ROSE Seminar

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ROSE School Seminar 2007 Pavia

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ROSE Seminar

  1. 1. Assessment of the impact of seismic retrofit on 1920-1940 reinforced concrete blocks of flats Maria BOSTENARU Rui PINHO
  2. 2. CA‘REDIVIVUS project The title = Reinforced Concrete CASA REDIVIVUS Cemento Armato HOUSE TO NEW LIFE
  3. 3. CA‘REDIVIVUS project objectives (measures package) objective (measure) scientific method instruments step goal Methodology
  4. 4. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Step Goal Method Instrument Measure 1 technical reports on implementation programmes documentation investigation training. 4; 8 2 a data table of use for the decision method in the next step parametrical study FEM 2 3 support the choices at step 4 and step 1 highlighting comprehensibility database 7 4 algorithm based on case studies (step 2) for experiments (step 6) modularisation of the decision model pair wise comparison 3 5 report about available systems for this purpose a basis system to administrate modules computer tools 6 6 trial of educational feasibility (step 3) project example exercise 5 7 dissemination of results presentation publications 1 Nr. Measures package 1 improving understanding of the impact of earthquakes 2 development of an algorithm for optimisation of retrofit measures 3 development of a decentralised decision model 4 insights into applicability of retrofit methods 5 development of a framework for integral planning 6 solving contradictions between the objectives of single actors 7 highlighting the comprehend- sibility of the measures analysed 8 support changes by political and economic environment: Methodology
  5. 5. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Modernism  a global movement in architecture, music, arts, physics, philosophy, economic and social theory and industrialisation in the first half of the 20th century  one of the nuclei: housing programme  Industrial development > new technologies > reinforced concrete > innovation
  6. 6. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Modernism  Western Europe: social housing  other: new image to capital cities, housing for the middle class in preferential areas  CIAM and Charter of Athens (1933): functionalism  Seismic issues neglected  Nostalgy for that time in Greece and Romania
  7. 7. CA‘REDIVIVUS project The Charter of Athens  1933  Organisation of cities in functional zones  Bucharest Master Plan 1934 > design of buildings in the interwar time • Ground occupancy > planimetric irregularity • Raised permitted height to define streets by their fronts > set-back floors • Encouraged mixed use in central zone
  8. 8. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Comparative analysis Romania Greece Italy Portugal location capital capital N (Como, Milano) capital city centre close to the railway station city centre, close to the railway station Development boulevards N EQ damage 2 EQs one EQ none none maintenance poor mixed good good architect numerous several several Cassiano Branco programme residential residential, school residential, offices residential, hotels
  9. 9. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Greece  Athens: absence of town planning applications  Extensions section by section, on rudimentary street layouts > parcels of rectangular contour result; the parcels are like for individual dwellings  Small blocks, but parcels bigger than in Bucharest
  10. 10. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Greece  Morphologic language: cubist and ornamentless structures, like on the islands  1929: new legislation • Multiple ownership of blocks of flats  1925 establishment of Reinforced concrete as material for load-bering structures of buildings  Buildings have 5-6 storeys
  11. 11. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Greece
  12. 12. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Bedroom / night zone Living room, including dinning Corridors / circulation zone Bathrooms, toillets Kitchen Hall / vertical circulation Deposit / external circulation Legend: Functional scheme in a Greek apartment building
  13. 13. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Romania  End of XIXth century: Haussmannian intervention of tracing main boulevards in the city: major throughfares and irregular parcels on them resulted, fully occupied  Urban section of Modern buildings with no equal in Europe (in other places historic centres completed long before); middle class housing
  14. 14. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Romania  Bucharest Master Plan 1934, one year after the CIAM in Athens  Main traffic routes reinforced by the street facade, cornice raised to 24m on the N-S boulevard, higher at intersection corners > set-backs  Mixed use with cinemas and shops  The height of the building varied from 2-3 to 12 floors
  15. 15. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Romania  Earthquakes 1940 and 1977  In 1940 Carlton building collapsed  1977 about 30 buildings built 1920- 1940 collapsed  ARO building, restored after a fire, behaved well  The buildings were replaced by new ones of less architectural value and the unity of the boulevard was destroyed
  16. 16. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Romania  The reinforced concrete structure permitted flexibility in the organisation of the floor and among the floors  No moment resisting frames > RC scheleton, sometimes with masonry infill > seismic vulnerability
  17. 17. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Romania
  18. 18. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Functional scheme in a Romanian ap. building Bedroom / night zone Living room, including dinning Corridors / circulation zone Bathrooms, toillets Kitchen Hall / vertical circulation Deposit / external circulation Legend:
  19. 19. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Structural scheme of a Romanian apartment building
  20. 20. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Seismic features Element Seismic Deficiency Earthquake Resistent Features Earthquake Damage Patterns Infill panels consoles Increasing stiffness rifts Columns No moment resisting frames Low reinforcement - Plastic hinges at soft storey Concrete spalling Beams No moment resisting frames Well reinforced Plastic hinge in long beams Oblique rifts in short beams Roof and Floors too elastic Alternative solutions with embeded bricks More rifts at stair flights
  21. 21. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Italy  At the begin of the century: • Arte Nuova and Futurism • Reasoned picturesque (edilizia cittadina)  Reasoned picturesque and enthusiasm for the vernacular building > contextualism (l‘ambientismo)  Contextualism will be maintained in Italian Rationalism also.
