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11 July 2012 Odisha CSISA SSD Gender Mainstreaming in CSISA Part 1
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11 July 2012 Odisha CSISA SSD Gender Mainstreaming in CSISA Part 1


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  • Aside from training professional women, our NARES partners also train grassroots women so that they will benefit from CSISA promoted technologies.
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    • 1. Gender research in CSISA Phase 1 Accomplishments (2007-2012) Presented by Thelma Paris, Kamala Gurung, Val Pede, Joyce Luis, Abha Singh and Donald Villanueva Phase 2 Planning Session of Social Sciences Activities, held in Mayfair Hotel, Bhubaneswar, India July 11, 2012
    • 2. Major accomplishments in India and Bangladesh• Developed Gender Strategy plan CSISA phase 2• Gender Assessment study in Bangladesh - ICDDRB• Developed Concept note submitted to USAID for CSISA Bangladesh and Nepal• Submitted a proposal to IFPRI-ILRI – Gender, Asset in Agriculture Project (GAAP)• Conducted studies on gender issues in rice based farming systems in CSISA India and CSISA Bangladesh• Conducted training activities in Bangladesh - Gender analysis in CSISA project and Gender in Postharvest – CSISA BD• Developed and Integrated in overal M & E framework CSISA - BD• Organized Women’s Day in CSISA-BD• Supported female participants to participate in “Leadership course for Asian Women in R, D, and E”• Trained grassroots women farmers on how to raise rice seedlings for mechanical paddy transplanter and how to operate the machine• Enhanced capacities of women interns• Gender performance analysis
    • 3. Empowering women as entrepreneurs in transplanting riceTamil Nadu, India CSISA project
    • 4. Gender studies - CSISA Objective 6.2• Gender roles in rice-based farming systems (EUP, Bihar,Tamil Nadu, India) based on baseline socioeconomic surveys - V. Pede, T.Paris, Raman Sharma, Annurag, J. Stular,• Understanding the gendered asset distribution, access to and control of assets and resources among rice farming systems households in EUP under the IFPRI-ILRI project T.Paris, V.Pede, J. Luis, A. Singh• Consequences of labor-saving machinery on men and women’s employment and income in EUP – T.Paris, V. Pede, J. Luis, A.Singh and D. Villanueva
    • 5. Key findings• Female labor contributions are highest in Tamil Nadu (25>60%) – varies by farm size and caste• Despite women’s labor participation, women have less access to education, training, key asset eg land• Principal males dominate in agricultural decisions• Need to address gender-related constraints to technology adoption
    • 6. Female labor in rice production Rabi season Kharif season
    • 7. % of female participation to total labor inputs1009080706050 Kharif season40302010 0 Small Medium Large All Bihar, India
    • 8. % of female participation to total labor inputs Rabi season Kharif season
    • 9. Gender, Assets in Agricultural Projects (GAAP) in CSISA• Developed a methodology using picture of assets to complement the guide questions on access to and control of assets of principal males and principal females• Conducted focus group discussions (FGDs) with sixty principal males and principal females were conducted to gather insights on gender-disaggregated access to and control of key assets and resources and how important are these assets to men and women.• These FGDs were conducted in CSISA (3) and non-CSISA (3) villages in Maharajganj and Deoria districts in EUP and East Champaran district in Bihar.• Submitted first draft and revised after receiving comments and suggestions from Ruth Meinzen Dick (IFPRI) and Nancy Johnson (ILRI). Revision of this report is going on and will be submitted in May.• For Phase 2, of the GAAP project questionnaires with GAAP questions for mid-term surveys questions were developed, pre-tested and revised in consultation with Dr. Mallick and Raman located in the EUP hubs.• Conducted training of enumerators in end of May, 2012• Developed questionnaires, pre-tested questionnaires and surveys are going of 324 farming households are going on.• Leader of Phase 1 – Thelma Paris; Leader of phase 2 – Val Pede
    • 10. Key Findings• Key assets such as land, large animals are owned by men• Women from lower caste own small animals• Women own jewelry received through dowry• More women in the lower caste have access to jobs through MNREGA• Control of assets are dominated by husbands•
    • 11. Opportunities in the CSISA project toreduce gender gaps in asset ownership• Providing women access to improved seeds of varieties suited to their needs through PVS• Inclusion of women in farmer-participatory experiments on crop diversification eg rice-sweet potato, rice-legumes, rice-sunflower, rice-vegetables• Providing women access to technical knowledge on all seeds (rice and non-rice) seed health to produce high quality seeds (seed to seed training• Providing women access to post production technologies to post harvest losses and provide women with income opportunities.• Promoting and validating technologies that enhance crop-livestock interactions e.g production of dual purpose crops for food and animal fodder will directly benefit women who take care of crop production and dairy animals.• Providing women with new knowledge and skills in production techniques e.g. raising nursery rice seedlings for paddy mechanical transplanter through “hands-on” training can be an opportunity for income generating activities for poor women displaced by labor-saving technologies.• Tap women’s potentials through working with Self-Help groups• Partnership with NGOs working with farmer groups• Link issues on changing climate, livelihoods, food security and gender roles under GRiSP• Link with other CG partners eg IFPRI, ILRI, World Fish, ICRISAT, CIMMYT) on gender research and leadership training course• Test methods of data collection for women key informants and respondents and various communication methods for eliciting women farmers’ knowledge as well as dissemination of knowledge and technologies
