Accelerating access to mechanized services in India: lessons from Bangladesh CSISA Objective 1 Planning Meeting Kathmandu, Nepal January 23- 25th, 2013 Scott JusticeNAEF, Consultant: CIMMYT Bangladesh, IRRI Cambodia, etc Stephen Biggs, Research Fellow, University of East Anglia
Broad definition of mechanization – not just production and CA– Includes harvest, post harvest and even cross sector into rural transport and energy– Success to promoting 2 or 4 WTs and their agricultural attachments, including CA machinery is to understand how import other sectors are for the primary mover / tractor ownership
Throw the net wider• Look around in south Asia for proven durable machinery products – Yes look in India –Yes look at Bangladesh, etc• But also look to similar East Asian countries – Thailand and Vietnam #1 and #2 exporters of rice in the world, small and fragmented farms and done with 3M 2WTs, more and more broadcast rice, and mini reapers/threshers, and mini –track combines
Multiple paths to higher levels of mechanization• India – Largest Producer of 4WTs in the world • 400,000 / year • 3.5 M Total • 50-60% of Indian farmers using mechanized tillage• Bangladesh – Largest Importer of Chinese 2WTs in the world • 60,000 / year • 500,000 total • 90+ % of all Bangladesh’s using mechanized tillage – With the help of 40,000 4WTS » Its not an either or –very complementary technologies
Socially Equitable Mechanization Processes• Our Premise- small scale machinery more accessible to both small and large farmers- inverse is not necessarily true – Evidence that higher levels of ag mechanization increases growth in non- farm rural industries and rural employment (alternative livelihoods and rural development)
Socially Equitable Mechanization Processes• Beneficiaries of machinery –Owner/Service Provider • Benefits from use on own farm • Benefits ia service provision of machinery –India: 3,000,000 4 WT Owners/HHs –Bangladesh 500,000 2WT owners/HHs
Socially Equitable Mechanization Processes• Beneficiaries of machinery – Renter: less individual monetary- but exponentially more renters (esp. farm HHs who cannot afford machinery) • 500,000 2WTs x 20-30 HHs = 10 – 15 M Farm HHs • 3,000,000 x ?? HH= ?? – Benefits to renters include: • On time farm operations • Reduced turn around times • Increased cropping intensity • Reduced labor costs / drudgery
Socially Equitable Mechanization Processes• Beneficiaries of machinery – Exchequer benefits – much more from renters than owners – Benefits include: • Increased food security • Increased rural employment
First Lesson from Bangladesh• Till 1987 little success in wide spread mechanization efforts• Govt made two important policy changes in 1987 – disbanded govt ag engg machine quality vetting group – Reduced tariffs• Mechanization has been 95% private sector led• Private sector selected what machinery to introduce
Second lesson from Bangladesh• Private sector selected cheap lightweight China diesel pumpsets – Starting in early-mid 1980s • Since 2000 – 100,000 Chinese diesel engines imported / year – Lay flat pipes bring further water savings • 2010 – 1.4 M STWs • 70% area irrigated – 90% of this is STW - with remaining surface and DTW – Maximizing the shallow and plentiful IGP aquifers – Fair access via SPs and water markets emerged-renter gets water when needed – Central and northern Bangladesh currently reaching 100% shallow aquifer utilization • Appu 1974 Spread of mobile pumpsets in Purnia and Saharsa Districts- depackaged the govt stationary big heavy Kiloskar pumpsets and immediate started markets for water services.
Third lesson from Bangladesh• 1980s diesel pumpsets, fertilizers and better varieties paved way in the 1990s for 2WTs – GOB dropped all barriers in 1988 – 1995 200,000 – 2000 300,000 – 2010 450,000 – 500,000 • 55,000 – 60,000 imported per year – 90% of all farmers using mechanized Tillage
Fourth lesson from Bangladesh• The rise of good varieties, water and machinery= intensification• Boro rice along with fertilizer use tied to increasing # of STW Total rice Aus Aman Boro Expon. (Total rice) 33,640 40,000 32,260 31,317 28,930 35,000 27,312 26,530 26,189 25,183 25,168 25,085 24,300 30,000 23,067 19,905 18,880 18,862 18,341 18,255 25,000 18,042 17,785 17,687 16,833 000 MT 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 y = 15678e0.0346x - R2 = 0.9278 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11M A S Mandal, 2011, BAU
Other Lessons Learned• Moving from animal tillage to small mechanized tillage is a good thing! – And not all rotovators are not the same• Smallholders with fragmented increasingly frag plots are very productive and competitive and via small farm mechanization• Labor Intensive agricultural mechanization process• Complementarity of two and four wheel tractor - not mutually exclusive
Other Lessons Learned• Increased water, better varieties and mechanization leads to: – Increased intensification 2.2 – 2.3 CI – Increased productivity – Increased need for specialized farm labor – Increase growth and employment in the non-farm rural sector- 60+% of farmer income from NFS • (M. Hoosain 2004, Mandal 2001)• Complementarity of two and four wheel tractor - not mutually exclusive- 2WTs are not going away • Siddique, Ashraf, et al., 2012. Study into the Commercialization of Selected Agricultural Machines in Bangladesh.