  22. 22. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Italy  Urban planning approch in Italian architecture begun well before the CIAM  1920-1940: • Milanese Novecento – housing for the middle class, flexibility in RC, stappeled villa, serial building plan • Italian Rationalism – innovated volumes and facades, building plans remained conventional
  23. 23. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Italy
  24. 24. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Portugal  Reinforced concrete  Boulevards of haussmannian type N of the city > geometric parcels  Cassiano Branco, typology easy to repeat
  25. 25. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Portugal
  26. 26. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Historical Building Element Material Vulnerability Structure performance Retrofit elements Strategy Architect Engineer Inhabitant Investor Execution Acceptance Occupancy Management Availability Indicators Reversibility Guidelines Displacement, maximal Tension Facade Interior space Structure Demolition Size change Looks change Construction material change Material Earthquake Shape score Structure score Forces Displacement, remaining Element replacement New element Non-structural > structural System completion Strengthening/Stiffening Enhanced ductility Reduced demand Duration Noise Relocation Participation Ownership form Safety Own expenses Other benefits During measure After measure After earthquake Aggregate Building site Phases Repeatability Construction material versus Technology versus Funds Relocation space Reparation/New building Retrofit/New building Reparation saving/Retrofit Compatibility with old Conservation of old Maintenance new Sustainability Partial demolition Historical Building Element Material Vulnerability Structure performance Retrofit elements Strategy Architect Engineer Reversibility Guidelines Displa Tensio Facade Interior space Structure Demolition Size change Looks change Construction material change Materi Earthq Shape Structu Forces Displa Elemen New e Non-st System Streng Enhanc Reduce Compatibility with old Conservation of old Maintenance new Sustainability Partial
  27. 27. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Urban – building scale interdependence ZONE B ZONE A ZONE C BUILDING Y BUILDING X BUILDING Z ELEMENT α ELEMENT β ELEMENT γ marketingmanagementparticipation consistsof
  28. 28. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Number Legend Volume height accents 47 (incl. 12 with aesthetic qualities; 1 negative) bordeaux- red-orange volume silhouette accents 4 blue functional landmarks 1 triangles aesthetic qualities 9+12 blue strips negative value 4+1 black strips Mapping of the hierarchy of the elements and of the façade (fronts typology: continuous line = continuously built front, interrupted and continuous line = front full with alveolar injections, interrupted line = front broken by isolated buildings and vegetation, point line = unstructured front; hierarchy of perception points: dark green = intersection place, turquoise = reverence place, magenta = private/half- private space, grey lines = public space with half-private character, light green = public environmental space, dark magenta = public space). Urban scale - IMPACT
  29. 29. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Historical Building Element Material Vulnerability Structure performance Retrofit elements Strategy Architect Engineer Inhabitant Investor Execution Acceptance Occupancy Management Availability Indicators Reversibility Guidelines Displacement, maximal Tension Facade Interior space Structure Demolition Size change Looks change Construction material change Material Earthquake Shape score Structure score Forces Displacement, remaining Element replacement New element Non-structural > structural System completion Strengthening/Stiffening Enhanced ductility Reduced demand Duration Noise Relocation Participation Ownership form Safety Own expenses Other benefits During measure After measure After earthquake Aggregate Building site Phases Repeatability Construction material versus Technology versus Funds Relocation space Reparation/New building Retrofit/New building Reparation saving/Retrofit Compatibility with old Conservation of old Maintenance new Sustainability Partial demolition Material Strategy Inhabitant Investor Execution Acceptance Occupancy Management Availability Indicators Residential value Sys Str En Red Duration Noise Relocation Participation Ownership form Safety Own expenses Other benefits During measure After measure After earthquake To Ag Bu Pha Rep Co Tec Fun Re Rep Ret Rep Compatibility with old Conservation of old Maintenance new Sustainability
  30. 30. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Participatism
  31. 31. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Case study HaDiKo