    • 12. Key findings• Farm land is the most important asset of all farming households.• However, inequalities exist among farming households in terms of size of farm holdings.• The disparity in access to and control of resources exist by social class and gender.• In contrast, the marginal and small farmers have less access to these resources.• Men have more access to farm lands than women due to rigid social cultural norms.
    • 13. Key findings and implications• There are differences in access to agricultural machinery between the upper caste (large farm holders) and lower castes (small and marginal farm holders).• Both upper caste and lower caste principal males and principal females with farm lands, will benefit from RCTs which will increase the returns to land due to CSISA technologies.• Women do not have access to and control of agricultural machinery, with exception of female heads of households who avail of custom hiring services for crop production and harvesting.• Dairy animals are owned by both principal male and principal women.• Decisions to dispose assets e.g. farm land, house, large animals and machinery are taken by male heads of family in all castes especially among the upper castes households and joint households.• However in nuclear families, decisions to use and dispose these assets are jointly decided by the principal male and principal female. Thus, crop-livestock technologies will directly benefit women who own or jointly own dairy animals.• Women’s income will increase with productivity gains resulting from improved access to animal fodder e.g. dual purpose crops
    • 14. Consequences of mechanization onmen and women’s employment in EUP• Completed data analysis of the research on “Consequences of mechanization on men and women’s employment” in eastern Uttar Pradesh.• Data collection and analysis using mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative) has been completed. This study was conducted in 16 villages in four districts (Gorakhpur, Kushinagar, Maharajganj) and Siddarth Nagar.• Three hundred twenty one households (user and non-users of machines) were interviewed. The machines used were combine, rotavator, laser leveler, rice thresher, reaper, transplanter and zero till machine.• Factors which influence the adoption of labor- saving technologies are being examined using econometric methods.• Results of this study are currently being written for publication
    • 15. Key Findings and Implications• Transport means such as bicycle, motorcycle, and formal sources of loan/credit/ATM Card are normally owned and managed by male heads/other males/sons.• However, women especially young girls are increasingly owning their bicycle due to government schemes to educate more girls.• A high proportion of males own cellular phones but are used more for entertainment rather then for agriculture-related information
    • 16. Gender-disaggregated variables in CSISA baseline surveys analyzed• Labor allocation of male and female members in rice production• Access to land, training• Participation of women in agriculture related decisions• Participation of women in allocation of budget for different household expenditures
    • 17. Key findings and implications• Small livestock (goats) and jewelry (gold and silver) are the few assets women own.• Women have control over these earnings.• Men more than women have access to higher education, participation in technical training and extension activities and social capital.• Women from the lower castes consider their labor and long term farming experience as their important asset.• Working as laborers in other farms provides a source of security (food and nutrition) and livelihoods.• Women more than men have preferential treatment in terms of employment in MNREGA which gives assurance of cash income.• Among the lower castes, especially the women, human capital (access to education, technical training) and social
    • 18. CSISA Bangladesh• Enhanced the capacity of women in rice post-harvest activities through community based demonstrations on rice seed selection and storage technique (where at least 50% women were trained), demonstrations on proper rice seed storage techniques (56 demos out 300 planned demonstrations in the second year wherein 100% of all participants are women).• Hermetic super bags and mechanical dryers of paddy were demonstrated by IRRI.• The Whole-family training (including women farmers) approach on rice production and post-harvest technologies was used. Out of the 1581 farmers who participated in the training activities on rice production and post-harvest technologies, 25% were women and the rest were men.• This training course combined crop management and post-harvest technologies. .
