Dr. Andrew McDonaldCSISA Phase II – India Country Coordinator, Objective 1 / 2 leaderInternational Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)Odisha Partners MeetingBubaneshwarJuly 10, 2012
Cereal Systems Initiative for South AsiaProject Goal: To increase food and income security at scale inSouth Asia through sustainable intensification of cereal-basedsystems.Metrics of success: marked crop productivity increases, incomegeneration for > 6 m farmers by 2019…Four countries: India, Bangladesh, Nepal, PakistanTwo donors: USAID, BMFGDuration: Phase I: 2009-12; Phase II: 2012-15The Challenge: catalyzing durable changewith millions of small and medium-scalefarmers
Agriculture can be transformed…. Agronomic Revolution The rice revolution in South America (management gain 2 t / ha, ) Variety revolution (semi-dwarfs – 2 t / ha) 350 new varieties releasedYield ton/ha Peter Jennings, FLAR, 2005 Creation of FLAR .......................1968 1995 2002......................
Why aren’t improved technologiesadopted? KNOWLEDGE CAPITAL ACCES S LABOR RISKAre technologies matched to needs of smallholders?Are key messages reaching farmers?
Drivers of change in S. Asia Agriculture• Cereal demand projected to: double by 2025, quadruple by 2050?• Land, water, energy, labor scarcity• Increasing production costs• Resource loss and degradation (land, water, soil)• Risks and uncertainty o High temperatures, drought, inundation o Less predictable climate systems
Production-ecologies are distinctin cases over small distances Drought , overuse of groundwater, acid soils Seasonal inundation, flash flooding Temperature / drought stress, arsenic Limited-source surface irrigation Floods, cyclones, and tidal surges, salinity across the coastal belt
Addressing non-technologicalbarriersthat impede innovationNeeds-based irrigation with AWD canreduced irrigation water use for rice. BUT… Business model for pump rental mus favor conservation. (in BD they don’t
How do farmers make decisions?Fundamental research gaps on conception of risk, behavioralscience, etc.Literacy / numeracyWhat information is valued, actionable, and profitable?When must it be provided?Matching the tactic and toolto the audience…….
Remembering the simple thingsGood agronomy pays large dividends More precise approaches needn’t be sophisticated to be successful Uniform placement of fertilizers: 10 -15% yield gain
Not by technology alone… Release of elite seeds ? Wide-spread cultivation of elite seeds
CSISA: A ‘big tent’ initiativeIntegrating disciplines and organizations• Participatory development of sustainable, productive, and economical agricultural management technologies• Future-oriented process-based research (e.g. net GHGs, NUE, WUE, models simulations)• Development of high-yielding and stress-tolerant cereal varieties (wheat, rice, and maize)• Strategic partnerships (public + private sectors) to increase the scale and longevity of interventions• Strengthen markets and business development, especially SMEs.• Capacity building through training and scholarship• Policy analysis and evidence-based advocacy
Defining impact pathways: a keyelement for project planning
CSISA will not succeed by acting alone…..but partnerships have to be based on:• Clear value proposition to motivate the participation of all partners• Joint ownership and commitment to success• Timelines for action• Coordination of activities along common impact pathway
What’s new in Phase II?• Shift in geographic focus to Eastern India and Bangladesh• More $ resources to support key activities in Bihar and new investments in Odisha, including flexible funds to be managed jointly with NARES through state-level ‘Advisory and Investment Committees’. These funds will support innovation and new thinking, and close gaps where other investments are lacking.• Explicit focus on forming and supporting strategic partnerships