  32. 32. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Historical Building Element Material Vulnerability Structure performance Retrofit elements Strategy Architect Engineer Inhabitant Investor Execution Acceptance Occupancy Management Availability Indicators Reversibility Guidelines Displacement, maximal Tension Facade Interior space Structure Demolition Size change Looks change Construction material change Material Earthquake Shape score Structure score Forces Displacement, remaining Element replacement New element Non-structural > structural System completion Strengthening/Stiffening Enhanced ductility Reduced demand Duration Noise Relocation Participation Ownership form Safety Own expenses Other benefits During measure After measure After earthquake Aggregate Building site Phases Repeatability Construction material versus Technology versus Funds Relocation space Reparation/New building Retrofit/New building Reparation saving/Retrofit Compatibility with old Conservation of old Maintenance new Sustainability Partial demolition aterial Strategy nhabitant Investor xecution cceptance ccupancy Management Availability Indicators ntial value System completion Strengthening/Stiffening Enhanced ductility Reduced demand Total costs/New bldg. – 30% Aggregate Building site Phases Repeatability Construction material versus Technology versus Funds Relocation space Reparation/New building Retrofit/New building Reparation saving/Retrofit
  33. 33. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Historical Building Element Material Vulnerability Structure performance Retrofit elements Strategy Architect Engineer Inhabitant Investor Execution Acceptance Occupancy Management Availability Indicators Reversibility Guidelines Displacement, maximal Tension Facade Interior space Structure Demolition Size change Looks change Construction material change Material Earthquake Shape score Structure score Forces Displacement, remaining Element replacement New element Non-structural > structural System completion Strengthening/Stiffening Enhanced ductility Reduced demand Duration Noise Relocation Participation Ownership form Safety Own expenses Other benefits During measure After measure After earthquake Aggregate Building site Phases Repeatability Construction material versus Technology versus Funds Relocation space Reparation/New building Retrofit/New building Reparation saving/Retrofit Compatibility with old Conservation of old Maintenance new Sustainability Partial demolition Historical Building Element Material Vulnerability Structure performance Retrofit elements Strategy Architect Engineer Displacement, maximal Tension Material Earthquake Shape score Structure score Forces Displacement, remaining Element replacement New element Non-structural > structural System completion Strengthening/Stiffening Enhanced ductility Reduced demand Partial demolition
  34. 34. CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  35. 35. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Phasing of retrofit 1st phase 2nd phase
  36. 36. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Layout of retrofit elements 1st phase 2nd phase
  37. 37. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Retrofit options pushover Y 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Displacement N6206 Baseshear(N) Base Shear Y Base Shear Y retrofit2 Base Shear Y retrofit3 160 Base Shear Y concrete jacketing higher disturbance medium disturbance lower disturbance original
  38. 38. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Demolition Vulnerability Retrofit Structural performance Strategy Building Historical Element Material EngineerArchitect InvestorUser Management Availability Indicators Execution Acceptability Use Residential value Earthquake Shape score Material Element replacement New elements Non-structural > structural Partial demolition Forces Maximal displacement Stresses Facade Interiors Structural system Reversibility Guidelines Size change Looks change Material change Compatibility Conservation Maintenance Aggregate Building site Phases Repeatability Material versus Technologie v. Replace space Reparation/Rebuild Reparation-saving/Retrofit Total costs/Rebuild – 30% Duration Noise Move Participation Property form Assurance Own costs share Other advantages During measure After measure After earthquake Remaining displacement Structure score Sustainability Funding money Retrofit/Rebuild 50%15% 20%15% 50% 15% 15% 10% 50% 30% 10% 10% 70% 10% 40% 40% 20% 50% 50% 30% 30% 10% 30% 40% 20% 40% 30% 50% 10% 30% 15% 5% 70% 70% 15% 70% 10% 30% 30% 50% 20% 10% 30% 30% 30% 50% 15% 20% 15% 20% 30% 30% 20% 20% 20% 10% 50% 25% 25% 25% 25% 20% Reduced demand Enhanced ductility StrengtheningStiffening System completion 10% 55% 30% 5% 10% 10% 30% 40% 20%
  39. 39. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Conclusions  typological study  Athens (Charter proclaimed), Bucharest (Charter applied) considered for the model  Greek and Romanian blocks of flats: • mixed use (commercial functions at GF, residential above) • Greek buildings: 5-6 storeys • Bucharest, zone dependent, 2-12 floors
  40. 40. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Conclusions  economic development, framework also given in Portugal and Italy,  possibility to employ new technologies: RC.  The model building: compromise between the Greek and the Romanian typology • six storeys • a regular array (2.4, 3.6 and 6m span) of columns (Greek) • irregular planimetry • section typical for Romanian parcels
  41. 41. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Conclusions  Different countries, different frame conditions • Romania: irregularity of buildings > addition of structural elements • Greece: lack of ductility > FRP wrapping • Italy: no seismic hazard in this zone • Portugal: small sample of buildings of that type
  42. 42. CA‘REDIVIVUS project Conclusions  The decision tree has shown that it is a difficult problem to satisfy the contradicting goals of the interest groups considered.
  43. 43. Thank you! Questions?

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