Lessons yet to be learned• Good understanding on mechanization’s impact on women• Womenization and aging of the family farm
Lessons yet to be learned• Mechanizing seeding and planting with 2WTs – Possibilities and hopes but no real market success - yet • Bedplanters • Fulltill / Strip till drills/planters • VMP • Tool bar / inverted T openers • Mini Happy Seeder• Attachments/seeders etc needed for recently emerged 4WT sector in Bangladesh- only rotovators• Two emerging labor bottlenecks – No machinery in market for mechanizing harvest of small fragmented holdings- look to east Asia for durable products – No machinery in market for mechanizing transplanting – look where for durable products?
Nepal- Some Lessons Learned on Small Scale Mechanizationand • Group ownership doesn’t work- but it’s an excellent for “fair” demos • Small machinery “self selects” the populations we want to reach- lower social- economic status and janjatis
Nepal- Lessons and potential machinery in long neglected hill agriculture– Hills • 50% of 2WT sales Is in the hills of Nepal • Irrigation/water scarcities – Centrifugal pumpsets, axial flow pumps, plastic lined ponds, drip irrigation, use of mini and micro hydro • Mini tiller 3-4 horsepower - Mezzo tiller 6-8 HP – “Sized Attachments” » planter, » sized thresher for rice, wheat, kodo » maize sheller, » irrigation pump, » rice/maize/wheat mills » trailer • Various jab planters
Next Steps for Bihar and Odisha?• Characterizing our mechanization environment in Odissa and Bihar – Understand better what is going on, on the ground • Market oriented investigations via quick initial studies and stakeholder workshops with industry members and their associations – Investigations need to be quick. – Don’t need to be heavily quantitative- descriptive – Find what is working already and backstop it
Next Steps for Bihar and Odisha?• Via the stakeholder workshop – Organizing and backstopping the various industries- backstop existing r form new professional associations – Finding the blockages
Next Steps for Bihar and Odissa?WATER!• WB’s The Ganges Strategic Basin Assessment (2011) estimates only 30-40% shallow aquifer usage • Spread of light weight Chinese pumpsets and layflat pipe or 2-wheel tractors? – Who are the main market supplier actors? Market impediments? – Are SPs emerging / water markets spreading? Impediments?
Next Steps for Bihar and Odissa?• Selecting other new machinery – 4WT • O-till drills/bedplanters/Happy Seeders • LLL • Reapers • PTO threshers
Next Steps for Bihar and Odissa? 2WT- Small Scale Mechanization• Attendance of hub managers to Workshop on Rural Mechanization: Policy and Technology Lessons from Bangladesh and other Asian Countries March 7th and 8th, Dhaka• Selecting other new machinery – 2WT • Consult with AICRP on 2WTs- Bhubaneswar/Bhopal • Chinese, Bangladesh and Indian made O-till drills/bedplanters/VMPs/Happy Seeders • Reapers • Axial flow pumps
Sources:Siddique, Ashraf, et al., 2012. Study into the Commercialization of Selected Agricultural Machines inBangladesh. Dhaka: International Development Enterprises (iDE) – Bangladesh. (Report for theInternational Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) Bangladesh)Biggs, S. Justice, S. & Lewis, D. 2011. Patterns of Rural Mechanisation, Energy and Employment in SouthAsia: Reopening the Debate. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. XLVI, No. 9, pp. 78-82.Biggs, Stephen & Justice, Scott. 2011. Rural Development and Energy Policy: Lessons from AgriculturalMechanisation in South Asia. ORF Occasional Paper No. 19. New Delhi: Observer Research Foundation(http://www.observerindia.com/cms/sites/orfonline/modules/occasionalpaper/OccasionalPaperList.html)Justice, Scott & Biggs, Stephen, 2010. Diverse Patterns of Rural and Agricultural Mechanisation inBangladesh and Nepal: Status and Emerging themes. (Section for a FAO book on AgriculturalMechanisation.)Mandal, M.A. Sattar, 2011. Design and Implementation of Agriculture and Food Security Strategies:Reflections on Bangladesh Experience. Presented at the International Workshop and Conference on‘Knowledge, Tools and Lessons for Informing the Design and Implementation of Food security Strategies’held in Kathmandu, Nepal, 14-16 November 2011Sadoff, Claudia, Harshadeep Rao THE GANGES STRATEGIC BASIN ASSESSMENT World Water Week, 21August 2011 The World Bankhttp://www.worldwaterweek.org/documents/WWW_PDF/2011/Sunday/K23/Promoting-Cooperation-in-the-Ganges-Basin-through-Dialog/Harsh-Ganges-Basin-Introduction.pdf