    • 19. CSISA - India• Developed a Gender Strategy Plan for Phase 2 – T.Paris and K. Gurung• Submitted a concept note “ Promoting household food security in Bangladesh and Nepal” by enhancing women’s capacity in the rice postharvest value chain”. PI-. T. Paris; Co PI – Alfred Schmidley; Co-PI- K.Gurung
    • 20. Identified interventions (household based pond aquaculture and horticulture production) for poor and marginal women in Bangladesh• Two interventions were identified by WF and CIMMYT to improved women’s income and nutrition of family members. - These are small pond aquaculture and horticulture production- related activities. These interventions are designed to target women from poor and marginal farming households so that they can earn their own income and provide nutritious food for their family. These interventions are: community based participatory demonstrations on household based pond aquaculture (polyculture of nutrient rich small fish with carp and/or tilapia) and high value horticulture.• Participatory demonstration trials on the production of sweet flesh sweet potato production were conducted wherein 572 women farmers participated. They grew three types of orange flesh sweet potato vine in 1.52 ha.• Other planned activities are: a) Summer tomato production in household area (With CIMMYT) b) conduct training on household- based pond aquaculture (polyculture of nutrient rich small fish with carp and/or tilapia) and high- value horticulture•
    • 21. .Awarded women farmers during the International Women’s Day.• Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia (CSISA) Project in Bangladesh also celebrated the International Women’s Day (IWD) on March 8th, 2012 with the slogan: ‘Unite with us!.....for improvement of household food security. The celebration was organized to recognize and honor the contribution of women farmers in household food security through increased agricultural production. The IWD was organized in three hub-venues of CSISA-BD project with six hubs: Barisal (included Faridpur hub), Jessore (included Khulna hub) and Mymensingh (included Rangpur hub) hubs. On this occasion, a total of 30 women farmers and 5 women farmer’s groups involved with CSISA-Bangladesh project were nominated from six hubs of the three CG Centers. All were awarded prizes in kinds which generate income and each item selected by themselves. The prizes included sewing machine, baby cow, low lift pump, paddle thresher, rechargeable flash torch light etc. Besides, two local organizations of CSISA-Bangladesh project from each of three hub-venues were also awarded for their contribution to the women development in agriculture sector. Secondly, a twenty five minutes video documentary was shown during the occasion, which was prepared in particular for this event by highlighting the contribution of CSISA-Bangladesh project to the women farmers. Besides, the IWD was also celebrated at IRRI Bangladesh office.
    • 22. Workshop on “Gender integration in postharvest as micro-enterprise models: Basic concepts, tools and next steps• Held a one day workshop on “Gender integration in postharvest as micro-enterprise models: Basic concepts, tools and next steps. CSISA Project in Bangladesh held a day-long workshop and planning meeting on “Postharvest Business Models: Basic Concepts, Tools, and Next Steps” in 18 April 2012. The main goal of this workshop was to introduce micro enterprise and also business model approach with basic tools for analyzing and piloting postharvest technologies selection in an enterprise context for learning and verification. Topics on gender issues in rice-based post harvest activities were presented by Kamala Gurung.• The outcomes of the workshop were: a) presentation of initial findings and proposed entry points for integration of gender in improved postharvest technologies and management options; b) introduction of micro enterprise as a business model approach with basic tools for analyzing and piloting selected postharvest technologies; c) identification with potential partners of future plans including resources needed.•
    • 23. Completed surveys on “Dynamics of Gender, Equity and Household Food Security in Changing Rice-based Agricultural Systems in Bangladesh”.• Ten villages were selected from 3 districts (Mymensingh, Khulna and Sathkhira) and 3 villages in each district for this research. In the case of Mymensingh, one additional village is included from the earlier case study site. The villages were selected in terms of the dominant farming system in the villages.• Among them, 3 villages with mostly rice farming systems are the control villages while the 7 villages which are mostly by commercial fish/shrimp/prawn farming systems are the experimental villages.• Data were gathered using mixed qualitative and quantitative methods. Surveys of 400 households are completed. Data entry is going on.• A poster on this topic was presented by KGurung at the Global Conference on Women in Agriculture (GCWA) held in New Delhi, India in March 13- 15, 2012. This project is being conducted by Kamala Gurung, Thelma Paris, Sam Mohanty and Humnath Bhandari.••
