THE GRID REVISITED:
MORPHOGENESIS OF
SEISMICALLY
RESILIENT
STRUCTURES AT TWO
DIFFERENT
GEOGRAPHIC SCALES
MARIA BOSTENARU D...
A project proposal
Overview
 Introduction
 State of the art
 Research objectives and potential to meet these
objectives
 Scientific and w...
Introduction
 Risk management is a process including steps
like identification, assessment, mitigation,
monitoring, revie...
State of the art
 Resilience
 Bruneau et al
 RISK UE
 World Housing Encyclopedia
 Computational morphogenesis (Ohmori...
Research objectives and potential
to meet these objectives
 integration/networking with ongoing related
research up to tr...
Research objectives and potential
to meet these objectives
 integration/networking with ongoing related
research up to tr...
Research objectives and potential
to meet these objectives
 a method for optimising frame structures
through element „reo...
Research objectives and potential
to meet these objectives
 a seismic vulnerability reduction method for an
urban system,...
Planning layers
Recovery planning
Information of process participants. Legislation
Technical (physical reconstruction)
Pre...
Scientific and wider societal issues
 Seismic risk management – planning types
 recovery, preparedness, mitigation, and ...
Research methodology
 Morphological investigation
 Architectural object scale
 Urban scale
 Morphology = study of the ...
Research methodology
 Urban scale
 Architecture – philosophy
 Deleuze - deconstruction
 Knurled and flattened
 Catast...
Earthquake Lisbon 1755
Alfama
After earthquake:
Baixa
Hausmannian
boulevard
Baroque proposal for the urban plan of London
Fire London 1666
Research methodology
 Optimisation of the structure
 Urban scale
 Switching roles: strategic-common
 Architectural obj...
The method of regression
grid street pattern
in the
urban structure
data set hypotheses
load-
bearing
frame
structure
opti...
Research methodology
 Urban morphology
 Geometry of street ways
 In urban theory, the urban organism, a complex
system,...
Research methodology
 Urban morphology
 Resilience planning
 The earthquake vulnerability of the system is
evaluated th...
Research methodology
 Urban morphology
 Restructuring urban actions are reordering
efforts of the elements into urban te...
Research methodology
 Urban morphology
 The Earthquake Master Plan of Istanbul
proposes a division in risk sectors, base...
Research methodology
 Evolutionary structural optimisation (Xie and
Steven)
 step-by-step removal of the inefficient par...
Originality and innovation in relationship to
the state of the art in the research field
 Resilience planning at two geog...
Originality and innovation in relationship to
the state of the art in the research field
 Urban morphology
 Subject of i...
Management and feasability
Step 1: Documentation
Objective: Integration and networking with
ongoing related research
Metho...
Management and feasability
Step 2: Morphologic analysis at urban scale
Objective: Definition of units for an efficient urb...
Management and feasability
Step 3: Morphologic analysis and morphogenesis at
building scale
Objective: A method for optimi...
Management and feasability
Step 4: Morphogenesis at urban scale
Objective: Reduction method of the earthquake
vulnerabilit...
Management and feasability
Step 5: Spreading knowledge
Objective: public education
Method: publication of results, paralle...
Timeliness and relevance of the
research
 250 years since the Lisbon earthquake
 Different geographic scales at the anni...
The financial support of the European
Commission, in form of a Marie Curie
Reintegration Grants, for the project PIANO
“Th...
THANK YOU!
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RIMA 10

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RIMA Bucharest WSEAS April 2010

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RIMA 10

  1. 1. THE GRID REVISITED: MORPHOGENESIS OF SEISMICALLY RESILIENT STRUCTURES AT TWO DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHIC SCALES MARIA BOSTENARU DAN
  2. 2. A project proposal
  3. 3. Overview  Introduction  State of the art  Research objectives and potential to meet these objectives  Scientific and wider societal issues  Research methodology  Originality and innovation in relationship to the state of the art in the research field  Management and feasability  Timeliness and relevance of the research
  4. 4. Introduction  Risk management is a process including steps like identification, assessment, mitigation, monitoring, review and communication of risks resulting from a certain hazard on a site or an activity. In this paper scale independent instruments to seismic risk management along its structural dimension will be redefined: the morphology (organisational) and the resilience planning (operational), by exchanging lessons learned at different scales.
