKeys questions:•What factor lead to wheat being 100% mechanically threshed? (1 of 10 bags service fee)•Why not paddy?•Will contractors be willing to offer similar services for paddy to farmers at a similar rate?•Will farmers pay for these services at this same approximate cost?•Where to pilot and test these options for verification? With whom?
Postharvest ChainTo minimize losses along the chain ricemust be...• Harvested at the correct MC• Threshed in the correct manner• Dried at the correct temperature, drying rate and to the correct moisture content• Properly cleaned• Stored securely, and• Milled efficiently
Recommendations and Next Steps1. Continue with rapid PH chain assessment in Bihar2. Commence PH assessment in Odisha using demonstrated rapid chain assessment techniques.3. Pilot mechanical threshing options with select farmers’ clubs and SHGs using various actor and business model configurations for study, verifying, and informing scaling out strategies.4. Develop postharvest Activity Plan for detailing next steps, activities with potential partners, other ideas and input, for use as a “living document” & tool.
Recommendations and Next Steps ….4. Don’t spread ourselves too thin. Focus on a few key activities first, capture/share lessons, and expand to scale.5. Work with counterparts in extension (materials, training modules), social science (documentation, M&E, gender) and needs specific identified needs of target groups and channel partners.6. Share learning, outcomes, applied tools on business models (e.g., “Business Model Discussion Group”?) to promote critical thinking and discussion on research for delivery using business model approaches.