    • 24. Incorporated “Gender Indicators for Monitoring and Evaluation Framework” in overall CSISA M & E Systems• . Gender indicators for M & E have been developed for GRiSP strategy in 2011-2013.• These indicators are now incorporated in the overall CSISA-Bangladesh in consultation with an M & E expert based in Bangladesh with the full support of the COP of USAID-IRRI based in Dhaka, Bangladesh.• CSISA-Bangladesh involves three CG Centers (WF, CIMMYT and IRRI). These indicators were developed by Kamala Gurung and Thelma Paris•
    • 25. Major accomplishments in India and Bangladesh• Development of Gender strategy plan for CSISA phase 2 based on donors comments and suggestions• Development of Concept note submitted to USAID for CSISA Bangladesh and Nepal• Gender studies in CSISA India and CSISA Bangladesh• Capacity enhancement – Gender analysis in CSISA project and Gender in Postharvest - CSISA BD• Monitoring and evaluation in CSISA - BD• International Women Day in CSISA-BD
    • 26. Gender studies - CSISA phase 2 plansThelma Paris, Val Pede, Kamala Gurung, SamMohanty, Annand Kumar
    • 27. Developed a Gender Strategy for CSISAPhase 2 (Mainstreaming gender concerns)• Objective 1 Widespread dissemination of production and postharvest technologies to increase cereal production, resource efficiency and income;• Objective 2 - Crop and resource management practices for future cereal-based systems;• Objective 5 - Improved policies for inclusive agricultural growth;• Objective 6 (Project management, communication, monitoring and evaluation)
    • 28. Gender analysis (constraints and opportunities) assessment1.1.1 Establishing operating modalities for newly prioritized hubs in EI – 6/12/12Activity: Identification and prioritization of key gender- differentiated problems which limit system productivity in each hub1.1.2 Establishing strategies for consolidating progress in transition hubs -10/2012Activity: Conduct a systematic ex-post performance review of CSISA promoted technologies among men and women farmers to determine which partners and support – are required to accelerate progress with the most promising innovations – eg mechanical paddy transplanter in Tamil Nadu
    • 29. Validation and evaluation of technologies with women farmers1.1.2 Prioritized technologies are tested and improved to match needs of farmers1.2.1.2 At least 5 of the 25 participatory experiments will be jointly managed with women farmers (IRRI-WF-ILRI) - Design research trials on improved crop rotation and agronomic practices which meet women’s production needs - TBD1.2.1.6 Evaluate the principal gender-differentiated causes of postharvest cereal losses in each hub-12/20121.2.1.7 Conduct performance assessment of improved postharvest technologies with men and women – 12/2012
    • 30. Gender-differentiated impact assessment6.2 Labor, gender, assets and migration6.2.1 Assessment of the effects of labor saving technologies on access to and control of key assets and resources among men and women farmes and ag workers in selected villages within CSISA’ project are in India, Nepal and Bangladesh6.2.2. Assessment of the gender-specific labor savings afforded by a specific CSISA – sponsored technology such as LL. ZT wheat or DSR
    • 31. Capacity enhancement1.5 .1 Capacity development for CSISA staff and partners to accelerate impacts at scale with farmers1.5.1.1 Build capacity of CSISA staff to backstop core activities on socio-economic analysis including gender analysis1.5.1.3 Organize women’s leadership course for each year based on need assessment of partners
    • 32. Leadership Course forAsian andAfrican Womenin Agriculture R & D andExtension 2005- 160 women participants (2002-2010) Participants - NARES and IRRI outreach offices (26 countries) Resource persons – IRRI scientists, resource persons from Training Center and IRRI Human Resource and from Management Organized by Dr. TParis, SSD and Noel Magor, IRRI, Training Center
    • 33. Testing methods of collecting gender- differentiated information• Use of pictures of assets vs questionnaire only for eliciting information from men and women• Use of pictures/visual aids for increasing women’s knowledge on seed health, IPM, INM, IWM
    • 34. Testing models for entrepreneurial models1.3.3 Business models for the provision of technologies and services1.3.3.2 Encourage and support entrepreneurs, including women, to develop businesses around key technologies for increasing the productivity and sustainability of cereal systems in SA – 7/2013;7/2014COP, A. Kumar, T. Paris, K.Gurung