  5. 5. State of the art  Resilience  Bruneau et al  RISK UE  World Housing Encyclopedia  Computational morphogenesis (Ohmori et al)
  6. 6. Research objectives and potential to meet these objectives  integration/networking with ongoing related research up to training  definition of units for an efficient urban structure towards seismic risk  a method for optimising frame structures through element „reordering‟  a seismic vulnerability reduction method for an urban system, optimised for a grid pattern  Public education
  7. 7. Research objectives and potential to meet these objectives  integration/networking with ongoing related research up to training  Conference sessions  Involvement of students in research  definition of units for an efficient urban structure towards seismic risk  Graduation in architecture with focus urban planning  Experience in natural hazards (earthquake) research
  8. 8. Research objectives and potential to meet these objectives  a method for optimising frame structures through element „reordering‟  Research on frame structures, mainly concrete, but also timber and steel from Germany  Typical for interwar time  Results cited in research on vibration periods of frame structures  Adequate for selective retrofit
  9. 9. Research objectives and potential to meet these objectives  a seismic vulnerability reduction method for an urban system, optimised for a grid pattern  Method of regression  Employed so far for decision tree and criteria determination  Public education  Books, conference sessions, journal special issues, oral and poster presentations  Press room sessions
  10. 10. Planning layers Recovery planning Information of process participants. Legislation Technical (physical reconstruction) Preparedness planning Information of the public oppinion. Implementation planning Organisational (emergency response) Social Mitigation planning Democratisation. Use of local potentials Technical Social Organisational Resilience planning Cooperation. Synergy - Normal period Social - Crisis period Organisational - Recovery period Economical Technical
  11. 11. Scientific and wider societal issues  Seismic risk management – planning types  recovery, preparedness, mitigation, and resilience stages  Lisbon 1755  Morphology – Goethe  Earthquake retrofit – redesign  Interdependencies architecture – mathematics  Ch. Alexander  Shape generating algorithms - evolutionary structural optimisation - grid
  12. 12. Research methodology  Morphological investigation  Architectural object scale  Urban scale  Morphology = study of the form  – a grid street pattern for the urban morphology,  – frames for the morphology of the building load-bearing structure.
  13. 13. Research methodology  Urban scale  Architecture – philosophy  Deleuze - deconstruction  Knurled and flattened  Catastrophes – occasions of urban remodelling  Lisbon earthquake 1755  London fire 1666
  14. 14. Earthquake Lisbon 1755 Alfama After earthquake: Baixa Hausmannian boulevard
  15. 15. Baroque proposal for the urban plan of London Fire London 1666
  16. 16. Research methodology  Optimisation of the structure  Urban scale  Switching roles: strategic-common  Architectural object scale  Switching roles: load-bearing – not load-bearing  Lessons learned from one scale to another
  17. 17. The method of regression grid street pattern in the urban structure data set hypotheses load- bearing frame structure optimised structural configuration induction deduction element reordering in the urban grid for optimised structure urban textures in resilient planning hypothesis statementshypotheses morphologic decomposition morpho- genesis
  18. 18. Research methodology  Urban morphology  Geometry of street ways  In urban theory, the urban organism, a complex system, has two morphologic groups of elements: – urban-life (content): totality of localised urban activities; – urban-frame (container): totality of spaces corresponding to localisation.
  19. 19. Research methodology  Urban morphology  Resilience planning  The earthquake vulnerability of the system is evaluated through an analysis of the system functionality.  A system is defined analytically through its elements and their relationships.  The role of the elements in the system differs, according to their urban-frame value (ex. city image), and their urban-life role.
  20. 20. Research methodology  Urban morphology  Restructuring urban actions are reordering efforts of the elements into urban textures, defined as sub-systems of the life-frame (matter of the form of urban frame) elements able to respond to the functionally requested situation.  At urban scale, textures of morphologic elements will build the unit of analytic decomposition.
  21. 21. Research methodology  Urban morphology  The Earthquake Master Plan of Istanbul proposes a division in risk sectors, based among others on textures  In the Master Plan the principles of strategic planning, a way of risk management, were applied.  “Urban System Exposure” (RISK UE)  Crotone project  Minimal urban structure  Strategic urban structure
  22. 22. Research methodology  Evolutionary structural optimisation (Xie and Steven)  step-by-step removal of the inefficient parts of the initial structure leading to a more optimised structural configuration  Ohmori: extended version  organic wall/brace shapes could build retrofit elements added to an existing frame structure to be retrofitted
  23. 23. Originality and innovation in relationship to the state of the art in the research field  Resilience planning at two geographic scales  Morphological common unit in organisational and operational dimensions of the project management  The street as spatial representation of the life way  Lisbon 1755 grid street pattern for fast recovery  Grid at building level: regularity of the structure  Frame structures  Change of the role of the elements is innovative
  24. 24. Originality and innovation in relationship to the state of the art in the research field  Urban morphology  Subject of international discussion  Dedicated journal  Morphology of architecture less  Different time scales of renewal in urban space and in architecture  RISK UE normal, crisis and recovery periods  New: urban structure for earthquake disaster mitigation
  25. 25. Management and feasability Step 1: Documentation Objective: Integration and networking with ongoing related research Method: Literature and field investigation. Instrument: Literature review and building survey. GOAL: Data on successful examples of earthquake resilient planning, including successful examples of the approaches which build today the planning layers and of computational morphogenesis techniques for this and related purposes.
  26. 26. Management and feasability Step 2: Morphologic analysis at urban scale Objective: Definition of units for an efficient urban structure towards seismic risk Method: systemic analysis of the urban morphology Instrument: strategic planning instruments for networks (organisational, operational) GOAL: Definition of urban textures on an urban structure based on a grid pattern according to the strategic role of elements in earthquake resilience planning efforts.
  27. 27. Management and feasability Step 3: Morphologic analysis and morphogenesis at building scale Objective: A method for optimising frame structures through element ‘reordering’ Method: extended evolutionary structural optimisation Instruments: modal analysis instruments, non-linear numeric computation GOAL: Development of an adapted evolutionary structural optimisation method, which considers elements instead of parts, and instead of the step-by- step removal of parts the role change of the elements (load-bearing to non-structural) for more seismic efficiency.
  28. 28. Management and feasability Step 4: Morphogenesis at urban scale Objective: Reduction method of the earthquake vulnerability of an urban system employing a grid pattern based optimisation Method: regression urban-building-urban scale for the morphogenesis on grid pattern Instrument: zonation with view to resilience planning GOAL: Development of an evolutionary structure optimisation method with application to urban planning, by switching the roles of the elements in the structure: in case of the urban organism from strategic to common according to potential vulnerability (due to eventual results of foreseen retrofit), for resilient planning for urban structures which can be analytical decomposed to a grid basis.
  29. 29. Management and feasability Step 5: Spreading knowledge Objective: public education Method: publication of results, parallel information flux to that of project management Instrument: presentation at conferences, peer- reviewed publications, web dissemination, various instruments of the participative planning GOAL: publications for each step from 2 to 4.
  30. 30. Timeliness and relevance of the research  250 years since the Lisbon earthquake  Different geographic scales at the anniversary conference  2004 Sumatra earthquake did not produce such a change  Pre-disaster instead of post-disaster  2003 Earthquake Master Plan of Istanbul  Successful implementation of a concept from the 1980s  Circulation network
  31. 31. The financial support of the European Commission, in form of a Marie Curie Reintegration Grants, for the project PIANO “The innovation in the plan of the current floor: Zoning in blocks of flats for the middle class in the first half of the 20th century”, grant agreement MERG-CT-2007-200636, at the host institution Foundation ERGOROM ‟99, which made possible this presentation, are gratefully acknowledged.
  32. 32. THANK YOU!
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